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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
The Battle of Kock was the final battle in the invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II in Europe. It took place between 2–5 October 1939, near the town of Kock, in Poland. 12,84:
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign or the 1939 Defensive War, and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug), was an invasion of Poland by Germany that marked the beginning of World War II. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union. The Soviets invaded Poland on 17 September following the Molotov–Tōgō agreement that terminated the Soviet and Japanese Battles of Khalkhin Gol in the east on 16 September. The campaign ended on 6 October with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland under the terms of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty.
Kock is a town in eastern Poland, about 45 kilometres north of Lublin and 120 kilometres south-east of Warsaw. It lies in Lublin Voivodeship, in Lubartów County. It is the capital of the administrative district Gmina Kock. Historically Kock belongs to the Polish province of Lesser Poland and is located in its northeastern corner. As of 2004, its population numbered 3,509.
Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres (120,733 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of approximately 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
The Polish Polesie Independent Operational Group, led by General Franciszek Kleeberg, fought the German 14th Motorised Corps, led by General Gustav Anton von Wietersheim.
Franciszek Kleeberg was a Polish general. He served in the Austro-Hungarian Army before joining the Polish Legions in World War I and later the Polish Army. During the German Invasion of Poland he commanded Independent Operational Group Polesie. He never lost a battle in the Invasion of Poland, although he was eventually forced to surrender after his forces ran out of ammunition. Imprisoned in Oflag IV-B Koenigstein, he died in hospital in Dresden on 5 April 1941 and was buried there.
Gustav Anton von Wietersheim was a German general during World War II. He led the XIV Motorized Corps from its creation in 1938 until 14 September 1942 during the Battle of Stalingrad.
The Polish battle plan was disorganized due to few officers being available. The Wehrmacht had destroyed the Polish reserve and forced it to withdraw. Having taken heavy losses, the Polish armies retreated to Kraków and the Vistula river. From there, they took the route from Warsaw to Sandomierz. From Sandomierz, they were able to move on to the Lublin area.
The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe. The designation "Wehrmacht" replaced the previously used term Reichswehr, and was the manifestation of the Nazi regime's efforts to rearm Germany to a greater extent than the Treaty of Versailles permitted.
A withdrawal is a type of military operation, generally meaning retreating forces back while maintaining contact with the enemy. A withdrawal may be undertaken as part of a general retreat, to consolidate forces, to occupy ground that is more easily defended, or to lead the enemy into an ambush. It is considered a relatively risky operation, requiring discipline to keep from turning into a disorganized rout or at the very least doing severe damage to the military's morale.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The eastern edge of the Vistula was defended by Lublin's weak army. The Polish forces were only camped in areas where they could cross the river easily (in case of an attack). Other German forces advanced to the Vistula and went on towards Zamość and Włodzimierz Wołyński.
Zamośćpronounced [ˈzamɔɕt͡ɕ] is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship, about 90 km (56 mi) from Lublin, 247 km (153 mi) from Warsaw and 60 km (37 mi) from the border with Ukraine. In 2014, the population was 65,149.
The Polish Army at Kraków and Małopolska suffered heavy losses, and did not reach the San river front. Therefore, they were unable to organize a proper defence. Field Marshal Rydz Śmigły was tasked with the defence of southern Poland. The commander of army area IX Brześć, General Franciszek Kleeberg, was responsible for the defence of the line from Pińsk to Brześć.
The San is a river in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine, a tributary of the Vistula River, with a length of 458 km and a basin area of 16,877 km2.
Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły(
Brest, formerly Brest-Litowsk, is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet. It is the capital city of the Brest Region.
On 8 September, General Franciszek Kleeberg received orders from Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły to organize a division of infantry from the depot division (a depot was where reserve soldiers and recruits were trained). Kleeberg was also ordered to organize a defensive line from Brześć to Pińsk. While his forces were well-trained, they lacked heavy equipment as it had previously been dispatched to the front-line divisions.
|60th Infantry Division||60 Dywizja Piechoty „Kobryń"||Colonel Adam Epler||Seven battalions of infantry, an artillery unit, one anti-tank battery|
|Drohiczyn Poleski Group||Grupa Drohiczyn Poleski||Lt. Colonel Kazimierz Gorzkowski||Three battalions of infantry, an anti-tank unit|
|Jasiołda Group||Grupa Jasiołda||One infantry battalion, one machine-gun battalion, one anti-tank company, one unarmed labour battalion|
|Brześć Fortress Group||Grupa Forteczna Brześć||General Konstanty Plisowski||Three infantry battalions, one engineer battalion, two FT-17 tank companies, two armoured trains, an artillery group|
|Riverine Flotilla||Flotylla Rzeczna||Several dozen small river motor boats, monitors and artillery ships|
|Eight anti-aircraft batteries|
After breaking through the Polish line in the Battle of Wizna, the German XIX Panzer Corps under General Heinz Guderian started its rapid advance south. The corps, composed of the 3rd and 10th Panzer Divisions, the 20th Motorised Infantry Division, with the 2nd Motorised Division in reserve, was ordered to capture the old fortress in Brześć Litewski and then strike further southwards towards Kowel and Galicia. The purpose of this attack was to cut Poland in two and paralyse the defences east of the Bug River.
Initially, Guderian's forces advanced almost unopposed. However, on 14 September, they were stopped in the area of Brześć Fortress and Kobryń by a four-battalion-strong improvised force under General Konstanty Plisowski. In the three-day-long battle, (it became known as the Battle of Brześć), both sides suffered significant casualties. Although the Poles finally withdrew from the area on 17 September, the Germans did not start the pursuit soon enough to rout the retreating Poles. The simultaneous attack on Kobryń, which is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Kobryń, was inconclusive, with the Polish improvised 'Kobryń' Infantry Division under Colonel Adam Epler withdrawing unopposed.
Both Polish units from Kobryń and Brześć were soon joined by the Podlaska Cavalry Brigade. The unit, commanded by General Ludwik Kmicic-Skrzyński, successfully evaded encirclement by withdrawing through the Białowieża Forest. General Kmicic-Skrzyński, with his chief of staff, Major Julian Szychiewicz, went to Wołkowysk where he made telephone contact with General Franciszek Kleeberg. The two agreed to join their forces and move southwards, towards the Romanian Bridgehead.
The 16th Motorised Infantry Regiment with artillery and Luftwaffe help, began an attack on the positions of the 83rd Polish Infantry Regiment on 18 September, capturing a number of Polish positions. The Polish counter-attack, which began at 17.00 hours, regained some territory. Kleeberg began withdrawing his forces to Romania and Hungary. Over the next two days Polish forces were ordered to concentrate north of Kowel. While on the march, a formation of the Polesie Group was attacked by fifth columnists and from the air, but loose groups of Polish soldiers joined the group.
After a battle with Red Army forces, General Kleeberg decided to march to the relief of Warsaw on 22 September. He first planned to capture crossing places on the Bug River. The concentration area would be near Włodawa. Formations, organized by Colonel Brzoza-Brzezina, fought only against the Germans. They could fight the Red Army but only if they, (the Poles), were attacked first. Between 22 and 25 September, elements of the Polesie Group were attacked by German aircraft during the march to Włodawa. On the last day of these attacks, General Kleeberg received information that Włodawa had been captured by unknown Polish units. Most personnel were soldiers from destroyed Polish formations who had not been caught by the Germans and were looking for commanders and formations which still fought. His staff began organising the defence of a bridgehead in Włodawa.
Elsewhere, between 17 and 26 September, formations of the Polesie Group crossed the Bug river and entered an area near Włodawa. After receiving information about the surrender of Warsaw, General Kleeberg asked his commanders their opinion after informing them of the political and military situation. He also asked General Zygmunt Podhorski, the commander of the 'Zaza' cavalry division, (comprising two brigades of cavalry ['Pils' and 'Edward'], two infantry battalions ['Olek' and 'Wilk'] and divisional artillery), to join him. General Podhorski agreed, then decided that he would first go to Stawy near Dęblin, the location of the main arsenal of the Polish army. They would then move to the Holy Cross Mountains and engage in guerrilla warfare.
Kleeberg decided to re-organise his command. The 'Kobryń' division would get little in the way of re-supply but would be renamed the 60th Infantry Division. The 'Brzoza' and 'Drohiczyn' groups would be merged – Colonel Brzoza-Brzezina would command the resultant 50th Infantry Division with three infantry regiments and a division of artillery. The 60th Infantry Division would be commanded by Colonel Adam Epler, comprising: three infantry regiments, a division of artillery, a motorised company of 37 mm anti-tank guns, four independent and seven independent formations. In all, Kleeberg had some 18,000 men.
On 28 September, the Polish forces began to march south to the Parczew-Wojcieszków line with the 'Zaza' cavalry division securing the march. One of the Uhlan regiments from the 'Edward' brigade successfully crossed the Wieprz river and captured Spiczyn; another cavalry regiment from the 'Zaza' Division captured Jawidz and Wymysłów after some resistance. The Germans suffered heavy losses. The next day there was more fighting between the 'Zaza' Division and the Germans near Spiczyn. That evening, the 60th Infantry Division broke contact with the Germans and went into a forest near Czeremniki. The Germans, using a formation of infantry and supported by two tanks, attacked the 1st Battalion, 182nd Infantry Regiment unsuccessfully.
By 30 September, Polish forces were situated between the rivers Tyśmienica and Wieprz. The following day, forces from the 'Polesie' Group passed the Świderki colonies of Bystrzyca, Wola Osowińska, Bełcząc and Ostrówek. The 'Zaza' Division had settled in forests near the Tyśmianka river. One squadron of the 2nd Uhlan Regiment, who were defending a road, destroyed a German reconnaissance patrol. The command element of 5th Uhlan Regiment, and the 'Olek' and 'Wilk' infantry battalions attacked the Germans in Kock and captured the town.
On 30 September, the commander of 10th Army, Walther von Reichenau, ordered his staff to plan the destruction of a large Polish force which was located between the Bug and Vistula rivers. This task would involve the XIV Motorised Corps. It was made up of the 29th and 13th Motorised Infantry Divisions and some independent units. Each German motorised division had a paper strength of 16445 soldiers, 2676 trucks and staff cars, 1944 motorcycles, and 18 armoured cars.
The commander of XIV Corps knew that Polish forces were situated in the forests northwest of Kock. He believed that the commander of the Polish forces was unaware of Warsaw's capitulation.
The commander of 13th Motorised Infantry Division, General Paul Otto, was of the opinion that the Polish forces had become so demoralized that they were incapable of combat, and that a single German battalion would be enough to disarm the Poles and take them to a Prisoner of War camp. Otto sent a force consisting of 3rd Battalion, 93rd Motorized Infantry Regiment supported by 8th Battery, 13th Regiment of Light Artillery. The battalion commander decided to divide his forces into two groups which were sent to Serokomla and Kock. He could count on help from the 93rd Motorised Infantry Regiment with some support forces which followed him.
At 08:30, a column of half-tracks and truck-mounted infantry came under fire from a guard platoon of No. 2 company of the 'Wilk' battalion. After a protracted engagement the German troops withdrew. The Polish 179th Infantry Regiment was alerted and moved to defensive positions near and in Kock. At about 11:00 the German lead elements attacked the Polish positions, which were now 2 battalions strong. In spite of supporting artillery fire, the attack failed. At dusk German motorcyclists appeared near the church in Kock and began firing, but subsequently withdrew when the fire was returned.
A company of motorised infantry entered the village of Serokomla. This led to the beginning of a chaotic action between the Germans and Uhlans from the 'Pils' Cavalry Brigade, (commanded by Colonel Plisowski). The Poles were supported by an artillery unit from the same brigade. The Germans were forced to withdraw to the south of the village (see 3 OCT).
German losses were 300–400 killed and wounded. Five officers, 180 NCOs and privates were captured by the Polish. Components of the 'Pils' cavalry brigade lost about 200 killed or wounded.
The stiff Polish resistance forced General Otto to use all his forces for an assault. He was going to split Polish forces in two and destroy them. He decided that the 33rd Motorised Infantry Regiment supported by part of the divisional artillery would attack Annopol, Pieńki and Talczyn. This force was tasked with destroying the Polish 50th Infantry Division. The 93rd Motorised Infantry Regiment was ordered to capture Serokomla then Hordzież and to destroy a defensive formation of the 'Zaza' cavalry division. The 66th Motorised Infantry Regiment entered the field of battle in the afternoon.
General Kleeberg thought that the main German advance would be toward the 'Zaza' cavalry division at Serokomla Hordzież. He decided that part of the cavalry would fend off the German attack. The rest would join a counter-attack alongside the 50th Infantry Division on the right wing and rear of the 13th German Motorized Infantry Division. The 60th Infantry Division and the 'Podlaska Cavalry Brigade' would close off potential German attack routes. If this counter-attack was successful, the German division would be forced to withdraw behind the river Wieprz.
Between 07:50 and 09:30, two regiments of the 50th Infantry Division (the 180th and the 178th, less its 2nd battalion), attacked. They were supported by a howitzer battery. The attack was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Gorzkowski. Initially successful, the Polish units were halted and then forced onto the defensive. The cavalry attack by the Uhlans was also stopped and forced to withdraw west of Wola Gułowska.
At 10:30, German artillery began to fire on Polish cavalry positions. The Wehrmacht's 93rd Motorized Infantry Regiment began an attack on the 'Wilk' battalion positions, inflicting heavy losses. The 33rd Infantry Regiment began a gradual attack on the Polish 50th Infantry Division.
After heavy fighting, the German advance was stopped. Otto decided to support the 33rd Motorised Infantry Regiment with the 2nd Battalion of the 66th Motorised Infantry Regiment. German formations captured Wola Gułowska, but in the evening, they were forced to withdraw from the eastern part of the area and go on the defensive in the west part.
Due to the 13th Motorised Infantry Division's failure, the commander of XIV Corps. was forced to use the 29th Motorised Infantry Division. General Otto ordered the 93rd Infantry Regiment to move from the Wieprz river to Dęblin. The 66th Motorised Infantry Regiment would attack Adamów i Wola Gułowska, and the 33rd Infantry Regiment would clear the area to the north of Kock.
General Kleeberg suspected that the main combined attack of the 13th Motorised Division and the 29th Motorised Division would be on Adamów and Krzywda. He thought there was a chance to destroy the 13th Motorised Division as they had already sustained heavy casualties and materiel losses. The 'Zaza' cavalry division and the 50th Infantry Division would defend their positions, the 60th Infantry Division would attack the 13th Motorised Division. The Podlaska Cavalry Brigade would oppose the 29th Motorised Infantry Division.
In the morning, the main elements of 13th Division attacked the 'Zaza' cavalry division and the 50th Infantry division. By 12:00 noon part of the 66thInfantry Regiment had captured Zakępie and advanced on Adamów where they were halted by the 1st Battalion of the 180th Infantry Regiment.
About 11 hours apart, first from the west and then the east, forces from the 66th regiment attacked the 'Olek' and 'Wilk' battalions who were defending Czarna. The defenders sustained heavy casualties from artillery fire and 'Wilk' was forced to withdraw to the eastern edge of the Adamów forest. 'Olek', moving to Adamów, later deployed to Gułów. Between 10:00 and 11:00 formations of the 66th Regiment attacked formations of cavalry from the 5th Uhlan Regiment who then withdrew from Wola Gułowska and Adamów to the south-east.
At about 12:00 the 66th Infantry Regiment attacked the 2nd Squadron of the 2nd Uhlan Regiment in Zarzecze which withdrew with heavy casualties. The commander of the regiment moved the 4th Squadron south from Helenowka to try to assist the 2nd Squadron while the 3rd Squadron held the enemy to the west of Wola Gułowska. The 3rd and 4th Squadrons, with elements of the 10th Uhlan Regiment fought near the Turzystwo village cemetery and the church in Wola Gułowska. Ground was lost and regained repeatedly until an attack by the 2ndBattalion, 184th Infantry Regiment and the Uhlan Squadron enabled the Polish to dig in.
The commander of XIVth Motorized Corps. decided that he would use two of his divisions. They would attempt to encircle and destroy the Polish forces. The 13th Motorized Division advanced on Bystrzyca and Adamów then Wróblina and Stanin; the 29th Motorised Division advanced on Radyryż Kościelny and Wróblina where they met troops from the 13th Division.
General Kleeberg decided to destroy the 13th Motorised Infantry Division by using forces from the 50th and 60th infantry divisions and the 'Zaza' cavalry division. The Podlaska Cavalry Brigade defended the position under Radoryż Kościelny and Wróblina.
13th Division's artillery began to fire on the 180th Infantry Regiment battalion's positions in Adamów and the 'Olek' Battalion in Gułów grange at 05:30. Two and a half hours later, the 66th Infantry Regiment's advance began. After a short fight at 10:00, the Germans captured Adamów, they then attacked the Polish position on hill 170 and Gułów, which they captured after heavy fighting. The 66th Motorised Infantry Regiment took many losses. The division occupied positions on the eastern edge of Adamów forest. General Podhorski sent the 'Pils' cavalry brigade to support them. After contact with the enemy brigade, they began an attack on the German positions in the forest. They captured the forest and, there, they established defensive positions.
After the capture of Adamów and Gułów grange by the 66th Infantry Regiment, the 33rd Motorised Infantry Regiment began to advance, capturing Wojcieszków and Glinne. The Polish 178th Infantry Regiment withdrew. The commander ordered his force to re-take Wojcieszków and Glinne, which they did, but they withdrew after taking heavy losses. The advance of the 180th Infantry Regiment on Adamów failed. Colonel Brzoza-Brzezina sent the 178th infantry regiment who soon met the German advance. The 1st battalion included a part company of sappers. The 2nd and 3rd battalions took heavy losses and withdrew to Burzec.
Meanwhile, an attack by the Polish 184th infantry regiment, with the support of a battalion of the 179th infantry regiment, recaptured the church and cemetery in Wola Gułowska. An advance by the 182nd Infantry Regiment with the help of three 100mm howitzers broke the German defence in Helenów.
At 16:00, the last German advance from Adamów began on positions of the 10th Uhlan Regiment in Krzywda forest by the 182nd regiment in Helenów and the 184th regiment in Wola Gułowska. The 10th Uhlan Regiment, after a hard fight, withdrew into the forest. Most forces of the 'Brzoza' division successfully defended their positions in Burzec. The 182nd Infantry Regiment held their position. The 184th regiment had to withdraw due to a lack of artillery ammunition. During this time two key Polish advances began. The 2nd battalion of the 183rd Infantry Regiment, with artillery support, began an assault with the bayonet on the Germans who had attacked the southern wing of the 'Pils' cavalry brigade.
The assault succeeded and the Germans began to retreat, being chased by infantry and cavalry. The rear of the southern wing of the 13th Motorised Division was attacked by the 'Edward' cavalry brigade, they captured Poznań village, including a German artillery battery (which had to be destroyed when the cavalry were forced to withdraw due to them coming under fire from another German artillery battery). Elements of the 13th Motorised Division began to withdraw. One of the last attacks was by the 29th Motorised Division on the 'Podlaska' Cavalry Brigade positions and the rear of the 'Brzoza' Division. After that both Polish formations withdrew to the south of Kryzywda.
The Polesie Independent Group surrendered on 6 October at 10:00. In his last order General Kleeberg wrote that the reason for his decision to capitulate was that they were surrounded and ammunition and food were depleted.
Operation Tempest was a series of anti-Nazi uprisings conducted during World War II by the Polish Home Army, the dominant force in the Polish resistance.
Independent Operational Group Polesie was one of the Polish Army Corps that defended Poland during the Invasion of Poland in 1939. It was created on 11 September 1939 and was commanded by general Franciszek Kleeberg. The SGO is most notable for fighting in the battle of Kock, the last battle of the Invasion of Poland.
The Battle of Komarów, or the Zamość Ring, was one of the most important battles of the Polish-Soviet War. It took place between 30 August and 2 September 1920, near the village of Komarowo near Zamość. It was the last large battle which cavalry was used as such and not as mounted infantry.
The Battle of Brześć Litewski was a World War II battle involving German and Polish forces that took place between 14 and 17 September 1939, near the town of Brześć Litewski. After three days of heavy fights for the stronghold in the town of Brześć, the Germans captured the fortress and the Poles withdrew.
The Battle of Kobryń was one of the battles of the Invasion of Poland. It was fought between 14 and 18 September 1939, between the German XIX Panzer Corps of General Heinz Guderian and the improvised Polish 60th Infantry Division "Kobryn" of Colonel Adam Epler. It was fought concurrently with the Battle of Brześć Litewski.
Battle of Szack (Shatsk) was one of the major battles between the Polish Army and the Red Army fought in 1939 in the beginning of the Second World War.
The Battle of Wołodarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyi's First Cavalry Army. It took place May 29–31, 1920, near the Ukrainian village of Volodarka, in the course of the Polish Offensive on Kiev during the Polish-Soviet War.
The Volhynian Cavalry Brigade was a Polish cavalry brigade, which saw action against the invading Germans during the Invasion of Poland, a part of World War II. Raised from recruits in the area of Wołyń, the division was posted to the Łódź Army. During several desperate counter-attacks, the brigade suffered heavy casualties near Łódź. It was commanded by Colonel Julian Filipowicz. Most notably, the unit took part in one of the first battles of the German invasion of Poland, the battle of Mokra.
The Battle of Mokra took place on September 1, 1939 near the village of Mokra, 5 km north from Kłobuck, 23 km north-west from Częstochowa, Poland. It was one of the first battles of the Invasion of Poland, of the Second World War and one of the few Polish victories of that campaign, as well as the first German defeat of the conflict.
The 9th Infantry Division was a unit of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic. The division was originally formed in 1919. Stationed in Siedlce, it took part in the Polish September Campaign under Colonel Józef Werobej. The history of the 9th Division dates back to early summer of 1919. It was formed on June 12 of that year, in the region of Polesie, out of units of Operational Group Polesie, commanded by General Antoni Listowski. At that time, it was divided into two Infantry Brigades and one Artillery Brigade:
Pomeranian Cavalry Brigade was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period. It was created on April 1, 1937 out of the Cavalry Brigade "Bydgoszcz". Its headquarters were stationed in Bydgoszcz and the brigade consisted of these units:
Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army in the interbellum period. It was created on April 1, 1937 out of the Cavalry Brigade "Poznań". Its headquarters were stationed in Poznań and the brigade consisted of these units:
The Battle of Lida took place on 16 and 17 April 1919 around the city of Lida during the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–20. During World War I Lida was occupied by the German troops. In 1919 the Red Army briefly established Soviet power here.
The Battle of Kock was fought between August 14 and 16, 1920 in the vicinity of the town of Kock in east-central Poland. The town was to serve as a bridgehead across the Wieprz river for Gen. Józef Piłsudski's counter-offensive against the Russian forces storming Warsaw. However, on August 14 it was captured by forces of the Russian Mozyr Group and the Poles withdrew across the river. In the early morning of August 16 the 21st Mountain Division counter-attacked and retook the town.
Zygmunt Podhorski was General brygady of the Polish Army. Born May 25, 1891, Podhorski fought in World War I, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland. Altogether, he served in the military from 1914 until 1946.
Polish 60th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the Polish Army, which fought in the September 1939 Invasion of Poland. This unit, which was first named Division Kobryn, was not part of peacetime organization of the army, and was created in mid-September 1939, out of reserve units of Military District IX. It was formed in the town of Kobryn, and guns and ammunition for the division were delivered by Warsaw city buses, from Central Ammunition Depot Nr 2 in Stawy near Deblin. The division was commanded by Colonel Adam Epler.
The Cavalry Division Zaza was a cavalry unit of the Polish Army, which was formed on September 18, 1939, during the Invasion of Poland. The division, commanded by General Zygmunt Podhorski, was formed in Bialowieza Forest out of units of Podlaska Cavalry Brigade and Suwalska Cavalry Brigade, which had escaped German encirclement near Zambrow and Ostrow Mazowiecka.
The First Krechowce Uhlan Regiment was a mounted unit of the Polish Army, active in the Second Polish Republic. Its traditions were continued during World War II, by a regiment of the same name, which was part of Polish Armed Forces in the West. 1st Krechowce Uhlan Regiment was formed in 1915, as a unit of the Imperial Russian Army. It fought in World War I, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland, as part of Suwalska Cavalry Brigade. Until 1939, the regiment was stationed in Augustów. It ceased to exist in 1947. First commandant of the regiment was a Tsarist officer of Polish ethnicity, Colonel Bolesław Mościcki, who was killed in 1918 near Łuniniec. Last commandant was Colonel Leon Strzelecki.
The 2nd Grochow Uhlan Regiment of General Jozef Dwernicki was a cavalry regiment of Polish I Corps in Russia, Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic, and the Home Army during Operation Tempest (1944). The regiment was formed in November 1917 in Volhynia, and in 1921–1939, it was garrisoned in Suwałki, in the barracks of former Imperial Russian Army's 2nd Pskov Dragoons Regiment. In the 1939 Invasion of Poland it was part of Suwalska Cavalry Brigade.