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|Battle of Jemmingen|
|Part of the Eighty Years' War|
The Battle of Jemmingen by Frans Hogenberg.
|Commanders and leaders|
|Louis of Nassau||Duke of Alba|
| 10,000 infantry|
| 12,000 infantry|
|Casualties and losses|
|7,000 dead or wounded|| 80 dead|
After the Battle of Heiligerlee, the Dutch rebel leader Louis of Nassau (brother of William the Silent) failed to capture the city Groningen. Louis was driven away by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba and defeated at the Battle of Jemmingen (also known as Battle of Jemgum, at Jemgum in East Frisia - now part of Germany) on 21 July 1568.
The Spanish army consisted of 12,000 infantry (4 tercios), 3,000 cavalry, and some cannons. Louis of Nassau opposed them with 10,000 infantry (2 groups), some cavalry, and 16 cannons.
After three hours of skirmishes, Louis' army left its trenches and advanced. Pounded by effective musket fire and intimidated by the Spanish cavalry, the advance turned into a general retreat towards the river Ems.
On 19 May 1571 a statue of the Duke, cast from one of the captured bronze cannons, was placed in Antwerp citadel. After the Sack of Antwerp in 1576, the city joined the Dutch Revolt and in 1577 the statue was destroyed by an angry crowd.
The Battle of Nieuwpoort, was a battle during the Eighty Years War between a Spanish army under Albert of Austria and an army of the Dutch Republic and its protestant allies of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, under the commands of Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere. It took place on 2 July 1600 near the city Nieuwpoort in what is now Belgium.
The Battle of Ocaña was fought on 19 November 1809 between French forces under Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia and King Joseph Bonaparte and the Spanish army under Juan Carlos de Aréizaga, which suffered its greatest single defeat in the Peninsular War. General Juan Carlos de Aréizaga's Spanish army of 51,000 lost nearly 19,000 killed, wounded, prisoners and deserters, mostly due to the French use of their cavalry. Tactically, the battle was a Cannae-like encirclement of the Spanish army, and the worst defeat ever suffered by a Spanish army on home soil. The strategic consequences were also devastating, as it destroyed the only force capable of defending southern Spain; the area was overrun over the winter in the Andalusia campaign.
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