Battle of Millarapue

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Battle of Millarapue
Part of Arauco War
DateNovember 30, 1557
Location
Vicinity of Millarapue, Arauco, Chile
Result Spanish Victory
Belligerents
Flag of New Spain.svg Spanish Empire Lautaro flag.svg Mapuche
Commanders and leaders
Flag of New Spain.svg García Hurtado de Mendoza Lautaro flag.svg Caupolicán
Lautaro flag.svg Turcupichun [1]
Strength
more than 600 Spaniards [2] more than 20,000 Mapuche [3]
Casualties and losses
Some wounded and many horses dead. [2] 3,000 killed, 800 captured most badly injured. [2]

The Battle of Millarapue that occurred November 30, 1557 was intended by the Toqui Caupolicán as a Mapuche ambush of the Spanish army of García Hurtado de Mendoza that resulted in a Spanish victory when the ambush failed.

Contents

History

After the victory of the Spanish arms in the Battle of Lagunillas, Mendoza went into the hostile territory of Arauco looking for a decisive battle. The Spanish royal forces encamped at Millarapue on November 29. The Mapuche army under Caupolicán tried an ambush at dawn on November 30, attempting to surprise the enemy camp. That day was the day of San Andres celebrated among the Spaniards and a celebratory morning call of trumpets was interpreted by the Araucanians as an alarm. Believing their ambush detected Caupolicán ordered his army to advance to the attack. Leading some Mapuche warriors from the front was Galvarino, with his handless arms urging on his comrades. The battle was brutal and fierce. The Battle of Millarapue lasted from dawn to early afternoon. Finally the Mapuches were defeated, losing 3,000 dead and 800 captured. Captured leaders were hanged, and Galvarino, captured again, was thrown to the dogs. [4] Following the victory the Spanish advanced to Tucapel and settled down to build the fort of Cañete, not very far from where Valdivia's old fort of Tucapel had been located.

Additional informations

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Galvarino

Galvarino was a famous Mapuche warrior during the majority of the early part of the Arauco War. He fought and was taken prisoner along with one hundred and fifty other Mapuche, in the Battle of Lagunillas against governor García Hurtado de Mendoza. As punishment for insurrection, some of these prisoners were condemned to amputation of their right hand and nose, while others such as Galvarino had both hands cut off. Galvarino and the rest were then released as a lesson and warning for the rest of the Mapuche. Mendoza sent him to inform general Caupolicán of the number and quality of the people which had entered their land again, to put some fear into him, among other means that were tried, so that he might submit without coming to blows.

Illangulién, Quiromanite, Queupulien or Antiguenu, was the Mapuche toqui elected to replace Lemucaguin or Caupolicán the younger in 1559 following the Battle of Quiapo to his death in battle in the Battle of Angol in 1564.

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Cadeguala or Cadiguala was a Mapuche toqui elected in 1585 following the death in battle of the previous toqui Nangoniel. Cadeguala was a noted warrior and the first Mapuche toqui known to have used cavalry successfully in battle. He was killed in a duel with the garrison commander of the Spanish fort at Purén in 1586.

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Battle of Quiapo in the Arauco War was the final battle in the campaign of García Hurtado de Mendoza against the Mapuche under the toqui known as Lemucaguin or Caupolicán the younger. It was fought in Quiapo, Arauco Province, Chile on December 13, 1558.

During the Siege of Concepcion of the Arauco War, 20,000 warriors of the army of the Mapuche laid siege to the Spanish garrison and civil population in the fortress of Concepcion, Chile.

Millalelmo or Millarelmo was a Mapuche military leader in the second great Mapuche rebellion that began in 1561 during the Arauco War. Probably the toqui of the Arauco region, he commanded the Mapuche army of that area at the siege of Arauco from May 20 to June 30, 1562.

Pedro de Avendaño a Spanish soldier that had arrived in Chile with the army of García Hurtado de Mendoza in 1557. He distinguished himself in the Battle of Millarapue. He later served in the garrison of Cañete under captain Alonso de Reinoso. Reinoso eventually found an Indian who betrayed the location of the fugitive Mapuche toqui Caupolicán. Avendaño, with 50 men and the traitorous Indian as a guide, marched in stormy weather into the mountains to Pilmaiquén and captured Caupolicán as he was planning a new counter-offensive against the Spanish, near the modern Antihuala, on February 5, 1558. He brought the toqui back to Cañete where he was eventually executed by empalement at the order of corregidor Reinoso.

Turcupichun was the toqui of the Mapuche Aillarehues in the vicinity of Concepcion, Chile and the Bio-Bio River valley from 1557 to 1558. García Hurtado de Mendoza landed in early June 1557 on the island of La Quiriquina at the mouth of the bay of San Pedro. Soon afterward he sent out messengers to the local Aillarehues to come and submit to the Spanish. Turcupichun gathered them in a great coyag where he advocated resistance to the death and elected him as their toqui replacing the dead Lautaro.

Llanganabal was a Moluche toqui who led the Mapuche army that defeated the Spanish led by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa in the Battle of Catirai in 1569. In 1560 Llanganabal is listed as one of the caciques heading an encomienda along the Bio Bio River. Shortly after began the outbreak of the 1561 Mapuche revolt. By 1569 Llanganabal had risen to command the Araucan army with Millalelmo and other captains as his subordinates. To resist the Spanish who had been burning the fields and houses on the south bank of the Bio Bio, Millalelmo had built a strong fortress on a hill in Catirai in a difficult position on steep wooded slopes. Despite the warnings of Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado who had reconnoitered the position, Spaniards new to Chile and the Arauco War prevailed on Governor Melchor Bravo de Saravia to order Martín Ruiz de Gamboa to take his command and attack the place. Meanwhile, Llanganabal had gathered all his army there to resist the attack. Gamboa's force was badly defeated while attempting to attack up the steep thickly wooded hill into Llanganabal's fortified position.

The Battle of Catirai took place on January 7, 1569 near Catirai, Chile between the Mapuche army of Toqui Llanganabal and the Spanish army led by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa that resulted in a Mapuche victory.

References

  1. Diego de Rosales, “Historia General del Reino de Chile”, Flandes Indiano, Tomo II, Capitulo XII, XIII, XIV. This would seem to imply that Lautaro Turcupichun was the toqui of the northern Butalmapu of the Mapuche, as Ainavillo had been before him.
  2. 1 2 3 Lobera,Crónica del Reino de Chile, Libro 2, Capítulo IV.
  3. Lobera,Crónica del Reino de Chile, Libro 2, Capítulo IV. According to Marmolejo, Historia, Cap. XXVI, only 10,000 Mapuche in two divisions were actually engaged, a third division marching to attack the Spanish rear did not arrive in time.
  4. Vivar, Crónica, Capítulo CXXXIII

Sources