|Battle of Rajmahal|
|Part of Mughal invasion of Bengal|
|Commanders and leaders|
5000 cavalry reinforcement
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Rajmahal was a battle that took place between the Mughal Empire and the Karrani Dynasty that ruled the Sultanate of Bengal in 16th century. The battle resulted in a decisive victory for the Mughals. During the battle, the last Sultan of Bengal, Daud Khan Karrani, was captured and later executed by the Mughals.
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, was a large empire in South Asia. It was founded in 1526 and was formally dissolved in 1857.
The Sultanate of Bengal (also known as the Bengal Sultanate; Bangalah and Shahi Bangalah was the sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. It emerged after more than a century of rule by the Delhi Sultanate. The Bengal Sultanate was a cosmopolitan and important Muslim state in Asia. Described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with, it was the first independent unified Bengali kingdom under Muslim rule. The region became widely known as Bangalah and Bengala under this kingdom. The two terms are precursors to the modern terms Bangla and Bengal. In European and Chinese accounts, the Bengal Sultanate was described as a major trading nation in the medieval period.
Daud Khan Karrani was the youngest son of the Bengali ruler Sulaiman Khan Karrani. During his father's reign, he commanded a massive army of 40,000 cavalry, 3,600 elephants, 140,000 infantry and 200 cannons. He invaded the southwestern regions of present-day India.
Hemu was a Hindu king who previously served as a general and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty during a period in Indian history when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power across North India. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Humayun and Akbar in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles for Adil Shah.
Isa Khan was a Muslim Rajput chieftain who led the Baro Bhuiyans and a Zamindar of the Bhati region in 16th-century Bengal. Throughout his reign he resisted the Mughal empire invasion. It was only after his death that the region fell totally under Mughal control.
The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta. The advancement of civilisation in Bengal dates back four millennia. The region was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Gangaridai. The Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers act as a geographic marker of the region, but also connects the region to the broader Indian subcontinent. Bengal, at times, has played an important role in the history of the Indian subcontinent.
The Nawabs of Bengal were the rulers of the then provinces of Bengal and Orissa. Between 1717 and 1772, they served as the rulers of the subah of Bengal. However, they were only nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire. Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal was betrayed in the Battle of Plassey by Mir Jafar. He lost to the British, who in 1757, installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad (throne) and established itself as a political power in Bengal.
Mir Jafar Ali Khan Bahadur was the first dependent Nawab of Bengal with support from the British East India Company. He was the second son of Sayyid Ahmad Najafi. His rule is widely considered the start of British imperialism in India and was a key step in the eventual British domination of vast areas of the subcontinent. Mir Jafar served as the commander of Bengali forces under Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, but betrayed him during the Battle of Plassey and succeeded him after the British victory in 1757. Mir Jafar received military support from the British East India Company until 1760, but failed to satisfy various British demands. In 1758, Robert Clive discovered that Jafar had made a treaty with the Dutch at Chinsurah through his agent Khoja Wajid. Dutch ships of war were also seen in the River Hooghly. Circumstances led to the Battle of Chinsurah. British company official Henry Vansittart proposed that since Jafar was unable to cope with the difficulties, Mir Qasim, Jafar's son-in-law, should act as Deputy Subahdar. In October 1760, the company forced him to abdicate in favor of Qasim. However, Qasim's independent spirit and plans to force the East India company out of his dominion led to his overthrow, and Jafar was restored as the Nawab in 1763 with the support of the company. Mir Qasim however refused to accept this and went to war against the company. Jafar ruled until his death on 5 February 1765 and lies buried at the Jafarganj Cemetery in Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.
Bengal was a directorate of the Dutch East India Company in Mughal Bengal between 1610 until the company's liquidation in 1800. It then became a colony of the Kingdom of the Netherlands until 1825, when it was relinquished to the British according to the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Dutch presence in the region started by the establishment of a trading post at Pipili in the mouth of Subarnarekha river in Odisha. The former colony is part of what is today called Dutch India. 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported from Bengal to the Dutch Empire.
Alivardi Khan was the Nawab of Bengal during 1740–1756. He toppled the Nasiri Dynasty of the Nawabs and took powers of the Nawab. He is also one of the few Mughal-era leaders known for his victory during the Battle of Burdwan against the Maratha Empire.
The Maratha Conquests were a series of conquests in the Indian subcontinent which led to the building of the Maratha Empire. These conquests were started by Shivaji in 1659 from the victory at the Battle of Pratapgad against Bijapur. The empire was interrupted by the Mughal conquests of south India by Emperor Aurangzeb and lost its independence as well as execution of their kings which continued until the death of Bahadur Shah I in 1712.
Sulaiman Khan Karrani was a ruler of Bengal since the death of his elder brother Taj Khan Karrani. According to the Riyaz-us-Salatin, he shifted the seat of government from Gaur to Tanda.
Pratapaditya was a zamindar, and later, the Hindu king of Jessore, and among the most prominent of the Baro-Bhuyan on the Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, who fought against the Mughal Empire. He ruled over a Hindu kingdom in Bengal, which, at its zenith encompassed the districts of Nadia, North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in West Bengal, as well as extending into modern-day Bangladesh from Kushtia district in north, Barisal in east and Sundarbans and Bay of Bengal to south.
Hussain Quli Beg was a Mughal General with the rank of 5000. He was entitled as Khan-i-Jahan by emperor Akbar.
Taj Khan Karrani was the founder of the Karrani dynasty, a Pashtun dynasty of Karlan-Pashtun origin that ruled Bengal, Orissa and parts of Bihar.
Munim Khan Khan-i-Khanan was a Mughal general under both emperors Humayun and Akbar. He was titled Khan-i-Khanan when Akbar appointed him as Vakil. Then in 1564 he became the Subahdar of Jaunpur. He also served as the governor of Bengal and Bihar during 1574–1575.
The Bengal Subah, was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing much of the Bengal region, which includes modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries. The state was established following the dissolution of the Islamic Bengal Sultanate, a major trading nation in the world, when the region was absorbed into one of the Gunpowder Empires. Bengal was the wealthiest and commercially the most developed province of the empire as well as in the Muslim world and its economy signalled period of proto-industrialization. The Mughals played an important role in developing modern Bengali culture and society.
The Karrani dynasty was founded in 1564 by Taj Khan Karrani, an ethnic Pashtun from the Karlani tribe. It was the last dynasty to rule the Sultanate of Bengal.
Kalapahad or Kala Pahar was a Muslim General of Gour Sultanate, who is mentioned in the Mughal Empire records as the one who attacked Jagannath Puri with his army to tear down the Konark temple. However, the general Kalapahad and his army may not have been entirely responsible. Other texts state that the temple was sacked several times by Muslim armies between the 15th and 17th centuries. Islamic texts describing the raids of Kalapahar mention his army's first attempt to destroy the temple in 1565, but they failed. They inflicted only minor damage and carried away the copper kalasa.
The Mughal invasion of Bengal was an invasion of the Sultanate of Bengal, then ruled by the Afghan Karrani dynasty, by the Mughal Empire in 1572–1576. After a series of intense battles, the Mughals eventually defeated the Sultanate of Bengal in the Battle of Raj Mahal in 1576, and annexed the region into their empire as the province of Bengal.
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