|Battle of Kiev (January 1919)|
|Part of the Ukraine Offensive (1919)|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko |
The Battle of Kiev in January 1919 was one of the three battles in Kiev, capital of Ukraine during the Russian Civil War and Ukrainian–Soviet War. It involved an offensive by elements of the Ukrainian Front of the Red Army to capture Kiev.
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and nonideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen.
The Ukrainian–Soviet War is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine for the events taking place between 1917–21, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Bolsheviks. The war ensued soon after the October Revolution when Lenin dispatched the Antonov's expeditionary group to Ukraine and Southern Russia. Soviet historical tradition viewed it as an occupation of Ukraine by military forces of Western and Central Europe, including the Polish Republic's military – the Bolshevik victory constituting Ukraine's liberation from these forces. Conversely, modern Ukrainian historians consider it a failed War of Independence by the Ukrainian People's Republic against the Russian Soviet Republic, ending with Ukraine falling under a Russian-Soviet occupation.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, frequently shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991.
This battle was a part of the General Offensive of the Ukrainian Front in Ukraine.
On January 22, Nizhyn was occupied.
On January 24, the Red Army approached Brovary and occupied the city after fierce fighting.
On February 5, after three days of fighting, the Red Army entered Kiev.
Nížyn is a city located in Chernihiv Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine, along the Oster River, 150 km (93 mi) north-east of the nation's capital, Kiev. It is the administrative center of Nizhyn Raion, though the city itself is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Once it was a major city of the Chernigov Governorate.
Brovary is a city in Kiev Oblast (Region) in northern Ukraine, an eastern suburb of the country's capital, Kiev. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative centre of Brovary Raion (district), though it does not belong to the raion. Its population is approximately 100,866 (2017 est.).
Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko was a Soviet military commander and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
The Polish–Soviet War was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union over a region comparable to today's westernmost Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
Ivan Stepanovich Konev was a Soviet military commander who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin.
The Polish–Soviet war erupted in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I. The root causes were twofold: a territorial dispute dating back to Polish–Russian wars in the 17–18th centuries; and a clash of ideology due to RSFSR's goal of spreading communist rule further west, to Europe. At that time both countries had just undergone transition: in 1918 Poland reclaimed independence after 123 years of partitions. In 1917 the October Revolution replaced the liberal, democratic Provisional Government, that had previously displaced the Tsar in Russia, with Soviet rule. The war ended with the Treaty of Riga in 1921, which settled the border issue and regulated Polish-Soviet relations until the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939.
Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos was a Soviet Ukrainian general of the Red Army during World War II. Being accorded the highest military decoration, the Hero of the Soviet Union title, for the skill and courage in commanding a division in the 1939-1940 Finnish campaign, Kirponos is remembered for his leading role in the failed defense of the Ukraine during the Battle of Brody, the Battle of Uman, and Kiev in the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union. He was killed in action by German fire in the defense of Kiev on 20 September 1941.
The 13th Poltava Twice Red Banner Guards Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army that served with distinction during the Second World War.
The Soviet Union's 12th Army was a field army formed multiple times during the Russian Civil War and World War II.
The Ukrainian War of Independence, a period of sustained warlike conflict, lasted from 1917 to 1921 and resulted in the establishment and development of a Ukrainian republic – later a part of the Soviet Union as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of 1922–1991. The war consisted of a series of military conflicts between different governmental, political and military forces. Belligerents included Ukrainian nationalists, anarchists, Bolsheviks, the forces of Germany and Austria-Hungary, the White Russian Volunteer Army, and Second Polish Republic forces. They struggled for control of Ukraine after the February Revolution in the Russian Empire. The Allied forces of Romania and France also became involved. The struggle lasted from February 1917 to November 1921 and resulted in the division of Ukraine between the Bolshevik Ukrainian SSR, Poland, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. The conflict is frequently viewed within the framework of the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, as well as the closing stage of the Eastern Front of the First World War of 1914–1918.
The 25th Rifle Division was a rifle division of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War, formed twice.
The 4th Guards Airborne Division was an airborne division of the Red Army that fought as infantry during World War II.
The Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia was a military formation of the Soviet Russian government created in the beginning of December 1917 to fight against various autonomous state formations with a goal of establishing the Soviet government .
The 31st Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army during the interwar period and World War II.
The Capture of Kiev by the White Army occurred on Old Style August 18, 1919 and was one of the three battles fought in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine in 1919 during the Russian Civil War, in which the White Army conquered the city from the Red Army without a fight.
The 146th Rifle Division was formed for the first time as a standard Red Army rifle division in mid-1939, as part of a major build-up of the Army prior to the start of World War II. After the start of the German invasion in 1941 it defended the approaches to Kiev for several months until being surrounded and destroyed in September. A second formation began in January 1942, and the new division spent the following year on a relatively quiet sector before joining the offensives that would drive the German invaders from north-central Russia, Lithuania, and Poland. The 146th ended the war fighting in the streets of Berlin, after compiling an enviable record of service, and saw postwar duty in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany.
The 293rd Rifle Division began service as a standard Red Army rifle division shortly after the German invasion. It served in the defense of Kiev, and managed to escape encirclement, spending the winter along the front near Kursk. It fought in the unsuccessful Soviet offensive on Kharkov in May, 1942. In the early summer the division fought along the Don River against the German offensive, and after rebuilding in the Battle of Stalingrad, where it played a leading role in the encirclement and destruction of German Sixth Army, for which it was raised to Guards status as the 66th Guards Rifle Division as the battle was still ongoing. A second 293rd was raised a few months later and won distinction against the Japanese in Manchuria in August 1945.
The Offensive of the Ukrainian Front was a major offensive of the Soviet troops of the Ukrainian Front against the Army of the Ukrainian People's Republic during the Ukrainian–Soviet War, in the context of the Russian Civil War.
The Advance on Moscow was a military campaign of the White Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR), launched against the RSFSR in July 1919 during the Russian Civil War. The goal of the campaign was the capture of Moscow, which, according to the chief of the White Army Anton Denikin, would play a decisive role in the outcome of the Civil War and bring the Whites closer to the final victory. After initial successes, in which the city of Oryol (Orel) at only 360 km from Moscow was taken, Denikin's overextended Army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919.
The 4th Guards Motor Rifle Division was a motorized infantry division of the Soviet Army during the Cold War.