Battle of Mount Song

Last updated
Battle of Mount Song/ Ramou
Part of the Burma Campaign of World War II
ChineseSoldiersSalweenRiver.gif
Chinese Nationalist soldiers fighting near Salween River
DateJune 4, 1944 – September 7, 1944
Location
Mount Song (Chinese), Matsuyama/ Ramou (Japanese) Yunnan
Result Allied victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of the United States.svg  United States [1]
Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Japan
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Song Xilian
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Li Mi
War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Yuzo Matsuyama
Strength
20,000 1,300-strong detachment from 56th division [2] (including 300 wounded soldiers).
Casualties and losses
7,763 casualties including 4,000 killed 1,290 killed [3]
7 captured

The Battle of Mount Song (traditional Chinese :松山戰役; simplified Chinese :松山战役; pinyin :Sōng Shān Zhànyì), also known as the Battle of Ramou (拉孟の戦い), in 1944 was part of a larger campaign in southwest China during the Second World War. Chinese Nationalist forces aimed to retake the Burma Road.

Contents

Background

The Japanese Army in Southern Yunnan was at risk of being cut off by advancing British and American troops in Northern Burma. The Japanese Army aimed to block the highway for as long as possible. Constructing a series of tunnels and bunkers over a static two-year period they turned the mountain and its immediate environs into a fortress. Songshan (in Chinese) Matsuyama (in Japanese) blocked the road immediately behind the Salween River. Although the Chinese Nationalist Army crossed the river with light casualties and surrounded the Japanese garrison, they found that their offensive capability was limited because of this garrison behind their line of advance.

The Chinese forces were unaware of the depth of the Japanese defences, and their underestimation led to heavy casualties through a slow and cautious campaign. Chinese artillery strikes and US bombing runs had little effect against Japanese forces underground. Japan also set up a series of hidden pillboxes to ambush the Chinese forces.

After three months of battle, the Chinese forces finally retook Mount Song through the use of extended bombardment and an overabundance of US aid and training, as well as several tons of U.S. TNT placed in tunnels beneath the fortifications. [4] Once open the Burma Road could be used to supply China with aid via a land route.

Fall and Aftermath

The Japanese listed only one survivor, Captain Kinoshita, an artillery officer and one other soldier ordered out to communicate to the Japanese high command the night before the fall of the outpost, with apparently one other soldier. Chinese sources say 7 soldiers were captured out of the total garrison, Japanese sources do not mention prisoners.

Comfort Station

Upon the exhortations of Senior Staff Officer Masanobu Tsuji, a comfort station was established in early 1944. About 12 Japanese comfort women committed suicide towards the end of the siege after fighting alongside the Japanese garrison. Another five or six Korean comfort women were captured by Chinese and US forces. These were eventually repatriated. [5]

Significance

After the capture of the stronghold, the Burma Road could be used once again to supply China.

Although defeated, the small Japanese force, unsupplied and lacking air power or heavy artillery, held up the entire Chinese Expeditionary Army for over three months considerably lengthening the war in Burma. [6]

A memorial park was built on top of the mountain by the Chinese government, with 402 sculptures representing soldiers from the Chinese Expeditionary Force spread over an area of 190000 sq. feet. [7]

Related Research Articles

Ye Ting Chinese general

Ye Ting, born in Huiyang, Guangdong, was a Chinese military leader who played. He started out Nationalist but later joined the communists.

Hu Jun Chinese actor

Hu Jun is a Chinese actor best known for playing dramatic roles in various films and television series.

The Guangdong–Guangxi War, or the 1st and 2nd Yue-Gui Wars, occurred between the Kuomintang and the Old Guangxi Clique.

Hundred Regiments Offensive military offensive

The Hundred Regiments Offensive was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China. The battle had long been the focus of propaganda in the history of Chinese Communist Party but had become Peng Dehuai's "crime" during the Cultural Revolution. Certain issues regarding its launching and consequences are still controversial.

Cao Shui Chinese poet and writer

Cao Shui(simplified Chinese: 曹谁; traditional Chinese: 曹誰; pinyin: Cáo Shuí) born June 5, 1982, also known as Shawn Cao, courtesy name Yaou(Eurasian), pseudonym or haoLord of Tower of Babel, is a Chinese poet, novelist, screenwriter and translator. He is one of the representative figures of Chinese Contemporary Literature. He leads the great poemism movement. In his Declaration of Great Poem, he aims to integrate sacred and secular cultures, oriental and occidental cultures, ancient and modern cultures in Chinese literature. His most notable works include the Epic of Eurasia, Secret of Heaven (trilogy), and King Peacock. His works are dedicated to rebuilding a republic in which the whole humanity can live in freedom, which he always described as Eurasia, the Top of the Tower of Babel or Kunlun Mountains. So far twenty books of Cao Shui have been published, including five poem collections, three essay collections, ten novels and one hundred episodes TV series and films. He is a member of China Writers' Association, China Film Association, and China Poetry Society. He is also the editor-in-chief of Great Poem and deputy editor-in-chief of Poetry Weekly. Currently he lives in Beijing as a professional writer and screenwriter.

Akira Fujiwara was a Japanese historian. His academic speciality was modern Japanese history and he was a professor emeritus at Hitotsubashi University. In 1980 he became a member of the Science Council of Japan and was a former chairman of the Historical Science Society of Japan.

Takafusa Nakamura was a Japanese economist who was a specialist in the Japanese economy.

Throughout the Second Sino-Japanese war (1937–1945), Japanese dissidents and Japanese prisoners of war (POWs) joined the Chinese in the war against the Empire of Japan.

Dissent in the Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan refers to dissent within the Armed Forces of the Empire of Japan from the founding of the Empire of Japan in 1868 to the defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II in 1945.

Li Zhimin

Li Zhimin (李志民 or 李凤瑞 or 李明阶; pinyin:Lǐ Zhìmín or Lǐ Fèngruì or Lǐ Míngjiē; July 9, 1906 – November 16, 1987), was a general of the People's Liberation Army from Liuyang, Hunan. Li was the former political commissar and director for the Political Department of the Chinese People's Volunteers. Li was an outstanding political leader in the PLA.

Huang Dao original name Huang Duanzhang, also known as Yiming was a member of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army and the New Fourth Army. He was born in Hengfeng County, Jiangxi Province. He was the father of Huang Zhizhen, who was governor of Hubei Province under the People's Republic of China. He fought in the Chinese Civil War on the side of the Communist Party of China, being active in northern and eastern Fujian near the border with Zhejiang. He remained in southern China after the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was poisoned by the Kuomintang en route to southern Anhui.

Counter-Japanese Military and Political University organization

Counter-Japanese Military and Political University, also commonly known as Kàngdà (抗大) and Kangri Junzheng University (抗日军政大学), was a comprehensive public university located in Yan'an, Shaanxi, the headquarters of the Communist Party of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Its former site has been converted to a memorial hall.

Wang Jiadao (1916–1992) was a People's Liberation Army major general and People's Republic of China politician. He was born in Huoqiu County, Anhui Province. As a member of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, he participated in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, he was part of the Eighth Route Army. In March 1969, he was involved in the Sino-Soviet border conflict. In 1971, he was made Governor and Communist Party of China Committee Secretary of Heilongjiang Province after the dismissal of Pan Fusheng.

Chen Changhao Chinese Communist Party politician

Chen Changhao (simplified Chinese: 陈昌浩; traditional Chinese: 陳昌浩; pinyin: Chén Chānghào; 18 September 1906 – 30 July 1967) was a member of the 28 Bolsheviks and an important military figure of Zhang Guotao's 4th Red Army from Hanyang, Wuhan. Chen had also been known as Cangmu.

The 70th Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. It was created on February 2, 1942 by blending a detachment from 20th Independent Mixed Brigade to 62nd infantry brigade in Ningbo, simultaneously with the 68th and 69th divisions. Being the counter-insurgency division (C-type/hei-type) it has a backbone composed of independent infantry battalions and lacked an artillery force. The men of the division were drafted through 5th military district, located in Hiroshima Prefecture.

Lai Chuanzhu

Lai Chuanzhu (simplified Chinese: 赖传珠; traditional Chinese: 賴傳珠; pinyin: Lài Chuánzhū) or Peng Ying (鹏英) was a general of the People's Liberation Army from Gan County, Jiangxi.

Glory of Heroes or GOH, is a Chinese kickboxing promotion developed by Beijing Wanmingyang Media. The event are streamed live on iQiyi and delay broadcast every Sunday at 22:00 on Shenzhen Television.

Lu Dongsheng

Lu Dongsheng who was born in Xiangtan County, Hunan Province, China was the Chinese commander of the pistol company of the headquarters of the Fourth Red Army, the battalion commander of the pistol group, the battalion commander of the guarding battalion of the Second Red Army, the commander of Regiment Twenty-Seven of Division Seven of the Third Red Army, the political commissioner of the Independent Division of Hu'nan and Hubei Area, the commander of the Fourth Division of the Second Red Army, the commander of Force 358 of the Division 120 of the Eighth Route Army and the commander of Songjiang Military Command of Northeast People Autonomous Army. After the Northern Expedition, Anti-Encirclement Campaigns, the Great Expedition, and studying in the Soviet Union, Lu was killed by two Soviet soldiers in Ha'erbing city in 1945.

Tao Yong

Tao Yong was the Deputy Commander of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), also the Lieutenant General of the People's Liberation Army.

2nd Independent Corps of Northwestern Military Region was formed on December 19, 1949 in Zhongwei, Ningxia.

References

  1. <http://www.cbi-theater.com/roundup/roundup102644.html
  2. Part I: Ramou and To-Etsu: Gyokusai on the Burma-Yunnan Front
  3. Article about War of Resistance "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2013-03-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. <http://www.cbi-theater.com/roundup/roundup102644.html
  5. The Chrysamthemum and the Dragon, Sagara Jyunsuke, Kojinsha Press, Tokyo 2004, 菊と龍祖国への栄光の戦い、光人社、東京、2004
  6. Reflections on War in Burma, Noguchi Seiki, Kojinsha Press, Tokyo 2000, 回想ビルマ作戦,野口省己、光人社、東京、2002
  7. Ranran, Liu, ed. (September 4, 2013). "Sculptures of China Expeditionary Force Completed in Yunnan". CRIENGLISH.com. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved January 15, 2018.
Chinese
Japanese