Battle of Shanggao

Last updated
Battle of Shanggao
Part of Second Sino-Japanese war
Shanggao bridge.jpg
Retaking a lost bridge.
Date14 March – 9 April 1941
Location
Result Chinese victory;
Japanese offensive repelled
Belligerents
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Merchant flag of Japan (1870).svg  Empire of Japan
Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg Luo Zhuoying War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg Korechika Anami
Units involved
Flag of the Republic of China Army.svg  National Revolutionary Army

War flag of the Imperial Japanese Army.svg  Imperial Japanese Army

  • Central China Area Army
Strength
100,000 troops in 11 divisions 65,000 troops in 3 divisions and 1 independent regiment
40 armoured cars
150 planes [1]
Casualties and losses
20,533 [1] Japanese estimate: ~5,500 [2]

Chinese estimate:
16,000 killed [3]
6,000 wounded
Total: 22,000 killed and wounded [1]

The Battle of Shanggao (simplified Chinese :上高会战; traditional Chinese :上高會戰; pinyin :Shànggāo Huìzhàn), also called Operation Kinkō (Japanese : 錦江作戦), was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Simplified Chinese characters standardized Chinese characters developed in mainland China

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore.

Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.

Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.

Contents

Battle

On March 14, 1941, the Japanese 11th army attacked the headquarters of the Chinese 19th army. Fierce fighting broke out, and a series of bloody see-saw battles continued as both sides contested the position. On March 15, after the base was lost to the Japanese, a Chinese air strike destroyed Japanese food and ammo reserves, demoralizing the Japanese and stalling their attack on the Chinese troops, who used this opportunity to dig new defensive positions. The Chinese positions now contained some 100,000 troops, in three main defensive lines of trenches and concrete-supported bunkers. Even though the Japanese still clung on to the Chinese headquarters, the Japanese commanders were determined to achieve total victory by destroying or capturing all Chinese units, and to do this, it was necessary to breach the Chinese lines.

On the 17th, the Japanese attacked the first of the three Chinese defensive lines, but were repeatedly turned back by the dug-in troops and their heavy machine-gun fire. The Japanese suffered heavy casualties that day, and the next day they advanced behind a smoke screen. The Japanese managed to get to the Chinese lines, and vicious hand-to-hand fighting broke out. Both sides suffered heavy losses, but in the end, the Japanese managed to breach the Chinese first line of defense. After capturing the first Chinese line of defense, there was a lull in the fighting as both sides tended to their wounded. The Japanese called in more reinforcements, while the Chinese rushed in troops from the third line to the second line of trenches to bolster their defense.

On March 22, the Japanese launched an air strike on the Chinese defensive line, resulting in some 100-200 Chinese dead or wounded. Then, they advanced with tanks and armored cars, followed by infantry. The Chinese inflicted heavy casualties on the Japanese armored forces, destroying approximately half of the tanks and killing the infantry behind them with small-arms fire. The Japanese were forced to retreat, and then launched a poison-gas attack. However, the Chinese had already expected this move, and had abandoned the second line of trenches and fallen back to the third line of trenches, minimizing the casualties taken from the gas attack.

On March 24, the Japanese launched an all-out assault on the Chinese, throwing in all of their remaining planes, tanks, and infantry. The Chinese responded with mortar attacks and machine-gun fire, plus their own planes to combat the Japanese planes. The losses on both sides were heavy, with experts[ who? ] thinking that both sides suffered the most casualties on that day. The Japanese had a number of advantages, including tanks, superior training, and superior weapons. However, the Chinese greatly outnumbered the Japanese, due to the Chinese general, Zhu Xiang, rushing in troops at the last moment. At the end of the day, the Chinese lines held, and the Japanese attack had been repelled. After reevaluating the situation, Japanese tacticians concluded that they could not afford to suffer any more losses from what was considered to be an inconclusive battle about the trivial matter of a Chinese headquarters, and on 1 April, they began to withdraw. In haste, the Japanese left behind many of their weapons and wounded troops. They would soon be captured by the Chinese. By 19 April the withdrawal was complete, and both sides now occupied their original positions.

In conclusion, the battle ended with a decisive victory for the Chinese forces, who were able to capture substantial amounts of military equipment and supplies, and boost the morale of the Chinese people.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 上高会战——痛歼日寇彪炳史册
  2. 児島襄(Noboru Kojima) (1988). 日中戦争 〈5〉["Sino-Japanese War 5"] (Paperback ed.). 文藝春秋. pp. 311–312. ISBN   978-4167141332.(in Japanese)
  3. "惨烈的上高之战:国军王牌74军痛歼两万日寇(4)" [Ferocious Battle at Shanggao] (in Chinese).

Coordinates: 28°11′00″N114°52′59″E / 28.1833°N 114.8830°E / 28.1833; 114.8830

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.