Battle of Landriano

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Battle of Landriano
Part of the War of the League of Cognac
Date21 June 1529
Location
Landriano, Lombardy
(present-day Italy)
Result Decisive Imperial–Spanish victory [1] [2]
Belligerents
Insigne modernum Francum.svg  Kingdom of France
FlorenceCoA.svg   Republic of Florence
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan

Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V:

Commanders and leaders
Comte de St. Pol   (POW) Antonio de Leyva

The Battle of Landriano took place on 21 June 1529, between the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol and the Imperial–Spanish army commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova [2] in the context of the War of the League of Cognac. The French army was destroyed and the battle's strategic result was that the struggle between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor for control of northern Italy was temporarily at an end. [3]

Francis I de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol, Duke of Estouteville, was a French prince and important military commander during the Italian Wars.

War of the League of Cognac conflict

The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the Kingdom of France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, the Kingdom of England, the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Florence.

Francis I of France King of France

Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

Contents

Background

In 1528 the Genoese Admiral, Andrea Doria, after deserting in favour of Emperor Charles V, managed to break up the French siege of Naples; his efforts were helped by the plague, which decimated the French besiegers, among them General Odet of Foix, Viscount of Lautrec, who died on 15 August. [4] After his death, the French army was commanded by Giovanni Ludovico of Saluzzo, who, under the circumstances ordered his troops to withdraw on 29 August, but eventually the Imperial–Spanish forces led by Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange, caught up with them and decimated them. [4] Shortly after the whole French army in the south of Italy capitulated. [2]

Andrea Doria Italian admiral

Andrea Doria was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 16th-century Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor from 1519, King of Spain from 1516, and Prince of the Habsburg Netherlands as Duke of Burgundy from 1506. Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Low Countries and Austria, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas. The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V, spanning over nearly 4 million square kilometres, was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

Between August 1528 and June 1529, intense diplomatic activities between King Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V resulted in the Treaty of Barcelona. [4]

Coat of arms of the Count of St. Pol. Armoiries Francois Ier d'Estouteville.svg
Coat of arms of the Count of St. Pol.

Battle

On 21 June 1529 King Francis I still had his troops stationed in Landriano, a region of Lombardy, near Pavia, scene of the decisive confrontation which resulted in a total French defeat in Italy. [2]

Landriano Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Landriano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Pavia in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Milan and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of Pavia.

Lombardy Region of Italy

Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi). About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy.

Pavia Comune in Lombardy, Italy

Pavia is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy in northern Italy, 35 kilometres south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po. It has a population of c. 73,000. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of the Lombards from 572 to 774.

The Count of St. Pol's reserve French troops were intercepted and neutralised by the Spanish troops commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova. [3] The French army was left destroyed, which ended Francis's hopes of regaining his hold on Italy. [5] The French commander, Francis de Bourbon, was also captured, leaving the Duchy of Milan under the complete control of the Emperor. [3]

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Duchy of Milan former duchy in Italy (1395–1447; 1450–1535)

The Duchy of Milan was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in northern Italy. It was created in 1395, when it included twenty-six towns and the wide rural area of the middle Padan Plain east of the hills of Montferrat. During much of its existence, it was wedged between Savoy to the west, Venice to the east, the Swiss Confederacy to the north, and separated from the Mediterranean by Genoa to the south. The Duchy eventually fell to Habsburg Austria with the Treaty of Baden (1714), concluding the War of the Spanish Succession. The Duchy remained an Austrian possession until 1796, when a French army under Napoleon Bonaparte conquered it, and it ceased to exist a year later as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, when Austria ceded it to the new Cisalpine Republic.

Hostilities continued however, although without any French participation, with the Imperial–Spanish army led by Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange, against the Republic of Florence and installing Alessandro de' Medici as the ruler of Florence. [6]

Republic of Florence City-state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1115 and 1532

The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany. The republic originated in 1115, when the Florentine people rebelled against the Margraviate of Tuscany upon the death of Matilda of Tuscany, a woman who controlled vast territories that included Florence. The Florentines formed a commune in her successors' place. The republic was ruled by a council known as the Signoria of Florence. The signoria was chosen by the gonfaloniere, who was elected every two months by Florentine guild members. The Republic, despite having a large degree of autonomy, was formally part of the Holy Roman Empire throughout its existence.

Florence Capital and most populous city of the Italian region of Tuscany

Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.

Aftermath

With France's defeat in Landriano and the Treaty of Barcelona, Francis I of France felt obliged to begin negotiations with the Emperor. [2]

On 3 August, the King of France's mother, Louise of Savoy, and the Emperor's aunt, Margaret of Austria, signed the Treaty of Cambrai. [2] Francis obtained the restitution of his sons, [3] but on the condition that he had to abandon Italy, [3] persuade the Venetians and the Duke of Ferrara to restore the occupied lands to the Emperor and the Pope Clement VII, [3] not to interfere in the affairs of Italy and Germany, [3] and to cooperate in the fight against the Protestants, [3] to provide compensation of 200,000 ducats [3] and send 4 ships, 12 galleys and 4 galleons for when the Emperor planned to go to Italy for his coronation. [3]

The Treaty made no reference to the Duchy of Burgundy, evening out with this silence the humiliating situation that was put to Francis in the Treaty of Madrid. [2] [3]

See also

Notes

  1. M. Galandra: The Italian Wars
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Arthur Hassall p.105
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cadenas y Vincent p.290
  4. 1 2 3 Cadenas y Vincent p.289
  5. Blockmans V.63
  6. Guicciardini. The History of Italy p.432

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References

Coordinates: 45°19′00″N9°16′00″E / 45.3167°N 9.2667°E / 45.3167; 9.2667