|Battle of Montiel|
|Part of the Castilian Civil War|
Miniature of the Battle of Montiel from the "Chronicles" of Jean Froissart (15th century)
| Castilians supporting Henry |
| Castilians supporting Peter |
|Commanders and leaders|
| Henry of Trastámara |
Bertrand Du Guesclin
|Peter of Castille †|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Montiel was a battle fought on 14 March 1369 between the Franco-Castilian forces supporting Henry of Trastámara and the Grenadian-Castilian forces supporting the reigning Peter of Castile.
In 1366 there was a civil war of succession in Castile. The ruling Peter of Castile's forces were pitched against those of his half brother Henry of Trastámara, a bastard of the former king. Peter was supported by England, Trastámara by the French. Edward, Prince of Wales (known as the Black Prince), in his capacity as Prince of Aquitaine, led the English forces and the French were led by Bertrand du GuesclinThe reason Edward represented Aquitaine rather than England, was to avoid the breach of a peace treaty between the French and English that was in place at the time.
The armies in support of Trastámara were defeated at the battle of Najera in 1367, but Peter of Castile lost the advantage because he did not remunerate his ally the Black Prince. The Black Prince, also affected by dysentery, withdrew his support from Peter and returned to Aquitaine.
The Franco-Castilian force was led by Bertrand du Guesclin, while Peter of Castile led a Castilian-Granadine force. The Franco-Castilians were victorious largely thanks to the enveloping tactics of du Guesclin.
After the battle, Peter fled to the castle of Montiel, where he became trapped. In an attempt to bribe Bertrand du Guesclin, Peter was lured into a trap outside his castle refuge. In the confrontation his half-brother Henry stabbed Peter multiple times. His death on 23 March 1369 marked the end of the Castilian Civil War. His victorious half-brother was crowned Henry II of Castille.
Henry made du Guesclin Duke of Molina and formed an alliance with the French King Charles V. Between 1370 and 1376, the Castilian fleet provided naval support to French campaigns against Aquitaine and the English coast while du Guesclin recaptured Poitou and Normandy from the English.
Charles II, called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.
Charles V, called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death. His reign marked an early high point for France during the Hundred Years' War, with his armies recovering much of the territory held by the English, and successfully reversed the military losses of his predecessors.
Peter, called the Cruel or the Just, was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369. Peter was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Ivrea.
Henry II, called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricidal, was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara. He became king in 1369 by defeating his half-brother, Peter the Cruel, after numerous rebellions and battles. As king he was involved in the Fernandine Wars and the Hundred Years' War.
Bertrand du Guesclin, nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and an important military commander on the French side during the Hundred Years' War. From 1370 to his death, he was Constable of France for King Charles V. Well known for his Fabian strategy, he took part in six pitched battles and won the four in which he held command.
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The Battle of Nájera, also known as the Battle of Navarrete, was fought on 3 April 1367 near Nájera, in the province of La Rioja, Castile. It was an episode of the first Castilian Civil War which confronted King Peter of Castile with his half-brother Count Henry of Trastámara who aspired to the throne; the war involved Castile in the Hundred Years' War. Castilian naval power, far superior to that of France or England, encouraged the two polities to take sides in the civil war, to gain control over the Castilian fleet.
The Battle of La Rochelle was a naval battle fought on 22 and 23 June 1372 between a Castilian fleet commanded by the Castilian Almirant Ambrosio Boccanegra and an English fleet commanded by John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. The Castilian fleet had been sent to attack the English at La Rochelle, which was being besieged by the French. Besides Boccanegra, other Castilian commanders were Cabeza de Vaca, Fernando de Peón and Ruy Díaz de Rojas.
The House of Trastámara was a dynasty of kings in Spain and in Italy, which first governed in Castile beginning in 1369 before expanding its rule into Aragon, Navarre, Naples and Sicily. They were an illegitimate cadet line of the House of Ivrea.
Sir Hugh Calveley was an English knight and commander, who took part in the Hundred Years' War, gaining fame during the War of the Breton Succession and the Castilian Civil War. He held various military posts in Brittany and Normandy. He should not be confused with his nephew, also Sir Hugh Calveley, who died in June 1393 and was Member of Parliament for Rutland.
The Caroline War was the second phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, following the Edwardian War. It was so-named after Charles V of France, who resumed the war nine years after the Treaty of Brétigny. The Kingdom of France dominated this phase of the war.
The Castilian Civil War was a war of succession over the Crown of Castile that lasted from 1351 to 1369. The conflict started after the death of king Alfonso XI of Castile in March 1350. It became part of the larger conflict then raging between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France: the Hundred Years' War. It was fought primarily in Castile and its coastal waters between the local and allied forces of the reigning king, Peter, and his illegitimate brother Henry of Trastámara over the right to the crown.
The War of the Two Peters was fought from 1356 to 1375 between the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. Its name refers to the rulers of the countries, Peter of Castile and Peter IV of Aragon. One historian has written that "all of the centuries-old lessons of border fighting were used as two evenly matched opponents dueled across frontiers that could change hands with lightning speed."
Il castello di Eymerich("Emerych's Castle") is a book written by Valerio Evangelisti, an Italian historian and writer of historical fantasy. In chronological order, it is the seventh book in a best-selling series whose central character is Nicholas Eymerich, an inquisitor of the Spanish inquisition - a historical character, whom Evangelisti adopted to his novels following a detailed research of sources concerning Emerych's figure. It has been translated into many languages, most notably German, French, Spanish and Portuguese.
The Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) was a series of conflicts in Western Europe waged between the House of Plantagenet and its cadet House of Lancaster, the rulers of the Kingdom of England, and the House of Valois over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. It was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, and the development of stronger national identities in both countries.
The Battle of Pontvallain, part of the Hundred Years' War, took place in the Sarthe region of north-west France on 4 December 1370, when a French army under Bertrand du Guesclin heavily defeated an English force which had broken away from an army commanded by Sir Robert Knolles. The French numbered 5,200 men, and the English force was approximately the same size.
Coming to power in 1369, the House of Trastámara was a lineage of rulers of the Castilian and Aragonese thrones. The line of Trastámaran royalty in Castile ruled throughout a time period of military struggle with Aragon. Their family was sustained with large amounts of inbreeding, which led to a series of disputed struggles over rightful claims to the Castilian throne. This lineage ultimately ruled in Castile from the rise to power of Henry II in 1369 through the unification of the crowns under Ferdinand and Isabella.
Diego García de Padilla was a Spanish nobleman who became Master of the Order of Calatrava. His sister María de Padilla was the mistress of King Peter of Castile, the Cruel. Padilla fought for Peter of Castile in the wars against Aragon and Granada. In the Castilian Civil War (1366–69) he went over to the side of Henry of Trastámara.
Guillaume Boitel, was a knight and the faithful companion of the French knight Bertrand Du Guesclin. He was originally sent by king Charles V of France to assist Du Guesclin during the Anglo-French war in Normandy and the Breton War of Succession between Charles de Blois and Jean de Montfort (1363-1364).