Battle of Epierre

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Battle of Epierre
Part of the French Revolutionary Wars
Epierre - 2013-07-25 - IMG 9996.jpg
View of Épierre in the Maurienne valley
Date15 September 1793
Location
Result French victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg Republican France Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1728-1802).gif  Kingdom of Sardinia
Commanders and leaders
Flag of France.svg François Kellermann
Flag of France.svg Jean Denis Ledoyen
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1728-1802).gif Duke of Montferrat
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1728-1802).gif Marquis of Cordon
Strength
Campaign: 12,000
Battle: 8,000
Campaign: 18,000
Battle: 6,000
Casualties and losses
Campaign: unknown
Battle: 500
Campaign: 2,000
Battle: 1,000

The Battle of Epierre (15 September 1793) was part of a larger War of the First Coalition campaign that pitted a Republican French army led by François Christophe de Kellermann against a numerically stronger Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont army commanded by the Prince Maurizio, Duke of Montferrat. Under the overall leadership of the Austrian commander in chief Joseph Nikolaus De Vins, Montferrat launched an offensive in mid-August 1793 to recapture the Duchy of Savoy from the French. Because the French were preoccupied with the Siege of Lyon, the Piedmontese recovered most of the Maurienne and Tarentaise Valleys, but they were stopped just short of Albertville and the reconquest of Savoy. In September, Kellermann launched a counteroffensive in which he adroitly switched his troops between valleys in order to drive back the Piedmontese. At Épierre, the French under Jean-Denis Le Doyen defeated the Marquis of Cordon in a local action. By 8 October the Piedmontese abandoned all their gains and withdrew to the crests of the Graian Alps. In spite of his victory, the suspicious politicians in Paris put Kellermann in arrest and he was imprisoned until November 1794.

War of the First Coalition effort to contain Revolutionary France

The War of the First Coalition is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic. Despite the collective strength of these nations compared with France, they were not really allied and fought without much apparent coordination or agreement. Each power had its eye on a different part of France it wanted to appropriate after a French defeat, which never occurred.

François Christophe de Kellermann French soldier

François Christophe Kellermann or de Kellermann, 1st Duc de Valmy was a French military commander, later the Général d'Armée, a Marshal of France and a freemason. Marshal Kellermann served in varying roles throughout the entirety of two epochal conflicts, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. Kellermann is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 3.

Prince Maurizio, Duke of Montferrat Italian nobleman

Maurizio of Savoy was a prince of Savoy and styled the Duke of Montferrat.

Contents

Background

Peace

King Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia looked with disfavor on the French Revolution but refused to get involved in the troubles of his large neighbor. His sons-in-law the Count of Provence (who later became Louis XVIII of France) and his brother the Count of Artois (who later became Charles X of France) fled to the Kingdom of Sardinia during the revolution. The two sons-in-law caused tensions by plotting against the French government, but both left the kingdom by early 1791. Historically, many Frenchmen looked covetously upon the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice, Piedmont-Sardinian lands which were located on the French side of the Alpine crests. They argued that France must expand to her "natural frontiers". If France acted on this impulse, the geographic locations of Savoy and Nice would make them difficult to defend. [1]

Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia King of Sardinia

Victor Amadeus III was King of Sardinia from 1773 to his death. Although he was politically conservative, he carried out numerous administrative reforms until he declared war on Revolutionary France in 1792. He was the father of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia.

French Revolution social and political revolution in France and its colonies occurring from 1789 to 1798

The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history.

Louis XVIII of France Bourbon King of France and of Navarre

Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.

In July 1791, Victor Amadeus asked the Habsburg Monarchy for help in case France invaded his kingdom. The Habsburgs owned the adjoining Duchy of Milan. It was tricky negotiating with the Habsburgs since they proved themselves capable of seizing a weaker nation's lands in the First Partition of Poland in 1773. [2] The French government created the Army of the Midi on 13 April 1792 [3] and ordered its commander General Anne-Pierre, marquis de Montesquiou-Fézensac to invade Savoy and Nice by 15 May 1792. Since, his army was not ready, Montesquiou could not obey his instructions, but the Sardinians were aware that the French were getting ready to attack. Victor Amadeus finally got an agreement for 8,000 Austrian soldiers under Feldmarschall-Leutnant Leopold Lorenz von Strassoldo [2] to help defend the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont when needed. The agreement was signed on 22 September, but it was already too late. [4]

Habsburg Monarchy former Central European empire (1526–1804)

The Habsburg Monarchy – also Habsburg Empire, Austrian Monarchy or Danube Monarchy – is an unofficial umbrella term among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1526 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a typical composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

Duchy of Milan former duchy in Italy (1395–1447; 1450–1535)

The Duchy of Milan was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat. During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy to the west, Venice to the east, the Swiss Confederacy to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.

First Partition of Poland

The First Partition of Poland took place in 1772 as the first of three partitions that ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by 1795. Growth in the Russian Empire's power, threatening the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Monarchy, was the primary motive behind this first partition. Frederick the Great engineered the partition to prevent Austria, jealous of Russian successes against the Ottoman Empire, from going to war. The weakened Commonwealth's land, including what was already controlled by Russia, was apportioned among its more powerful neighbors—Austria, Russia and Prussia—so as to restore the regional balance of power in Central Europe among those three countries. With Poland unable to effectively defend itself, and with foreign troops already inside the country, the Polish parliament (Sejm) ratified the partition in 1773 during the Partition Sejm convened by the three powers.

War

On 21 September 1792, the Army of the Midi under Montesquiou invaded Savoy. Montesquiou had approximately 25,000 soldiers in 33 infantry battalions, 11 cavalry squadrons, and some National Guards. He was opposed by 10,000–12,000 Piedmont-Sardinian troops. By 24 September, the French were in Chambéry. On 29 September, Lieutenant General Jacques Bernard d'Anselme with 10,000 troops occupied Nice against little resistance. [5] The French invaders easily overcame their opponents with little fighting because the 70-year old Piedmontese commander General Lazary was incompetent. A fellow general, Charles-François Thaon, Count of Saint-André wrote, "Our War Office is badly constituted, badly directed and nothing in it is secret". [4]

National Guard (France) 1789–1872 military reserve and police branch of Frances military

The National Guard is a French military, gendarmerie, and police reserve force, active in its current form since 2016 but originally founded in 1789 after the French Revolution.

Chambéry Prefecture and commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Chambéry is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France.

Jacques Bernard Modeste d'Anselme was a French general of the French Revolutionary Army, notable as the first commander of the Army of the Var which soon became the Army of Italy. He fell under suspicion, was removed from command and placed under arrest, but he survived the Reign of Terror. ANSELME is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 23.

Joseph De Vins Joseph Nikolaus de Vins, FZM.png
Joseph De Vins

On 1 October 1792, the French government split the Army of the Midi into the Army of the Alps and the Army of the Pyrenees. On 7 October, Anselme's force was separated from the Army of the Alps and named the Army of Italy. At this time, Swiss troops occupied Geneva and the French government demanded that Montesquiou deal with this threat. [5] He negotiated a satisfactory treaty with the Swiss, but hostile politicians in the National Convention secured his arrest on 9 November on baseless charges. Tipped off in advance, Montesquiou fled to Switzerland on 13 November. D'Anselme was sacked on 16 December. [6] Winter weather soon brought operations to a halt. Aghast at the ease at which his western lands had fallen, Victor Amadeus requested that Habsburg Austria send him a commander-in-chief. On 21 December 1792, the Habsburgs sent Feldzeugmeister Joseph Nikolaus De Vins, a 61 year old veteran of the Seven Years' War and the Austro-Turkish War. [7]

Army of the Alps

The Army of the Alps was one of the French Revolutionary armies. It existed from 1792–1797 and from July to August 1799, and the name was also used on and off until 1939 for France's army on its border with Italy.

One of the French Revolutionary armies, the Army of the Pyrenees was created by a decree of the National Convention dated 1 October 1792 and formed out of the right wing of the Armée du Midi. At the outbreak of the War of the Pyrenees with the Kingdom of Spain, a decree of 30 April 1793 separated the Armée des Pyrénées into the Army of the eastern Pyrenees and the Army of the western Pyrenees.

Army of Italy (France) field army of the French Revolutionary Army

The Army of Italy was a field army of the French Army stationed on the Italian border and used for operations in Italy itself. Though it existed in some form in the 16th century through to the present, it is best known for its role during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

In December 1792, Lieutenant General François Christophe de Kellermann took command of the Army of the Alps. Since many units had been sent to the Army of the Pyrenees, the army had only five regular regiments, 30 volunteer battalions, two regular cavalry regiments, and some independent companies. There were 30,000 men on the muster rolls but only 16,000–20,000 were fit for service. In May 1793 the Army of the Alps numbered 45,000 but it was hard to procure weapons for every soldier. The army's left (north) flank was south of Geneva in the Arve River valley, also called the Faucigny. [8] Going south, the army defended the Isère River valley and its upper reaches, called the Tarentaise Valley; the Arc River valley, also called the Maurienne; the Durance River; and the Ubaye River. The right (south) flank was anchored by the fortified Camp de Tournoux. [9] Kellermann proved to be an excellent organizer. During his command tenure, he set up depots with enough supplies to clothe 50,000 men and arm 32,000. [10]

Faucigny Commune in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France

Faucigny(Italian: "Fossigni") is a commune in the Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

Isère (river) river in France

The Isère is a river in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France. Its source, a glacier known as the Sources de l'Isère, lies in the Vanoise National Park in the Graian Alps of Savoie, near the ski resort Val d'Isère on the border with Italy. An important left-bank tributary of the Rhône, the Isère merges with it a few kilometers north of Valence.

Tarentaise Valley

The Tarentaise Valley is a valley of the Isère River in the heart of the French Alps, located in the Savoy region of France. The valley is named for the ancient town of Darantasia, the capital of the pre-Roman Centrones tribe.

These events occurred during the Reign of Terror when popular suspicion fell upon many generals as traitors. Pierre Chépy, the political commissioner with the Army of the Alps believed that Kellermann was a secret Royalist. [9] Chépy proposed to the Minister for Foreign Affairs that every general condemned to death should have his head struck off and hung upside down with a sign posted on his corpse, "This monster sold himself to the enemies of the country..." Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles and Philibert Simond, the representatives on mission with the Army of the Alps, opened Kellermann's mail and discovered that the commander preferred regular troops to the volunteers, wanted to hire Swiss mercenaries, and was willing to withdraw from some positions so that he could drill his raw troops. Horrified that their army commander might be a traitor, the representatives, some soldiers, and civil authorities cross-examined Kellermann for four hours. Keeping calm, Kellermann patiently convinced them that he was loyal to the government. [11]

A revolt began brewing in Lyon on 29 May 1792. [12] As early as 8 July, the representative Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois-Crancé wanted Kellermann to lead his army to Lyon, but the commander insisted on a written order. The leading Jacobin of Lyon, Joseph Chalier had a guillotine sent to that city from Paris. He planned to execute 900 counter-revolutionaries in Lyon, but he was seized instead. On 18 July, Chalier became a victim of his own guillotine. On 20 July, the National Convention ordered Kellermann to put down the revolt in Lyon. The general was reluctant, pointing out that moving against Lyon would cause him to remove troops needed to defend the Alpine border. Nevertheless, Kellermann set out with 10,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry on 6 August. Eventually, 28,000 troops were required to bring the Siege of Lyon to a conclusion. [10]

Battle

Francois de Kellermann Marechal-Kellermann.jpg
François de Kellermann

With Kellermann's attention focused on Lyon, the Piedmontese launched the attack that he had predicted. [13] In his leisurely way, De Vins had drawn up a plan to invade Savoy and Nice at the same time. The Austrian commander-in-chief wanted the Duke of Montferrat to move against Savoy, but he expected to direct the day-to-day operations from Turin. This was unrealistic because of the distance between Turin and the front. To complicate the situation, the Piedmontese officer corps loathed De Vins' chief of staff, the Austrian General-major Eugène-Guillaume Argenteau. The operation in Savoy began in August, which was very late in the season since the snows came early in the mountains. [14]

On 14 August 1793, the Duke of Montferrat's column passed over the Little St Bernard Pass and swept down into the Tarentaise Valley. [13] Farther south, the Marquis of Cordon's column crossed the Mont-Cenis Pass and moved into the Maurienne Valley. The defending division of General of Brigade François Joseph Thorillon Dubourg had General of Brigade Charles Philippe Badelaune's (or Bagdelonne's) brigade in the Tarentaise and General of Brigade Jean-Denis Le Doyen's brigade in the Maurienne. [15] Montferrat's force clashed with Badelaune at Séez on 15 August and Moûtiers on 18 August, routing the French both times. Bourg-Saint-Maurice and the entrenched camp at Saint-Martin-d'Arc both fell into Montferrat's hands. [16] Both brigades were driven back into the lower valleys. Badelaune finally took up a strong position at Albertville and Le Doyen set up a roadblock at Aiguebelle. Farther north, another Piedmontese detachment violated Swiss neutrality by crossing the Great St Bernard Pass and moved into the Arve valley, capturing Sallanches and driving the French back to Carouge near Geneva. Dubourg reported to Kellermann that if he were pressed back any farther, he must abandon Chambéry and withdraw to Fort Barraux. [15]

Jean Herault de Sechelles Marie-Jean Herault de Sechelles, conventionnel by Jean-Louis Laneuville (Carnavalet P 2539) 02.jpg
Jean Hérault de Séchelles

Despite the crisis, the all-powerful political agents were obsessed with the internal revolt and would not allow Kellermann to leave the Siege of Lyon for more than four days at a time. Kellermann left Lyon on 19 August 1793 and did what he could to improve the defenses of Albertville and Aiguebelle on 21 August. He was back at Lyon on 24 August. However, the political agents in Savoy demanded the commander-in-chief's presence at the front and got their way. Kellermann hastened back to Savoy, leaving the Siege of Lyon to be carried out by Dubois-Crancé [15] and General Jean-Baptiste Louis Philippe Demuy. The representative on mission Pierre Jacques Dherbez-Latour tried to dictate military instructions, but Kellermann and General of Brigade Louis Joseph Marie Rogon de Carcaradec stopped his interference by threatening to resign. Starting on 31 August, Kellermann traveled to Grenoble, Chambéry, and Montmélian in order to inspire the authorities. He called up some battalions from the Camp of Tournoux on the right flank, pressed ambulatory hospital patients into service, and got the political agents to call out the local National Guard. [17]

Savoie Campaign of August-October 1793 Savoie Campaign of 1793.png
Savoie Campaign of August–October 1793

Because Montferrat failed to see the importance of pressing forward, his two columns remained separated and bottled up in the valleys. Kellermann exploited the Strategy of the central position by planning to operate first against Montferrat while holding back Cordon's force. Kellermann sent a column into the Doron valley toward Beaufort. This force threatened to outflank the Tarentaise by hooking south to Aime. Meanwhile, Kellermann's main force moved up the Isère River. Over in the Maurienne, Cordon was distracted by a French force on his left rear. During the Piedmontese invasion, a detachment of French soldiers withdrew up a side valley leading south from the Maurienne and was holding Valloire. Nevertheless, Cordon's wing marched down the Arc River on 10 September, hoping to be reinforced by Montferrat. [17]

Cordon's advancing column found Le Doyen's troops setting up an artillery battery. One badly-trained French gun crew rammed the round shot home before the powder charge and ruined the cannon. [17] In the Battle of Epierre on 15 September, 8,000 French soldiers faced 6,000 Sardinians. The French lost 500 killed and wounded while inflicting 1,000 casualties on their adversaries. [18] According to another source, the fighting occurred at Argentine, the next village below Épierre. By a strenuous effort the French hauled some mountain guns up to Saint-Alban-d'Hurtières from which they opened a surprise cannonade on the Piedmontese below, causing them to panic. [16] No help from Montferrat appeared and Cordon fell back to Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne on 16 September. [19]

Snowfall stopped all operations until 27 September, when Le Doyen advanced up the Maurienne. On 29 September, Le Doyen's troops captured the southern exit of the Col de la Madeleine, cutting communications between Montferrat and Cordon. Kellermann's left column captured Beaufort on 28 September. The following day, Chef de brigade Jacques-Antoine de Chambarlhac de Laubespin seized the Cormet de Roselend, putting the French in a position to move south into the Tarentaise. Kellermann planned to attack Montferrat on 2 October, with the main column marching up the Tartenaise toward Moûtiers, Le Doyen coming across the Col de la Madeleine from the southeast, and Chambarlhac moving from Beaufort in the north. Seeing the trap prepared for his soldiers, Montferrat retreated up the valley. On 3 October, Kellermann pushed the last elements of Montferrat's column up the Little St Bernard Pass and the Tarentaise was clear. [19]

Rapidly, Kellermann shifted troops across the Col de la Madeleine against Cordon's right flank. The reinforced French force at Valloire pressed north against Cordon's left flank. These threats compelled Cordon to withdraw to Modane. On 4 October, Kellermann came into the Maurienne via the Col des Encombrés and massed his available troops. By 8 October, the French drove Cordon's wing up the Mont-Cenis Pass, clearing the Maurienne. At the same time the Piedmontese in the north abandoned the Arve valley. Even the fanatic Chépy admitted that, "Kellermann has put himself at the head of the columns and has shown great activity". Though the poorly-trained French soldiers were outnumbered, they managed to oust their enemies from Savoy. [19] [note 1] From beginning to end, Kellermann with no more than 12,000 troops drove away 18,000 Piedmontese, inflicting 2,000 casualties. [16]

Aftermath

Prison de l'Abbaye Prison de l'Abbaye St. Germain, 1831.jpg
Prison de l'Abbaye

The National Convention decided that Kellermann had moved too slowly against the Lyon revolt. On 12 September 1793, the Committee of Public Safety dismissed Kellermann and appointed the ex-doctor General of Division François Amédée Doppet to succeed him in command. However, the order was not supposed to be given to Kellermann until Doppet arrived. When Doppet finally reached Lyon on 25 September, Dubois-Crancé placed the new commander in nominal charge of the siege, leaving Kellermann in charge of Savoy. Displeased with Kellermann's temporary retention, on 11 October the Committee of Public Safety ordered that, [20]

Considering that General Kellermann has been for long convicted of having betrayed the Republic, that his dismissal, pronounced by the National Convention, was founded on the gravest motives, and cannot be contravened by any authority without a great danger to the Republic, Kellermann be at once placed in arrest, and sent to Paris. [20]

Normally it was the representatives on mission who denounced the generals. In this case, the representatives with the Army of the Alps were pleased with Kellermann's performance, but the politicians in Paris demanded his arrest. [20] On 12 October, the French government also ordered the arrest of Dubois-Crancé for not subduing Lyon quickly enough, but that politician managed to talk his way out of it. [20] Fresh from his success against the Piedmontese, Kellermann received the order for his arrest on 16 October. He was supposed to be guarded by a detachment of gendarmes, but Doppet allowed him to proceed with a single officer of gendarmes. Kellermann left for Paris on 18 October and arrived at the Prison de l'Abbaye on 6 November 1793. [21] Kellermann survived the Reign of Terror, possibly because he was the hero of the Battle of Valmy. He went on trial and was acquitted on 8 November 1794. Kellermann's rank was restored on 15 January 1795 and he assumed command of the Army of the Alps in March that year. [22] Emperor Napoleon appointed Kellermann a Marshal of the Empire on 19 May 1804. Napoleon utilized Kellermann's talent as an organizer during the First French Empire, though he never again held a combat command. [23]

Notes

Footnotes

  1. Valleys connect Valloire to Grenoble on the west and Briançon on the south.

Citations

  1. Boycott-Brown 2001, p. 73.
  2. 1 2 Boycott-Brown 2001, p. 74.
  3. Phipps 2011, p. 67.
  4. 1 2 Boycott-Brown 2001, p. 75.
  5. 1 2 Phipps 2011, pp. 68–69.
  6. Phipps 2011, p. 70.
  7. Boycott-Brown 2001, p. 76.
  8. Phipps 2011, p. 72.
  9. 1 2 Phipps 2011, p. 73.
  10. 1 2 Phipps 2011, p. 94.
  11. Phipps 2011, p. 82.
  12. Phipps 2011, p. 91.
  13. 1 2 Phipps 2011, p. 98.
  14. Boycott-Brown 2001, p. 78.
  15. 1 2 3 Phipps 2011, p. 99.
  16. 1 2 3 Cust 1859, p. 172.
  17. 1 2 3 Phipps 2011, p. 100.
  18. Smith 1998, p. 56.
  19. 1 2 3 Phipps 2011, p. 101.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Phipps 2011, p. 105.
  21. Phipps 2011, p. 106.
  22. Phipps 2011, p. 107.
  23. Chandler & Hofschröer 1987, pp. 183-184.

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The First Battle of Saorgio saw a Republican French army commanded by Gaspard Jean-Baptiste Brunet attack the armies of the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont and Habsburg Austria led by Joseph Nikolaus De Vins. The local Sardinian commander in the Maritime Alps was Charles-François Thaon, Count of Saint-André. Though the French were initially successful in this War of the First Coalition action, their main assaults against the strong defensive positions on the Massif de l'Authion and the Col de Raus failed with serious losses. Saorge is now located in France about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northeast of Nice, but in 1793 Saorgio belonged to Piedmont. In April 1794 the French seized the positions from the Austro-Sardinians in the Second Battle of Saorgio.

Battle of Collioure

The Battle of Collioure saw troops from the Kingdom of Spain attack a Republican French division during the War of the Pyrenees. The Spanish troops led by Gregorio García de la Cuesta were completely successful in ousting the French under Louis Pierre François Delattre from Collioure, Fort Saint-Elme and Port-Vendres. The contending sides were the Spanish Army of Catalonia commanded by Antonio Ricardos and the French Army of the Eastern Pyrenees led by François Amédée Doppet and Eustache Charles d'Aoust. In September 1793, the French successfully defended Perpignan from Spanish attack but December saw a series of French defeats. One of the French representatives on mission, Claude Dominique Côme Fabre was killed during the fighting at Collioure. Aoust and Delattre were arrested, condemned and executed by guillotine for the disaster.

Siege of Collioure (1794)

The Siege of Collioure saw a Republican French army led by Jacques François Dugommier invest a French port held by a Spanish garrison commanded by Eugenio Navarro. The actual siege work was carried out by Pierre François Sauret's reinforced division. After the three-and-a-half-week War of the Pyrenees siege the Spanish fleet sent to evacuate the garrison was blown off station by a storm. Navarro surrendered the town on the promise to exchange the paroled garrison with an equal number of French prisoners. After the defenders were released, the Spanish army commander Luis Firmín de Carvajal, Conde de la Unión refused to authorize the agreement or return any French captives. The infuriated French government afterward passed a decree ordering death to all Spanish prisoners and some units carried out the brutal order.

Franco-Savoyard War (1600–1601) european war

The Franco-Savoyard War of 1600-1601 was an armed conflict between the Kingdom of France, led by Henry IV, and the Duchy of Savoy, led by Charles Emmanuel I. The war was fought to determine the fate of the former Marquisate of Saluzzo, and ended with the Treaty of Lyon which was favorable to France.

Fortified Sector of Savoy

The Fortified Section of Savoy(Secteur fortifié de la Savoie) was the French military organization that in 1940 controlled the section of the Alpine Line portion of the Maginot Line facing Italy in the Savoy region. The sector constituted part of the Alpine Line portion of the Maginot Line, between the Defensive Sector of the Rhône to the north, and the Fortified Sector of the Dauphiné to the south. The works combined a number of pre-1914 fortifications with Maginot-style ouvrages, with many forward-positioned cavern-style frontier stations or avant-postes that proved effective in holding invading forces near the order.

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Coordinates: 45°27′17″N6°17′43″E / 45.45472°N 6.29528°E / 45.45472; 6.29528