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|Qing Dynasty||Taiping Heavenly Kingdom|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Viceroy of HuGuang Guam Wing |
| Lai Wenguang |
|440,000 Green Standard Army||300,000 Taipings|
|Casualties and losses|
60,000 deaths, 200,000 surrender, Chen Decai suicidebut only remained 19,000 Taiping broke out to southern Henan and join in Nien Rebellion
Hubei Pocket(湖北包圍戰) was a battle of encirclement that took place between late July and early December 1864, near the end of Taiping Rebellion, in the Hubei, China. It was, for all intents and purposes, the last desperate attempt in Taiping Rebellion's war effort to win the war, as more than 200,000 troops were taken prisoner, but a remainder of 19,000 Taiping troops led by Lai Wenguang broke out and marched into southern Henan and combined with 150,000 troops from the Nien Rebellion.
Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake. The provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political, cultural, and economic hub of Central China.
The Nian Rebellion or Nianfei was an armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, contemporaneously with Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) in South China. The rebellion failed to topple the Qing dynasty, but caused the immense economic devastation and loss of life that became one of the major long-term factors in the collapse of the Qing regime in the early 20th century.
The White Lotus Rebellion was a rebellion initiated by followers of the White Lotus movement during the Qing dynasty of China. The rebellion began in 1794, when large groups of rebels claiming White Lotus affiliations rose up within the mountainous region that separated Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces. A smaller precursor to the main rebellion broke out in 1774, under the leadership of the martial-arts and herbal-healing expert Wang Lun in Shandong province of northern China.
The Battle of Sanhe was a major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion, occurring in 1858. During this battle, the elite troops of Zeng Guofan's Xiang Army were lost, along with one of its most capable commanders, Li Xubin as well as Zeng Guofan's brother Zeng Guohua.
Zeng Guoquan, courtesy name Yuanfu, art name Shuchun, was a Chinese official and military leader of the late Qing dynasty. He was the ninth brother of Zeng Guofan, a prominent statesman and general, and a descendant of the philosopher Zengzi. He served in the Xiang Army, a standing military force organised by his brother to counter the Taiping rebels, and was nicknamed "Ninth Marshal" (九帥). He was known for his expertise in siege warfare, particularly the use of trenches, hence he was also nicknamed "Zeng the Iron Container" (曾鐵桶). During the conquest of Tianjing (Nanjing), the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Zeng was notorious for condoning massacres of the city populace, which resulted in him being called "Zeng the Butcher" (曾屠戶).
The First rout of the Jiangnan Battalion took place between 1853 and 1856 when the Qing government raised the Green Standard Army to fight against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The action involved Qing forces surrounding the city of Nanking, the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Wei Jun born in Guangxi, Wei Changhui's brother's son, was a Chinese Colonel General during the Taiping Rebellion and later served as the general of the Taiping monarchy in the early and middle stages of the rebellion. He attacked the Wuchang three times, and occupied the district successfully in 1855. In the third battle of Wuchang, the 100,000 Taiping troops he commanded shot the Xiang Army's spirit master Luo Zenan, which disrupted Zeng Guofan and the Xiang Army.
The Battle of Jiangnan (1860), also known as the Second rout of the Jiangnan Battalion was a battle between the Qing government's Green Standard Army and the army of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion. The Green Standard Army twice attempted to besiege Nanjing, capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but was unable to break through. To break the siege of Nanjing, the Taiping forces maneuvered to divert Qing forces by sacking Hangzhou, before quickly moving back to Nanjing to counter-encircle the Qing siege forces and routing the Green Standard Army garrison completely, breaking the siege of Nanjing.
Luo Zundian was a Chinese provincial governor who ended several rebellions, but was forced to commit suicide in the Second rout the Army Group Jiangnan in Hangzhou when the Taiping forces conquered the city.
The Battle of Shanghai (太平軍二攻上海) was a major engagement of the Taiping Rebellion that occurred from June 1861 to July 1862. British and French troops used modern artillery on a large scale for the first time in China. Cannon fire inflicted heavy casualties on the Taiping forces, whose commander Li Xiucheng was wounded in the left leg by a shot fired from a cannon.
The Battle of Guanzhong (關中攻防戰) occurred during the Taiping Revolution that took place in November 1861. When Taiping's Western Army was defeated at Wuhan, they lost their connection with their capital of Nanjing. Former Western Army Commander Chen Yucheng then decided to resupply at Guanzhong. Some of their soldiers were troops who once fought for the Nien Rebellion, so Yucheng decided not to provide them with supplies, as he was uncertain of their loyalty.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, officially the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, was an oppositional state in China from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing.
The Battle of Anqing (安慶之戰) was a prolonged siege of the prefecture-level city of Anqing in Anhui, China, initiated by Hunan Army forces loyal to the Qing Dynasty against the armies of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The siege began in September 1860 and ended on September 5, 1861, when imperial forces under the command of Zeng Guoquan breached the walls of the city and occupied it.
Li Kaifang was from Luchuan, Guangxi, China. In 1851, he was promoted to the rank of corps superintendent. While campaigning in Hunan in 1852, he was promoted three times, rising to the rank of commander. After helping to capture Wuchang and Hanyang in Hubei, he was ultimately named chief chancellor of the Earth Department. Along with Lin Fengxiang, Li lead the Taiping vanguard during the march toward Nanking and occupied Yangzhou in April 1853. Both would also lead the ill-fated Northern Expedition. Li was captured on March 31, 1855 in Fengguantun, Shandong.
Lin Fengxiang was from Guixian, Guangxi, China. Originally an imperial guard in 1852, he rose to the rank of commander during the Taiping's march through Hunan. In Hubei, he was promoted to deputy chancellor of the Heaven Department. Along with Li Kaifang, Lin lead the Taiping vanguard during the march toward Nanking and occupied Yangzhou in April 1853. Both would also lead the ill-fated Northern Expedition. Lin was captured on March 7, 1855 in Lizhen, Zhili.
Jiang Zhongyuan, courtesy name Changrui, (常孺) was a scholar and soldier from Hunan who fought for the Qing and against the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.
The Western Expedition was a campaign by the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom against the Qing dynasty during the Taiping Rebellion.
Events from the year 1864 in China.
The Battle of Changsha was fought in the early years of the Taiping Rebellion throughout 1852. After defeating Qing forces in Guangxi, the Taipings advanced into neighboring Hunan province. The city is heavily defended and a delay in the Taiping advance allows Qing forces to reinforce the city. The first attempt to advance north was stopped at an ambush at the Suoyi ford in the Xiang River, where over 10,000 Taiping sailors and soldiers were killed.
The Battle of Wuchang occurred in 1852 during the Taiping Rebellion in Wuchang, part of the modern-day city of Wuhan.