Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen

Last updated
Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen
Part of Glyndŵr Rising
Hyddgen.jpg
Memorial to the slain of Mynydd Hyddgen
DateJune 1401
Location
Mynydd Hyddgen, in the wilds of Plynlimon (Pumlumon)
52°30′22″N3°47′49″W / 52.506°N 3.797°W / 52.506; -3.797 Coordinates: 52°30′22″N3°47′49″W / 52.506°N 3.797°W / 52.506; -3.797
Result Welsh victory
Belligerents
Arms of Owain Glyndwr.svg Welsh rebels Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders
Coat of Arms of Owain Glyndwr.svg Owain Glyndŵr Unknown
Strength
120-500 1500
Casualties and losses
Unknown 200 killed
More taken prisoner

The Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen was part of the Welsh revolt led by Owain Glyndŵr against English rule that lasted from 1400 to 1415 and the battle occurred in June 1401. Its location was on the western slopes of Pumlumon, near to the present-day Ceredigion/Powys boundary.

Contents

The two armies

The settlers were reinforced by a large force of English soldiers and Flemish mercenaries. This was Owain's early base as his rebellion started and spread. It is estimated that his force at this stage amounted to five hundred men, just a third of the attacking force and some records, such as the 'Annals of Owen Glyn Dwr' written by Gruffydd Hiraethog many years later in 1550 and based on earlier accounts that have not survived, put his force at just 120 men. [1] It is thought that Owain's force would have been made up mostly of archers mounted on hill ponies that would have been well suited for travelling across boggy or mountainous regions. [1]

The English-Flemish army meanwhile would have generally consisted of infantry with some light cavalrymen supporting them. Despite having decent equipment, many of the English-Flemish soldiers were lacking in military experience, and there was a general lack of discipline within their army. [1]

The battle

The precise location of the battle is not known, and little is known of the course of the battle itself. [2] Mynydd means "mountain" in Welsh. However, it is known that Glyndŵr's army was able to fight back these attackers (despite being outnumbered and on the low ground), killing 200, chasing the main force away and making prisoners of the rest. It can be assumed that Owain's success lay in the maneuverability of his light troops. The English army (being more heavily laden) would have had more trouble traversing the marshy ground of the valley. [3]

Related Research Articles

Owain Glyndŵr Welsh rebel and prince

Owain ap Gruffydd, lord of Glyndyfrdwy, or simply Owain Glyndŵr or Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh leader who instigated a fierce and long-running yet ultimately unsuccessful war of independence with the aim of ending English rule in Wales during the Late Middle Ages. He was the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales.

Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick 14th/15th-century English noble

Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick was an English medieval nobleman and military commander.

Kingdom of Gwynedd Kingdom in north Wales

The Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

Dafydd Gam

Dafydd ap Llewelyn ap Hywel, better known as Dafydd Gam, anglicized to David or Davy Gam, was a Welsh warrior, a prominent opponent of Owain Glyndŵr. He died at the Battle of Agincourt fighting for Henry V, King of England in that victory against the French.

The Battle of Stalling Down is a battle reputed to have taken place in the late autumn or early winter of 1403, between the supporters of the Welsh leader Owain Glyndŵr and those of King Henry IV of England. It was part of the Glyndŵr Rising or Welsh Revolt of 1400–1415.

The Battle of Holmedon Hill or Battle of Homildon Hill was a conflict between English and Scottish armies on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England. The battle was recounted in Shakespeare's Henry IV, part 1. Although Humbleton Hill is the modern name of the site, over the centuries it has been variously named Homildon, Hameldun, Holmedon, and Homilheugh.

Madog ap Llywelyn was the leader of the Welsh revolt of 1294–95 against English rule. The revolt was surpassed in longevity only by the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr in the 15th century. Madog belonged to a junior branch of the House of Aberffraw and was a distant relation of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last recognised native Prince of Wales.

The Battle of Bryn Glas, was fought on 22 June 1402, near the towns of Knighton and Presteigne in Powys. It was a great victory for the Welsh under Owain Glyndŵr, and it resulted in the prolongation of the Welsh war of independence and the destabilisation of English politics for several years afterward.

Painscastle Castle

Painscastle Castle is a castle in the village of Painscastle in Powys, Wales. It lies between Builth and Hay-on-Wye, approximately 3 miles from the Wales-England border today.

Battle of Pwll Melyn

The Battle of Pwll Melyn, also known as the Battle of Usk, was part of the Welsh War of Independence against English rule that lasted from 1400 to 1415. This key battle occurred in the spring of 1405. The defeat of the Welsh rebels here was devastating and included the loss of important leaders and men. A contemporary Welsh chronicle described it as a “slaughter” and that: “It was now the tide began to turn against Owain and his men.”

Events from the 1400s in England.

Tretower Court Historic house museum in Powys, Wales

Tretower Court is a medieval fortified manor house in Wales, situated in the village of Tretower, near Crickhowell in modern-day Powys, previously within the historical county of Breconshire or Brecknockshire.

This article is about the particular significance of the century 1401–1500 to Wales and its people.

Wales in the Middle Ages period of history

Wales in the Middle Ages covers the history of the country that is now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales into the Kingdom of England in the early sixteenth century.

Glyndŵr Rising

The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against the Kingdom of England. It was the last major manifestation of a Welsh independence movement before the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542.

The Battle of Ewloe was a battle fought in July 1157 between a large army led by Henry II of England and an army led by the Welsh prince Owain Gwynedd.

The Battle of Tuthill took place at Caernarfon in north Wales on 2 November 1401 during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr. Glyndŵr's success at the Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen the previous June had provided the revolt with fresh impetus, and the battle may be seen as indicative of his determination to foster revolt in the north-west after months of relative inaction in that area. In symbolic terms, the battle is most famous as the first occasion on which Glyndŵr flew his flag bearing a golden dragon on a white field, recalling the symbolism of Uther Pendragon, and thereby more solidly drawing comparisons between his revolt and Welsh political mythology of the time, which drew heavily on the image of the mab darogan or chosen son, who would free Wales from subjugation.

Rhys ap Tudur was a Welsh nobleman and a member of the Tudor family of Penmynydd. He held positions of power on behalf of King Richard II of England, including two periods as the Sheriff of Anglesey in the 1370s and 80s. Rhys accompanied the king on a military expedition to Ireland in 1398, but in 1400 began to support the revolt of his cousin Owain Glyndŵr against King Henry IV of England. In 1401, he and his brother Gwilym ap Tudur took Conway Castle after infiltrating it, and liaised with Henry Percy prior to his own rebellion in 1403. After being outlawed by the king in 1406, Rhys was captured and executed at Chester in 1412, although later oral tradition claims he returned to Anglesey to die there.

Gwilym ap Tudur was a Welsh nobleman and a member of the Tudor family of Penmynydd. In 1401, he and his brother Rhys ap Tudur took Conwy Castle after infiltrating it, in support of their cousin Owain Glyndŵr. Gwilym was subsequently pardoned in 1413, following the execution of his brother a year earlier.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Battles for Wales: Mynydd Hyddgen - 1401". Cambria Magazine. The Owain Glyndŵr Society. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2010.
  2. Hyddgen Walk
  3. Grant (ed.), R.G. (2011). 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of History. New York. p. 212. ISBN   9780785835530 . Retrieved 8 July 2019.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)