Battle of Mühlberg

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Battle of Mühlberg
Part of the Schmalkaldic War
Schlacht bei Muhlberg 1547.jpg
The Battle of Mühlberg by Luis de Ávila y Zúñiga (1550)
Date24 April 1547
Location
51°25′59″N13°13′00″E / 51.43306°N 13.21667°E / 51.43306; 13.21667 Coordinates: 51°25′59″N13°13′00″E / 51.43306°N 13.21667°E / 51.43306; 13.21667
Result Decisive Imperial-Spanish victory [1] [ page needed ] [2] [ page needed ] [3]
Belligerents

Schmalkaldic League:

Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V:

Commanders and leaders
Flag of Electoral Saxony.svg John Frederick I   (POW)
Flag of Hesse.svg Philip I   (POW)
Grunwald Slupsk i Szczecin.svg Philip I
Flag of Anhalt Duchies.png Wolfgang
Arms of Archduke Charles of Austria as Spanish Royal Pretender.svg Charles V
Arms of Archduke Charles of Austria as Spanish Royal Pretender.svg Duke of Alba
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor (after 1400).svg Ferdinand I
Flag of Electoral Saxony.svg Maurice of Wettin
Flag of Cross of Burgundy.svg Gian Giacomo Medici
Strength
6,000 infantry [4] and 3,000 cavalry (15 guns) 16-20,000 infantry (depending on the sources) and 4,500 cavalry (20 guns)
Casualties and losses
2-3,000 dead or wounded
500 knights [5]
1,000 prisoners [1] [ page needed ]
around 50 dead or wounded [6] [7]

The Battle of Mühlberg took place near Mühlberg in the Electorate of Saxony in 1547, during the Schmalkaldic War. The Catholic princes of the Holy Roman Empire led by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V decisively defeated the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League of Protestant princes under the command of Elector John Frederick I of Saxony and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. [1] [ page needed ] [2] [ page needed ]

Mühlberg, Brandenburg Place in Brandenburg, Germany

Mühlberg is a town in the Elbe-Elster district, in the southwesternmost part of Brandenburg, Germany. It is located on the right bank of the river Elbe, about halfway between Riesa to the south and Torgau to the northwest. It is about 60 km east of Leipzig. It is accessed by the Bundesstraße 182 on the left bank of the Elbe, connected with the town by a bridge, opened in 2008. Mühlberg consists of the Ortsteile Mühlberg, Altenau, Brottewitz, Fichtenberg, Koßdorf and Martinskirchen.

Electorate of Saxony State of the Holy Roman Empire, established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate 1356

The Electorate of Saxony was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was feoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal residence up the river Elbe to Dresden. After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin Electors raised Saxony to a territorially reduced kingdom.

Schmalkaldic War conflict

The Schmalkaldic War refers to the short period of violence from 1546 until 1547 between the forces of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, commanded by the Duke of Alba and the Duke of Saxony, and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League within the domains of the Holy Roman Empire.

Contents

The battle ended the Schmalkaldic war and led to the dissolution of the Schmalkaldic League. [3]

Background

The spread of the Protestant Reformation in Germany after 1517 represented a major obstacle to the universalistic projects of Charles V, the Habsburg emperor. Attempts at reconciliation between Lutherans and Catholics at the diets of Speyer of 1526 and 1529 had failed, sharpening the mutual opposition between the two opposing sides.

Reformation Schism within the Christian Church in the 16th century

The Reformation was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholic Church and the nascent Luther until the 1521 Edict of Worms. The edict condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas. The end of the Reformation era is disputed: it could be considered to end with the enactment of the confessions of faith which began the Age of Orthodoxy. Other suggested ending years relate to the Counter-Reformation, the Peace of Westphalia, or that it never ended since there are still Protestants today.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 16th-century Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519, King of Spain from 1516, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506. Head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Furthermore, his reign encompassed both the long-lasting Spanish and short-lived German colonizations of the Americas. The personal union of the European and American territories of Charles V was the first collection of realms labelled "the empire on which the sun never sets".

Lutheranism form of Protestantism commonly associated with the teachings of Martin Luther

Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity.

The Reformation offered to most independent German states the pretext to affirm their autonomy not only on the religious level, but also on the political one. For some of these small states, belonging to the Holy Roman Empire (a political reality that had been fragmented for centuries) was indeed considered not much more than a mere formal act.

Holy Roman Empire Complex of territories in Europe from 962 to 1806

The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also included the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia and Kingdom of Italy, plus numerous other territories, and soon after the Kingdom of Burgundy was added. Its size gradually diminished over time, particularly from 1648 onward, and by the time of its dissolution, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia which was bordered by the German lands on three sides.

In 1531 some princes (most notably Philip I of Hesse and John Frederick, Elector of Saxony) were opposed to the Emperor's attempt to restore religious and political unity in the German lands through the re-proposal of the Worms Edict. This led to the formation of the Schmalkaldic League [8] (named after the town of Schmalkalden in Thuringia where the pact was stipulated), a militarily defensive alliance with a markedly anti-Habsburg and anti-Catholic stance.

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse Landgrave of Hesse

Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, nicknamed der Großmütige, was a champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany.

John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony Elector of Saxony

Johann Frederick I, called Johann the Magnanimous, was Elector of Saxony (1532-1547) and head of the Schmalkaldic League.

Diet of Worms An imperial diet of the Holy Roman Empire

The Diet of Worms 1521 was an imperial diet (assembly) of the Holy Roman Empire called by King Charles V. It was held at the Heylshof Garden in Worms, then an Imperial Free City of the Empire. An imperial diet was a formal deliberative assembly of the whole Empire. This one is most memorable for the Edict of Worms, which addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. It was conducted from 28 January to 25 May 1521, with the Emperor Charles V presiding.

Although the birth of a Protestant coalition inside the Empire imperilled his power, Charles V did not initially attack the League. The League meanwhile received support from several free cities (Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Ulm and Strasbourg), wishing to affirm their independence from the central power. The Protestant princes could also count on the support of the Kingdom of France, Charles' main foreign enemy. In need of the military support of the German states in his war against the Ottoman Turks in the eastern regions of his lands, the Emperor choose not to oppose the League and to grant wide autonomy to it. The Protestant leaders were therefore left free to support the Reformation and to fight the power of the Catholic bishops in the lands they controlled.

The conditions that forced Charles V to accept the actions of the League changed after a few years. In 1544 the signing of the Treaty of Crépy ended after decades the conflicts between the Emperor and Francis I of France for the control of the Italian peninsula. After the treaty the League lost the support of the French. Martin Luther's death in 1546 and the temporary cessation of the Turkish threat from the east also put Charles in the best possible condition to focus on the internal enemy that endangered the religious and territorial unity of Imperial Germany.

The opportunity to begin the conflict was given by the rivalry between the elector of Saxony John Frederick I and his cousin Maurice, both belonging to the House of Wettin. Despite his Protestant faith, Maurice had in 1542 refused to join the Schmalkaldic League. In 1546, with the assistance of Ferdinand I, the younger brother of Charles V, Maurice invaded the territory of John Frederick. [9] When the attack begun John Frederick's armies were in Württemberg, but they managed to move to the occupied lands and repel Maurice's forces. [10]

The Emperor decided to take advantage of the divisions between the Protestant armies, and he joined the war in 1547. He occupied Ulm and Württemberg and defeated the Palatine Elector, forcing him to surrender and to leave the League. With the beginning of spring Charles then marched toward Saxony to help Maurice's army and to end his clash with John Frederick, the last Protestant prince still opposing him.

Battle

Titian's Equestrian Portrait of Charles I of Spain and V of the Holy Roman Empire (1548) celebrates Charles' victory at Muhlberg Carlos V en Muhlberg, by Titian, from Prado in Google Earth.jpg
Titian's Equestrian Portrait of Charles I of Spain and V of the Holy Roman Empire (1548) celebrates Charles' victory at Mühlberg

Charles was suffering from gout at that time and his army had to face the desertion of the Papal soldiers that had helped him in the first part of the campaign. [11] In addition the Saxon Elector's army was larger than Charles' forces. However, hoping to encourage a Protestant and anti-imperial uprising in Bohemia, John Frederick took the decision to split his forces and he deployed a large portion of his troops there. [12]

He had also left some small detachments to protect the most vulnerable Saxon cities in order to prevent the entry of Charles' army from the south. With the intention of reaching the well-defended stronghold of Wittenberg, the Elector then marched northwards, abandoning his position in Meissen and camping at the end of April at the town of Mühlberg, leaving only a few troops as guards on the bank of the Elbe river, that he considered too wide to be easily crossed by the imperial forces.

At the head of his army, Charles V arrived at the Elbe on the evening of 23 April. Despite the contrary opinion of his generals, he decided to attack the enemy forces, resting just a few miles away. At dawn on 24 April the first avant-gardes of the imperial army advanced, looking for a way for all the army to cross the river. Helped by the surprise and by the dense fog that had risen from the river, small groups of Spanish and Italian veteran soldiers managed to swim across the river and eliminate the few Saxon troops that were guarding the other side.

Meanwhile, some troops of the tercios of Lombardy and Naples, that were the most experienced soldiers in Charles' army, followed a plan set by Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba [13] and commander-in-chief of the Imperial troops in Germany [2] [ page needed ] and with the help of a local farmer, [14] they managed to spot a ford to use that would allow all the army to cross the Elbe. In addition to this, some veteran soldiers were able to prevent the demolition of a pontoon bridge built by the Saxons, [11] that was immediately used by the Imperial cavalry to pass safely to the other shore.

According to some sources [15] John Frederick had considered an attack from Charles so unlikely that he would have ordered several commanders of his army to go to Mass just when the enemy army was about to complete the crossing of the Elbe. The Saxon forces were completely taken by surprise. As soon as he became aware of the fact, the Elector's first thought was to retreat towards Wittenberg. He soon realized though that his army would be too slow to be prepared to march in a short while; moreover, he was convinced that only a vanguard of the main imperial army was attacking. So he ordered his troops to prepare for battle.

John Frederick chose to deploy his troops along the edge of a forest, in order to prevent a possible encirclement by the imperial cavalry and to have a safer escape route in case of retreat. The emperor Charles V also reached the battlefield and exhorted his troops to fight the Protestants. Due to gout, he was carried to the battle in a litter, rather than mounted in armour on the great warhorse as depicted by his court painter, Titian [16] and assisted to the battle from the rear. [4] The imperial army was made up of about 16-20,000 men. Among them there were the tercio of Lombardy, that of Naples, and that of Hungary, led by Álvaro de Sande.

The battle began in the evening; the Saxon army, mainly made up of peasants, succeeded in repelling the first assaults of the Hungarian cavalry, but the greater number and better preparedness of Charles' soldiers, among the best in the world at that time, decided the fate of the clash. The emperor had placed his cavalry on the two wings of his army. The right wing, under the direct command of the Duke of Alba, was heavier than the left one, led by Maurice of Saxony.

Once the fragile wings of the Saxon army were defeated, the infantry tercios, placed at the center, had a good game in breaking enemy resistance, forcing the Protestants to retreat through the adjacent forest. The Elector of Saxony showed great courage on the battlefield, but was wounded in the face and captured by the imperial troops. [17] [18] The main part of his soldiers were chased and killed or captured.

Some sources report that Emperor Charles V commented on the victory with the sentence Vine, vi y venció Dios (in Spanish "I came, I saw, and God won"), a paraphrase of the famous exclamation pronounced by Julius Caesar. [19] [20] [21]

Aftermath

Battle of Muhlberg 1547 and imprisonment of elector Johann Friedrich of Saxony (painting from 1630, Deutsches Historisches Museum) 1630 Schlacht bei Muehlberg 1547 anagoria.JPG
Battle of Mühlberg 1547 and imprisonment of elector Johann Friedrich of Saxony (painting from 1630, Deutsches Historisches Museum)

The battle ended with a complete defeat of the Saxon army which suffered severe losses, estimated at around 2000-3000 men. [4] In addition the Protestants suffered the almost complete capture of their artillery, ammunition, and banners; many soldiers also ended up prisoners. On the imperial side around fifty soldiers were killed. [6] [11]

John Frederick was responsible for not preparing an adequate defense on the river Elbe, that could have prevented the imperial troops crossing it. His surrender symbolically sanctioned the end of the Schmalkaldic League. Charles decided to spare his life but he had to exchange it with the capitulation of the stronghold of Wittenberg. He was condemned as a heretic and imprisoned, and was forced to leave the electoral privilege to his cousin Maurice, who for his help in the imperial victory was given the control of the Electorate of Saxony. John Frederick was later released in 1552, [22] two years before his death.

The surrender of Philip of Hesse soon afterwards ended the Schmalkaldic War, but the Protestant problem remained unsolved. Many of the princes and key reformers, such as Martin Bucer, fled to England, where they directly influenced the English Reformation. [23] The peace reached between Catholic and Protestants in Germany (Augsburg Interim, 1548) was not enough to bring peace inside the Empire and only in 1555 the Peace of Augsburg stated the end of the wars of religion in the Empire, allowing each ruler to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. That principle ended the project to reunite Germany under a single religious confession.

The town of Mühlberg hosts a small museum dedicated to the battle. [24]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 History of Hungary (1526–1686)
  2. 1 2 3 Blockmans. Emperor Charles V (1500–1558)
  3. 1 2 Sandler, Stanley (2002). Ground warfare - An international encyclopaedia. Denver-Santa Barbara: ABC Clio. p. 598. ISBN   1-57607-733-0.
  4. 1 2 3 Staffa, Giuseppe (2015). I grandi imperatori - Storia e segreti [The great emperors - History and secrets] (in Italian). Rome: Newton Compton. ISBN   978-88-541-8650-7.
  5. De Leva, Giuseppe (1867). Storia documentata di Carlo V in relazione all'Italia [Documented history of Charles V in regard to Italy] (in Italian). III. Venice: P. Naratovich premium typography. p. 303.
  6. 1 2 Robertson, William I. (1824). Storia del regno dell'Imperatore Carlo Quinto [History of the kingdom of the emperor Charles the Fifth]. III. Milan: N. Bettoni publisher. p. 250.
  7. Gerosa, Guido (1989). Carlo V - Un sovrano per due mondi[Charles V - A sovereign for two worlds] (in Italian). Milan: Mondadori. p. 340. ISBN   88-04-33026-0.
  8. Brancati, A.; Pagliarani, T. "Chapter 21: L'Impero di Carlo V, una formazione anacronistica, Dialogo con la storia". La riforma si diffonde nell'Impero[The Reformation spreads into the Empire] (in Italian). Florence: La Nuova Italia. p. 282.
  9. Robertson, p. 211
  10. Robertson, p. 217
  11. 1 2 3 Gerosa, p. 339
  12. Robertson, p. 245
  13. "La batalla de Mühlberg, 1547". ejercitodeflandes.blogspot.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  14. Robertson, p. 246
  15. De Leva, p. 301
  16. "Le insegne della battaglia di Mühlberg 1547" [Battle of Mühlberg insignia]. stemmieimprese.it (in Italian). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  17. Robertson, p. 249
  18. De Leva, p. 303
  19. P. Garcia Luzaces (24 April 2011). "1547:La batalla de Mühlberg:?«Vine, vi y venció Dios»". blogs.libertaddigital.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  20. De Leva, p. 305
  21. de Medrano, Manuel José (1741). Continuacion de la historia general de España: desde el año de mil quinientos y diez y seis en que acabó la suya el R. Padre Juan de Mariana ..., hasta el de mil y setecientos [General history of Spain: from the year 1516 until 1600] (in Spanish). p. 484.
  22. Pagnozzi, Giuseppe R. (1824). Geografia moderna universale, ovvero descrizione fisica statistica, topografica di tutti i paesi conosciuti della terra [Universal modern geography - physical and statistical description of all the known countries of the world] (in Italian). Florence: V. Batelli. p. 271.
  23. Hall, Basil (1994), "Martin Bucer in England", in Wright, D. F. (ed.), Martin Bucer: Reforming church and community, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154–158, ISBN   0-521-39144-X
  24. "Museum Mühlberg 1547". www.luther2017.de. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 18 August 2018.

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References