The Japanese offensive called 太原作戦 or the Battle of Taiyuan (Chinese :太原會戰; pinyin :Tàiyuán Huìzhàn; Wade–Giles :T'ai-yüan Hui-tsan) was a major battle fought between China and Japan named for Taiyuan (the capital of Shanxi province), which lay in the 2nd Military Region. This battle concluded in loss for the NRA, including part of Suiyuan, most of Shanxi and their most modern arsenal at Taiyuan and effectively ended large-scale regular resistance in the North China area.
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, and in the Kangxi Dictionary. The modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, and have been more or less stable since the 5th century.
Hanyu Pinyin, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892.
With these territories occupied, the Japanese obtained the coal supply in nearby Datong, but it also exposed them to attacks by the guerrilla forces of the Nationalist army including the Eighth Route Army, tying down a large number of Japanese troops which could have been diverted to other campaigns.
Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China. It is located in the Datong Basin at an elevation of 1,040 metres (3,410 ft) and borders Inner Mongolia to the north and west and Hebei to the east. It had a population of 3,318,057 during the 2010 census, of whom 1,629,035 lived in the built-up area made of the three urban districts of Chengqu, Kuangqu and Nanjiao.
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the 18th Army Group of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
In September 1937, Hideki Tojo sent the Japanese army stationed in Chahar to invade Shanxi in order to exploit its resources. The city of Datong fell, and the NRA was forced to go on the defensive, and concentrated their troops along the Great Wall in battles at places like Pingxingguan and to the east at in Niangziguan.
Hideki Tojo was a Japanese statesman and general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944. He is best known for his actions as Prime Minister during the war, such as being responsible for ordering the attack on Pearl Harbor and many war actions, which initiated war between Japan and the United States, although planning for it had begun in April 1941, before he entered office. After the end of the war, Tojo was arrested, condemned and sentenced to death for war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and hanged on December 23, 1948.
Chahar, also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar, or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of eastern Inner Mongolia. It was named after the Chahar Mongolians.
Shanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the North China region. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed here during the Spring and Autumn period.
Yan Xishan also sent troops to reinforce Shijiazhuang, but that caused a lack of personnel to defend the North China area, allowing the Japanese army to break through in the north forcing the Chinese to fall back to a new line at Xinkou. Fighting continued in October in the Battle of Xinkou until the Japanese outflanked Niangziguan in late October, compromising the Chinese defense resulting in the fall of Taiyuan.
Yan XishanIPA: [jɛ̌n ɕǐʂán]; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.
Shijiazhuang is the capital and largest city of North China's Hebei Province. Administratively a prefecture-level city, it is about 266 kilometres (165 mi) southwest of Beijing, and it administers eight districts, two county-level cities, and 12 counties.
North China is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.
The Battle of Pingxingguan, commonly called the Great Victory of Pingxingguan in Mainland China, was an engagement fought on September 25, 1937, at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War, between the Eighth Route Army of the Communist Party of China and the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Battle of Xinkou was a decisive engagement of the Taiyuan Campaign, the second of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 19 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident. After the war, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo. Their occupation lasted until the Soviet Union and Mongolia launched the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in 1945.
The Inner Mongolian Campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, the invasion of Manchuria secured the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo and in 1933, Operation Nekka detached the province of Jehol from the Republic of China. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the Imperial Japanese Army turned its attention west, towards the Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. In order to avoid overt violation of the Truce, the Japanese government used proxy armies in these campaigns while Chinese resistance was at first only provided by Anti-Japanese resistance movement forces in Chahar. The former included in the Inner Mongolian Army, the Manchukuo Imperial Army, and the Grand Han Righteous Army. Chinese government forces were overtly hostile to the anti-Japanese resistance and resisted Japanese aggression only in Suiyuan in 1936.
The Order of Battle Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Allied Army in the Inner Mongolia campaign of 1933.
This is the Battle of Pingxingguan order of battle during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Grand Han Righteous Army (大漢義軍) was a collaborationist Chinese army cooperating with the Empire of Japan in campaigns in northern China and Inner Mongolia immediately prior to the official start of hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Men Bingyue was a general in the Chinese National Revolutionary Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. As commander of the 7th Cavalry Division he participated in the Suiyuan Campaign in 1936, defeating the Japanese backed Inner Mongolian Army. After the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 he was made Commander of the 6th Cavalry Army, fighting in the Battle of Taiyuan defending Suiyuan. In 1940 he was made Deputy Commander in Chief of the 17th Army Group. In 1941, he was made Commander of the 7th Cavalry Army. He died in August 1944 in Chongqing.
Hundred Regiments Offensive
Hongort is a town (镇) of the Chahar Right Back Banner, which in turn is part of Ulanqab prefecture-level city in Inner Mongolia, China. It is located about 30 km northwest of Shangdu county. In 2000, when it was still classified as township (乡), it had 11860 inhabitants.
The Hundred Regiments Offensive was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China. The battle had long been the focus of propaganda in the history of Chinese Communist Party but had become Peng Dehuai's "crime" during the Cultural Revolution. Certain issues regarding its launching and consequences are still controversial.
The Nine Garrisons, Jiubian, or Jiuzhen, were Chinese military garrisons along the Great Wall installed by the Ming dynasty during the reign of the Hongzhi Emperor between 1487 and 1505.
Datong–Xi'an high-speed railway line or Daxi HSR is a dual-track, electrified, high-speed rail line, under construction in central China between Datong and Xi'an. It will run 859 km through Shanxi and Shaanxi Province and will accommodate trains traveling at speeds up to 250 km/h. Travel time between the two terminal cities will be reduced from 16.5 hours to about three hours. Construction began in late 2009 and is expected to cost ¥96.3 billion. The line was scheduled to be completed by 2013 or 2014.
Taiyuan Foreign Language School is a comprehensive public middle school and high school located in Taiyuan, China. It is one of the first foreign language schools in China, and one of the 17 foreign language schools that are recognized by the Ministry of Education. Locally, TFLS has one of the most competitive admission standards, and has been awarded "Key High School of Shanxi Province" and "Demonstrative High School of Shanxi Province" by Shanxi Provincial Ministry of Education.
Li Ligong is a People's Republic of China politician. He was born in Jiaocheng County, Lüliang, Shanxi. He was Communist Party of China Committee Secretary of his home province (1983–1991) and political commissar of the People's Liberation Army Shanxi Military District (1983–1985). He was a member of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (1982–1987) and 13th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (1987–1992). He was a delegate to the 7th National People's Congress (1988-1993) and 8th National People's Congress (1993–1998).
Shanxi Jincheng Anthracite Mining Group Co., Ltd. (JAMG) is a Chinese state-owned coal mining conglomerate based in Jincheng, Shanxi. It was owned by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of Shanxi Provincial People's Government. JAMG was ranked 386th in 2016 Fortune Global 500. The company also known as Jin Coal Group in China, which "Jin" was the short name of both Jincheng and Shanxi Province, as both named after the ancient Jin. Jincheng was located in one of the 13 important coal mining sites of China, namely "Jin East", which fellow state-owned enterprise Yangquan Coal Industry Group and Lu'an Mining Industry Group were also located in "Jin East".
Liu Zhonghua was a Chinese military officer. He was commander and political commissar of the PLA Navy 6th Fleet in 1953, and president of Naval Senior Institute in 1957. In 1955 he was awarded the rank of major general (shaojiang).