|Battle of St. Quentin|
|Part of the Italian Wars|
French surrender to the Duke of Savoy Emanuele Filiberto
|Kingdom of France|| Spanish Empire |
Duchy of Savoy
Kingdom of England
|Commanders and leaders|
| Duke of Nevers |
Anne de Montmorency (POW)
| Duke Emmanuel Philibert |
Ferrante I Gonzaga
Count of Egmont
|26,000|| 60,000 –80,000 |
7,000 English troops
|Casualties and losses|
|10,000 casualties (3,000 killed and 7,000 captured) or 14,000||1,000|
The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557, was a decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1551–1559 between the Kingdom of France and the Spanish Empire, at Saint-Quentin in Picardy. A Habsburg Spanish force under Duke Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy defeated a French army under the command of Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers, and Anne de Montmorency, Duke of Montmorency.
The battle took place on the Feast Day of St. Lawrence 10 August.Philibert, with his English allies, had placed St. Quentin under siege. Montmorency with a force of around 26,000 men marched to St. Quentin to relieve the city. Facing a force twice their size, Montmorency attempted to gain access to St. Quentin through a marsh, but a delayed French withdrawal allowed the Spanish to defeat the French and capture Montmorency.
During the battle the Saint-Quentin collegiate church was badly damaged by fire.
After the victory over the French at St. Quentin, "the sight of the battlefield gave Philip a permanent distaste for war"; he declined to pursue his advantage, withdrawing to the Spanish Netherlands to the north,where he had been the Governor since 1555. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ended the war two years later.
The Frenchman Martin Guerre fought in the Spanish ranks and his leg was amputated.During his long absence, another soldier famously impersonated him in Guerre's village until he returned in 1560.
Being of a grave religious bent, Philip II was aware that 10 August is the Feast of St Lawrence, a Roman deacon who was roasted on a gridiron for his Christian beliefs. Hence, in commemoration of the great victory on St Lawrence’s Day, Philip sent orders to Spain that a great palace in the shape of a gridiron should be built in the Guadarrama Mountains northwest of Madrid. Known as El Escorial, it was finally completed in 1584.[ citation needed ]
Se armó la de San Quintín ("It became the one of St. Quentin") is a Spanish proverbial phrase to describe a big dispute.
The War of the Spanish Succession was a European great power conflict that took place from 1701 to 1715. The death of childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700 led to a struggle for control of the Spanish Empire between his heirs, Philip of Anjou and Charles of Austria, and their respective supporters, among them Spain, Austria, France, the Dutch Republic, Savoy and Great Britain. Related conflicts include the 1700–1721 Great Northern War, Rákóczi's War of Independence in Hungary, the Camisards revolt in southern France, Queen Anne's War in North America and minor trade wars in India and South America.
Year 1557 (MDLVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
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Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba, known as the Grand Duke of Alba in Spain and Portugal and as the Iron Duke in the Netherlands, was a Spanish noble, general and diplomat. He was titled the 3rd Duke of Alba de Tormes, 4th Marquess of Coria, 3rd Count of Salvatierra de Tormes, 2nd Count of Piedrahita, 8th Lord of Valdecorneja, Grandee of Spain and a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. His motto in Latin was Deo patrum nostrorum.
Anne, Duke of Montmorency, Honorary Knight of the Garter was a French soldier, statesman and diplomat. He became Marshal of France and Constable of France and served five kings.
François de Montmorency, Duc de Montmorency was a French soldier, diplomat and peer who served as governor of Paris. He was Duke of Montmorency, Count of Dammartin, Baron of Châteaubriant and Lord of L'Isle-Adam, Grand Master of France, and Marshal of France. He fought for France in the Hapsburg-Valois wars and for the crown in the early French Wars of Religion before his family's rivalry with the house of Guise pushed him into rebellion in 1574. Restored to favour in 1575 he died several years later.
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The Battle of St. Quentin was a battle of the Franco-Prussian War in which Prussian forces defeated French attempts to relieve the besieged city of Paris.
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The origins of the Eighty Years' War are complicated, and have been a source of disputes amongst historians for centuries.