Battle of Changsha (1941)

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Battle of Changsha (1941)
Part of the Second Sino-Japanese War
Type 92 Heavy Machine Gun2.jpg
A Japanese soldier firing a Type 92 Heavy Machine Gun across the Miluo river in September 1941
Date6 September – 8 October 1941
Location Changsha
Result Chinese victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Xue Yue War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Korechika Anami
Units involved
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg  National Revolutionary Army War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg  Imperial Japanese Army
Naval ensign of the Empire of Japan.svg  Imperial Japanese Navy
Strength
110,000 troops [1] 120,000 troops
46 battalions
326 artillery pieces [2]
Casualties and losses
Unknown [3] 13,000 dead and wounded
(Japanese source) [4]
Chinese claim: 48,000 killed and wounded

The Battle of Changsha (6 September – 8 October 1941) was Japan's second attempt at taking the city of Changsha, China, the capital of Hunan Province, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Changsha Prefecture-level city in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. It covers 11,819 km2 (4,563 sq mi) and is bordered by Yueyang and Yiyang to the north, Loudi to the west, Xiangtan and Zhuzhou to the south, Yichun and Pingxiang of Jiangxi province to the east. According to 2010 Census, Changsha has 7,044,118 residents, constituting 10.72% of the province's population. It is part of the Chang-Zhu-Tan city cluster or megalopolis.

Second Sino-Japanese War military conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle.

Contents

Overview

The offensive was carried out by more than 120,000 Japanese troops who had much better equipment all around, including supporting naval and air forces. The Chinese forces under the command of General Xue Yue—the 9th Army Group—gathered more than 110,000 with help from the 5th, 6th, and 7th Army Groups, but due to poor intelligence on the Japanese invading forces plus its telegraphic messages having been code-broken by the Japanese army, the defense was on the passive end of the battles.

Xue Yue Chinese general

Xue Yue was a Chinese Nationalist military general, nicknamed by Claire Lee Chennault of the Flying Tigers as the "Patton of Asia" and called the "God of War" (戰神) by the Chinese.

The invading forces entered Changsha on September 27, 1941. After a major fire which burned down much of the Changsha city, with help from the 6th and the 7th Army Groups, the defensive forces conducted a response that included heavy street fighting in Changsha city. The Chinese armies successfully defended Changsha, retaking the city. Then the 5th and the 6th Army Groups attacked the Japanese forces west of Hankou city in Hubei province which caused the Japanese Army to withdraw from Changsha. The Japanese Army was running low on ammunition and food. Having suffered heavy casualties, they retreated.

Course of battle

The battle started when a small Chinese guerrilla force clashed with the Japanese 6th Division in the mountains southeast of Yueyang on 6 September. On the 17th, the Japanese crossed the Xinqiang River (新墙河) at four points and made rapid advances, crossing the Miluo River on 19 September. The main Chinese force avoided confronting the enemy but marched in a parallel fashion, out-flanking the Japanese trail southward. The Japanese also attempted to out-flank and encircle the Chinese. This caused both the Chinese and the Japanese armies to reach the Laodao River (捞刀河) regions for an inevitable battle.

Guerrilla warfare form of irregular warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military. Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor.

Yueyang Prefecture-level city in Hunan, Peoples Republic of China

Yueyang, formerly known as Yuezhou or Yochow, is a prefecture-level city on the southern shores of Dongting Lake in the northeastern corner of Hunan Province in the People's Republic of China.

Miluo River river in Peoples Republic of China

The Miluo River is located on the eastern bank of Dongting Lake, the largest tributary of the Xiang River in the northern Hunan Province. It is an important river in the Dongting Lake watershed, known as the location of the ritual suicide in 278 BC of Qu Yuan, a poet of Chu state during the Warring States period, in protest against the corruption of the era.

On 27 September, several hundred Japanese troops in plain clothes reached the north gate of Changsha but were unable to sabotage the city defenses, leading to heavy fighting on the 28th. Unable to overcome the defenders, the Japanese began a general retreat back to the Yueyang region on 30 September.

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References

  1. JM-179 pp. 265
  2. Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), 2nd Ed.,1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
  3. 新聞記者が語りつぐ戦争 16 中国慰霊 p. 18


Coordinates: 28°12′00″N112°58′01″E / 28.2000°N 112.9670°E / 28.2000; 112.9670

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.