Battle of Diamond Hill

Last updated
Battle of Diamond Hill
Part of Second Boer War
Coldstreams Guards at Diamond Hill.jpg
The Charge of the City of London Imperial Volunteers ('CIVs') and Coldstreams at the Battle of Diamond Hill, after a drawing by William Barnes Wollen
Date11–12 June 1900
Location
Diamond Hill, near Pretoria, Transvaal

25°47′S28°28′E / 25.783°S 28.467°E / -25.783; 28.467 (Battle of Diamond Hill) Coordinates: 25°47′S28°28′E / 25.783°S 28.467°E / -25.783; 28.467 (Battle of Diamond Hill)
Result British victory
Belligerents

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  British Empire

Flag of Transvaal.svg  South African Republic
Flag of the Orange Free State.svg  Orange Free State
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Lord Roberts
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg John French
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Ian Hamilton
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Reginald Pole-Carew
Flag of Transvaal.svg Louis Botha
Flag of the Orange Free State.svg Koos de la Rey
Strength
20,000 men and 83 guns [1] up to 6,000 men and 30 guns [1]
Casualties and losses
28 killed and 145 wounded [1] about 30 killed and wounded
Several captured [1]

The Battle of Diamond Hill (Donkerhoek) (Afrikaans : Slag van Donkerhoek) was an engagement of the Second Boer War that took place on 11 and 12 June 1900 in central Transvaal.

Second Boer War War between two Boer Republics and the United Kingdom

The Second Boer War was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa. It is also known variously as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War. Initial Boer attacks were successful, and although British reinforcements later reversed these, the war continued for years with Boer guerrilla warfare, until harsh British counter-measures brought the Boers to terms.

Contents

Background

The Boer forces retreated to the east by the time the capital of the South African Republic (Transvaal), Pretoria, was captured by British forces on 5 June 1900. British Commander-in-Chief in South Africa Field Marshal Lord Roberts had predicted a Boer surrender upon the loss of their capital, but when this was not fulfilled, he began an attack to the east in order to push Boer forces away from Pretoria and enable an advance to the Portuguese East Africa border. [1]

South African Republic Former republic in southern Africa

The South African Republic, also referred to as the Transvaal Republic, was an independent and internationally recognised state located in what is now South Africa, from 1852 to 1902. The ZAR defeated the British Empire in what is often referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British. After the war the territory of the ZAR became the Transvaal Colony. During World War I, there was an attempt at resurrecting the republic in the Maritz rebellion.

Pretoria Administrative capital of South Africa

Pretoria is the administrative capital of South Africa. It straddles the Apies River and has spread eastwards into the foothills of the Magaliesberg mountains. It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government, and of foreign embassies to South Africa. Pretoria has a reputation for being an academic city with three universities, the Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), University of Pretoria (UP), and the University of South Africa (UNISA), also home to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), and the Human Sciences Research Council. The city also hosts the National Research Foundation and the South African Bureau of Standards making the city a hub for research. Pretoria is the central part of the Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality which was formed by the amalgamation of several former local authorities including Centurion and Soshanguve. There have been proposals to change the name of Pretoria itself to Tshwane and the proposed name change has caused some public controversy.

Prelude

The commandant-general of Transvaal, Louis Botha, established a 40-kilometer north to south defense line 29 kilometers east of Pretoria; his forces numbered up to 6,000 men and 30 guns. The Pretoria–Delagoa Bay rail line ran eastward through the center of the Boer position. Personnel from the South African Republic Police manned positions at Donkerpoort just south of the railway in the hills at Pienaarsport, while other troops held positions at Donkerhoek and Diamond Hill. Botha commanded the Boer center and left flank and General Koos de la Rey commanded north of the railway line. [1]

Louis Botha South African politician

Louis Botha was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state. A Boer war hero during the Second Boer War, he would eventually fight to have South Africa become a British Dominion.

The South African Republic Police was the police force of the former country South African Republic, one of two Internationally recognized Boer countries of the mid 19th to early 20th century. Members of the police force were known as ZARPs. After the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, the force was incorporated into the South African Police Force.

Koos de la Rey South African general

Jacobus Herculaas de la Rey, better known as Koos de la Rey, was a Boer military officer who served as a general during the Second Boer War. De la Rey also had a political career and was one of the leading advocates of Boer independence.

Weakened by the long march to Pretoria and the loss of horses and sick men, the British force mustered only 14,000, a third of whom were mounted on wobbly horses. [2]

He despatched Robert Broadwood's 2nd Cavalry Brigade, which included the 10th Royal Hussars, 12th Royal Lancers and the Household Cavalry Regiment, on a Special Mission.

Robert George Broadwood British Army general

Lieutenant General Robert George Broadwood, CB was Commander of British Troops in South China.

10th Royal Hussars British military unit

The 10th Royal Hussars was a cavalry regiment of the British Army raised in 1715. It saw service for three centuries including the First World War and Second World War but then amalgamated with the 11th Hussars to form the Royal Hussars in October 1969.

12th Royal Lancers

The 12th Royal Lancers was a cavalry regiment of the British Army first formed in 1715. It saw service for three centuries, including the First World War and the Second World War. The regiment survived the immediate post-war reduction in forces, but was slated for reduction in the 1957 Defence White Paper, and was amalgamated with the 9th Queen's Royal Lancers to form the 9th/12th Royal Lancers in 1960.

As the sun came up it was a "bitterly cold Monday morning...we are hidden in the hills at Donkerhoek...ready for battle..." confided Botha to his diary. [3]

Battle

`The cavalry of John French with Edward Hutton's brigade attacked on the left in an attempt to outflank the Boers to the north, while the infantry of Ian Hamilton with Lieutenant Colonel Beauvoir De Lisle's corps attempted an outflanking movement on the right. In the center, the infantry of Reginald Pole-Carew advanced towards the Boer center, with the gap between Pole-Carew and French covered by Colonel St.G.C. Henry's corps of mounted infantry. [2]

On the left, the cavalry of French entered a valley and attracted fire from three sides. De Lisle's corps was similarly pinned down on the right flank in a horseshoe-shaped group of hills. As a detachment of 10th Hussars swung off to the right, they were attacked from Diamond Hill. A section of Q Battery RHA attempted to return artillery fire, but had no infantry support, until the 12th Lancers arrived on the front line. Lord Airlie took 60 men to clear the Boers from the guns, and in the ensuing exchange of rifle fire at short-range, Lord Airlie was killed. The Boers pressed the matter hard. Two squadrons of the Household Cavalry Regiment and one squadron of the 12th Hussars charged at full gallop at Boers firing from concealed positions. The enemy dispersed. [4] Following the indecisive results of 11 June, Roberts decided to make a frontal attack on the next morning. [2]

The morning of 12 June with artillery fire from guns escorted to forward positions by a squadron of New South Wales Mounted Rifles led by Captain Maurice Hilliard, allowing a Regular infantry advance that captured Diamond Hill. A counterattack was planned by Botha, supported with fire from Rhenosterfontein Hill. The regular Mounted Infantry from De Lisle's corps advanced to a farm, where two rapid firing pom-poms were positioned, supported by the Western Australian Mounted Infantry of Hatherley Moor. The hill was attacked by the New South Wales Mounted Rifles, who trotted across the plain in extended order, then increased to a gallop under Boer fire before they dismounted at the base of the hill. The mounted rifles advanced up the hill and charged the Boer defenders, forcing the latter to retreat. They held the hill despite Boer artillery fire, which forced Botha to call off the counterattack, as British artillery fire from the hill carried the potential to confusion with the Boer retreat. Among those killed in the attack were Lieutenants Percy Drage and William Harriott of the New South Wales Mounted Rifles. [2]

On the morning of 13 June De Lisle's corps pursued the retreating Boers until they expended their ammunition and received artillery fire in return. [2]

Aftermath

On 13th the Botha's army retreated to the north, they were chased as far as Elands River Station, only 25 miles from Pretoria, by Mounted Infantry and De Lisle's Australians. [5] [6] [7] [8] Although Roberts had removed the Boer threat to his eastern flank, the Boers were unbowed despite their retreat. Jan Smuts wrote that the battle had "an inspiriting effect which could scarcely have been improved by a real victory." [9]

Forty-four years after the battle, British General Ian Hamilton opined in his memoirs that "the battle, which ensured that the Boers could not recapture Pretoria, was the turning point of the war". Hamilton credited war correspondent Winston Churchill with recognizing that the key to victory would be in storming the summit, and risking his life to signal Hamilton. [10]

Order of battle

British Forces

South African Field ForceField Marshal Lord Roberts
Cavalry Division (Lieutenant General John French)
1st Cavalry Brigade: Colonel T.C. Porter4th Cavalry Brigade: Major General J.B.B. Dickson
2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys) 7th Dragoon Guards
6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars
Carabiniers (6th Dragoon Guards) 14th King's Hussars
New South Wales Lancers O Battery, Royal Horse Artillery
1st Australian Horse E Section Pom-Poms
T Battery, Royal Horse Artillery
J Section Pom-Poms
1st Mounted Infantry Brigade (Major-General Edward Hutton)
1st Corps Mounted Infantry: Lt-Col. Edwin Alderson 3rd Corps Mounted Infantry: Lt-Col. Thomas Pilcher
1st Canadian Mounted Rifles Queensland Mounted Infantry
2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles New Zealand Mounted Infantry
1st Battalion Mounted Infantry3rd Battalion Mounted Infantry
G Battery Royal Horse Artillery
C Section Pom-Poms
4th Corps Mounted Infantry: Colonel St.G.C. Henry
South Australian Mounted Rifles 4th Battalion Mounted Infantry
Tasmanian Mounted Infantry J Battery, Royal Horse Artillery
Victorian Mounted Rifles L Section Pom-Poms
7th Imperial Yeomanry [11]
11th Division (Lieutenant General Reginald Pole-Carew)
1st (Guards') Brigade : Major-General Inigo Jones 18th Brigade: Major General Theodore Stephenson
3rd Grenadier Guards 1st Essex
1st Coldstream Guards 1st Yorkshire
2nd Coldstream Guards2nd Royal Warwickshire
1st Scots Guards 1st Welsh
Division troops
2nd West Australian Mounted Infantry Struben's Scouts
Prince Alfred's Guard (detachment)12th Imperial Yeomanry
83rd Field Battery, Royal Artillery2 x Naval 4.7-inch guns (Bearcroft's)
84th Field Battery, Royal Artillery2 x Naval 12-pounders
85th Field Battery, Royal Artillery2 x 5-inch siege guns (Foster's)
Column of Lieutenant General Ian Hamilton
2nd Cavalry Brigade: Major General Robert George Broadwood 3rd Cavalry Brigade: Brigadier General J.R.P. Gordon
Composite Regiment of Household Cavalry 9th Lancers
10th Hussars 16th Lancers
12th Lancers 17th Lancers
Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery R Battery, Royal Horse Artillery
K Section Pom-PomsD Section Pom-Poms
21st Brigade: Major General Bruce Hamilton
1st Royal Sussex 1st Derbyshire
1st Cameron Highlanders City Imperial Volunteers [12] [13]
76th Field Battery, Royal Artillery82nd Field Battery, Royal Artillery
2 x 5-inch siege guns (Massie's) [14]
2nd Mounted Infantry Brigade: Brigadier General Charles Parker Ridley
2nd Corps Mounted Infantry: Lieutenant Colonel Beauvoir De Lisle 5th Corps Mounted Infantry: Lieutenant Colonel H.L. Dawson
West Australian Mounted Infantry Marshall's Horse
6th Battalion Mounted Infantry Roberts' Horse
New South Wales Mounted Rifles Ceylon Mounted Infantry
P Battery, Royal Horse Artillery 5th Battalion Mounted Infantry
A Section Pom-Poms
6th Corps Mounted Infantry: Lieutenant Colonel Norton Legge7th Corps Mounted Infantry: Lieutenant Colonel Guy Bainbridge
Kitchener's Horse Burma Mounted Infantry
City Imperial Volunteers Mounted Infantry Rimington's Guides
2nd Battalion Mounted Infantry7th Battalion Mounted Infantry
Derby Mounted Infantry (2 companies) [12] [13]
Memorial to Lieutenant P. W. C Drage who fell in the Battle of Diamond Hill. In St James' Church, Sydney. Drage memorial (1900).jpg
Memorial to Lieutenant P. W. C Drage who fell in the Battle of Diamond Hill. In St James' Church, Sydney.

Related Research Articles

First Boer War war between the South African Republic and the United Kingdom

The First Boer War, also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and Boers of the Transvaal. The war resulted in Britain’s accession to the establishment of the Second Republic.

Battle of Majuba Hill

The Battle of Majuba Hill on 27 February 1881 was the final and decisive battle of the First Boer War. It was a resounding victory for the Boers and the battle is considered to have been one of the most humiliating defeats of British arms in history. Maj. Gen. Sir George Pomeroy Colley occupied the summit of the hill on the night of 26–27 February 1881. Colley's motive for occupying Majuba Hill may have been anxiety that the Boers would soon occupy it themselves, Colley having witnessed their trenches being dug in the direction of the hill. The Boers believed that he might have been attempting to outflank their positions at Laing's Nek. The hill was not considered to be scalable by the Boers, for military purposes, and hence it may have been Colley's attempt to emphasise British power and strike fear into the Boer camp.

Battle of Spion Kop battle

The Battle of Spion Kop was fought about 38 km (24 mi) west-south-west of Ladysmith on the hilltop of Spioenkop(1) along the Tugela River, Natal in South Africa from 23–24 January 1900. It was fought between the South African Republic and the Orange Free State on the one hand and British forces during the Second Boer War campaign to relieve Ladysmith. It resulted in a Boer victory.

Siege of Ladysmith Engagement in the Second Boer War

The Siege of Ladysmith was a protracted engagement in the Second Boer War, taking place between 2 November 1899 and 28 February 1900 at Ladysmith, Natal.

Transvaalse Staatsartillerie

The Transvaalse Staatsartillerie is an artillery regiment of the South African Army. As a reserve unit, it has a status roughly equivalent to that of a British Army Reserve or United States Army National Guard unit. It is part of the South African Army Artillery Formation.

Battle of Colenso A battle between British and Boer forces, South Africa on 15 December 1899

The battle of Colenso was the third and final battle fought during the Black Week of the Second Boer War. It was fought between British and Boer forces from the independent South African Republic and Orange Free State in and around Colenso, Natal, South Africa on 15 December 1899.

Johannesburg Light Horse Regiment reserve unit of the South African Army

The Johannesburg Light Horse Regiment (JLHR), formerly the Light Horse Regiment (LHR) and Imperial Light Horse (ILH), is an armoured car reconnaissance unit of the South African Army. As a reserve unit, it has a status roughly equivalent to that of a British Army Reserve or United States Army National Guard unit. It is part of the South African Army Armour Formation and is based at Mount Collins in Sandton, Johannesburg.

Battle of Magersfontein Battle of the Second Boer War

The Battle of Magersfontein was fought on 11 December 1899, at Magersfontein near Kimberley, South Africa, on the borders of the Cape Colony and the independent republic of the Orange Free State. British forces under Lieutenant General Lord Methuen were advancing north along the railway line from the Cape in order to relieve the Siege of Kimberley, but their path was blocked at Magersfontein by a Boer force that was entrenched in the surrounding hills. The British had already fought a series of battles with the Boers, most recently at Modder River, where the advance was temporarily halted.

Battle of Talana Hill battle

The Battle of Talana Hill, also known as the Battle of Glencoe, was the first major clash of the Second Boer War. A frontal attack by British infantry supported by artillery drove Boers from a hilltop position, but the British suffered heavy casualties in the process, including their commanding general Sir William Penn Symons.

Battle of Bergendal

The Battle of Berg-en-dal took place in South Africa during the Second Anglo-Boer War.

155 mm Creusot Long Tom field gun

The 155 mm CreusotLong Tom was a French siege gun manufactured by Schneider et Cie in Le Creusot, France and used by the Boers in the Second Boer War as field guns.

The Battle of Ladysmith was one of the early engagements of the Second Boer War. A large British force which had concentrated at the garrison town of Ladysmith launched a sortie on 30 October 1899, against Boer armies which were slowly surrounding the town. The result was a disaster for the British. The main body was driven back into the town, and an isolated detachment of 800 men was forced to surrender to Commandant De Wet. The Boers did not follow up their advantage by proceeding towards the strategically important port of Durban, and instead began a Siege of Ladysmith, which was relieved after 118 days.

The Battle of Tugela Heights, consisted of a series of military actions lasting from the 14 February through to the 27 February 1900 in which General Sir Redvers Buller's British army forced Louis Botha's Boer army to lift the Siege of Ladysmith during the Second Boer War.

Military history of Australia during the Second Boer War

The military history of Australia during the Boer War is complex, and includes a period of history in which the six formerly autonomous British Australian colonies federated to become the Commonwealth of Australia. At the outbreak of the Second Boer War, each of these separate colonies maintained their own, independent military forces, but by the cessation of hostilities, these six armies had come under a centralised command to form the Australian Army.

The Natal Field Force (NFF) was a multi-battalion field force originally formed by Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley in Natal for the First Boer War. It was later re-established for the Second Boer War (1899–1902) and commanded by Major-General Sir Redvers Buller VC GCB GCMG.

The South African Light Horse regiment of the British Army were raised in Cape Colony in 1899 and disbanded in 1907.

This page details the South African Army order of battle in 1940, before and after the formation of expeditionary forces.

South Australian Mounted Rifles squadron of South Australian Military Force

The South Australian Mounted Rifles (SAMR) was a mounted infantry unit of the Colony of South Australia that served in the Second Boer War. The first contingent of South Australian Mounted Rifles was raised in 1899, followed by a second contingent in 1900.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wessels 2017, pp. 236–237.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Wilcox 2002, pp. 86–87.
  3. Battle of Diamond Hill
  4. Viljoen, My Reminiscences
  5. "Diamond Hill – Rundle's Operations". Historion.net.
  6. "Letter From The Front". The Inverell Times . 21 (2849). New South Wales. 18 August 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  7. "The Diamond Hill Fight". The Age (14, 133). Victoria, Australia. 22 June 1900. p. 5. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  8. "The Battle of Diamond Hill". Windsor and Richmond Gazette . 12 (641). New South Wales. 26 January 1901. p. 1. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  9. Pakenham 1992, p. 160.
  10. Kelly (2008) pp. 57–58
  11. Maurice 1908, p. 217.
  12. 1 2 Williams 1906, pp. 503–505.
  13. 1 2 Williams 1906, p. 280.
  14. Williams 1906, p. 290.

Bibliography