Battle of Ushant (1778)

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Battle of Ushant
Part of the Anglo-French War
Combat d'Ouessant juillet 1778 par Theodore Gudin.jpg
Combat d'Ouessant juillet 1778, Théodore Gudin
Date27 July 1778
Location 48°33′37″N7°22′58″W / 48.56028°N 7.38278°W / 48.56028; -7.38278
Result Indecisive
Belligerents
Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg  Great Britain Royal Standard of the King of France.svg  France
Commanders and leaders
White Ensign of Great Britain (1707-1800).svg Augustus Keppel
White Ensign of Great Britain (1707-1800).svg Hugh Palliser
Flag of the Kingdom of France (1814-1830).svg Comte d'Orvilliers
Flag of the Kingdom of France (1814-1830).svg Comte de Guichen
Strength
29 ships of the line 30 ships of the line
Casualties and losses
407 killed
789 wounded [1]
126 killed
413 wounded [1]

The Battle of Ushant (also called the First Battle of Ushant) took place on 27 July 1778, [2] and was fought during the American Revolutionary War between French and British fleets 100 miles (160 km) west of Ushant, an island at the mouth of the English Channel off the north-westernmost point of France. "Ushant" is the Anglicised pronunciation of "Ouessant".

Contents

The French commander was under orders to avoid battle if possible, in order to maintain a fleet in being. [3] The commanders of the two squadrons of the British fleet were already personally and politically at odds with each other, and failed to make a concerted attack on the French. [4]

The battle, which was the first major naval engagement in the Anglo-French War of 1778, ended indecisively with no ships lost on either side and led to recriminations and political conflicts in both countries.

Background

The British had a fleet of thirty ships-of-the-line, four frigates, and two fire-ships commanded by Admiral Augustus Keppel, in HMS Victory, which sailed from Spithead on 9 July. [5] The French fleet had thirty-two ships-of-the-line, seven frigates, five corvettes and one lugger, commanded by Vice-Admiral Comte d'Orvilliers, who had sailed from Brest on 8 July. [6] Keppel sighted the French fleet west of Ushant at just after noon on 23 July. [6] Keppel immediately ordered his battleships into line and set off in pursuit. At around 7 o'clock in the evening, the French fleet went about and began heading towards the British. Keppel, who did not wish to engage at night, had his ships hove to in response. [7] In the morning, d'Orvilliers found himself to the north-west of the British fleet and cut off from Brest, although he retained the weather gage. Two of his ships, standing to leeward, escaped into port, leaving him with thirty ships-of-the-line. [7] Keppel tried for three days to bring the French to action but d'Orvilliers declined, maintaining his position upwind and heading into the Atlantic. [7]

Battle

Depiction of the battle Bataille d Ouessant 1778 gravure anglaise.jpg
Depiction of the battle

At 6 a.m. on 27 July, with the British fleet roughly line-abreast, Keppel gave the order for the rear division, several miles away under Sir Hugh Palliser, to chase to windward. At 9 a.m., the French, who had hitherto been sailing in the same direction, several miles to windward, went about once more. As the rearmost ships of the French fleet were tacking however, the wind changed allowing the British to close the gap between them and their quarry. [7] At 10:15 the British were slightly to leeward, line-ahead on the same course as the French. A little later, a change in wind direction brought about a rain squall which cleared at around 11 o'clock. A further change in wind direction to the south-west gave advantage to the British which d'Orvilliers sought to negate by ordering his ships about. The French, now heading towards the British in a loose formation, would pass slightly to windward. [8]

The French ships were a few points off the wind and d'Orvilliers ordered them close hauled which caused the French line to veer slightly away from the British. The battle began at 11:20 when the fourth French ship in the line was able to bring her guns to bear. Keppel, who wished to save his salvo for the enemy flagship, received the broadsides of six French ships without reply. Once he had engaged the 110-gun Bretagne, he continued to attack the next six ships in the French line. [8]

As the British van under Robert Harland passed the end of the French line, Harland ordered his ships about so as to chase the French rearguard, including the Sphinx. [8] Palliser's ten ships at the rear had not formed line of battle but were instead in a loose irregular formation. This was in part due to Keppel's earlier order to break off and chase the French ships to windward. Palliser's division therefore was badly mauled, having allowed itself to be attacked piecemeal. [9] At 1 p.m. Victory passed the last French ship and attempted to follow Harland but was so badly damaged in the masts and rigging that Keppel had to wear round and it was 2 p.m. before his ships were on the opposite tack. It was about this time that Palliser in Formidable emerged from the battle, downwind of Keppel's division.[ citation needed ]

Meanwhile, the French line had tacked and was now heading south on the starboard tack and threatening to pass the British fleet to leeward. The French practice of firing high into the rigging had left several of the British ships disabled and it was this group that Keppel now stood down towards whilst making the signal, 'form line of battle'. [9] By 4 p.m., Harland's division had gone about and joined Keppel's ships in line but Palliser would not or could not conform and his ships, misunderstanding Keppel's intentions, formed line with their commander, several miles upwind from the rest of the British fleet. D'Orvilliers did not however attack the British fleet while it was divided into three sections but instead continued his course, passing the British fleet to leeward. [10]

At 5 p.m., Keppel sent the sixth-rate, HMS Fox, to demand that Palliser join the main body of the fleet and when this failed, at 7, Keppel removed Palliser from the chain of command by individually signalling each ship in Palliser's division. [11] By the time those ships had joined Keppel, night had fallen and, under cover of darkness, the French fleet sailed off. By daylight the French were 20 miles away and with no chance of catching them, Keppel decided to return to Plymouth to repair his ships. [11]

Aftermath

France

The duc de Chartres, Louis Philippe II d'Orléans, a French Prince du sang, (Prince of the royal blood), who took part in the battle, requested permission to carry news of its outcome to Paris and Versailles. He arrived there early on the morning of 2 August, had Louis XVI woken and announced a victory. Chartres was widely celebrated and received a twenty-minute standing ovation when he attended the Paris Opera. An effigy of Admiral Keppel was burnt in the gardens of his family residence, the Palais-Royal. [12] Chartres then returned to Brest to rejoin the fleet. Fresh reports of the battle and Chartres' role then began to arrive in the French capital. Far from a victory, it was now reported as being at best indecisive, and Chartres was accused by d'Orvilliers of either misunderstanding or deliberately ignoring an order to engage the enemy. [13]

Chartres was soon mocked by street ballads in Paris, and the embarrassment led to his eventual resignation from the Navy. He subsequently tried to gain permission to take part in a planned invasion of Britain the following year, but he was refused by the King. [14]

The captains of Alexandre and Duc de Bourgogne, Trémigon and Rochechouart, were subject of an inquiry for their failure to take part in the battle after they got separated from the fleet in the night of 23 to 24 July. Rochechouart was also the commanding officer of the Second Division of the White-and-Blue squadron. Trémigon was admonished, and Rochechouart was cleared. [15]

Britain

A violent quarrel, exacerbated by political differences, broke out between the British commands. This led to two courts-martial, the resignation of Keppel, and great injury to the discipline of the navy. Keppel was court-martialled but cleared of misconduct in action. Much was made of the alteration of log books and missing notes. [16] Palliser was criticised by an inquiry before the affair turned into a squabble of party politics. [17]

Order of battle

British fleet

Admiral Keppel's fleet [18]
ShipGunsCommanderCasualtiesNotes
KilledWoundedTotal
Van
Monarch 74 Captain Joshua Rowley
Hector 74 Captain Sir John Hamilton
Centaur 74 Captain Phillips Cosby
Exeter 64 Captain John Neal Pleydell Nott
Duke 90Captain William Brereton
Queen 90Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Harland
Captain Isaac Prescott
Squadron flagship
Shrewsbury 74 Captain Sir John Lockhart Ross
Cumberland 74 Captain Joseph Peyton
Berwick 74 Captain Keith Stewart
Stirling Castle 64 Captain Sir Charles Douglas
Centre
Courageux 74 Captain Lord Mulgrave
Thunderer 74 Captain Robert Boyle-Walsingham
Sandwich 90Captain Richard Edwards
Valiant 74 Captain John Leveson Gower
Bienfaisant 64 Captain John MacBride
Victory 100Admiral Augustus Keppel
Rear-Admiral John Campbell (first captain)
Captain Jonathan Faulknor (second captain)
Fleet flagship
Foudroyant 80Captain John Jervis
Prince George 90Captain Sir John Lindsay
Vigilant 64 Captain Robert Kingsmill
Terrible 74 Captain Sir Richard Bickerton
Vengeance 74 Captain Michael Clements
Rear
Worcester 64 Captain Mark Robinson
Elizabeth 74 Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland
Robust 74 Captain Alexander Hood
Formidable 90Vice-Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser
Captain John Bazely
Squadron flagship
Ocean 90Captain John Laforey
America 64 Captain Lord Longford
Defiance 64 Captain Samuel Goodall
Egmont 74 Captain John Carter Allen
Ramillies 74 Captain Robert Digby
Reconnaissance and signals
Arethusa 32Captain Samuel Marshall
Proserpine 28Captain Evelyn Sutton
Milford 28Captain Sir William Burnaby
Fox 28Captain Thomas Windsor
Andromeda 28Captain Henry Bryne
Lively 20Captain Robert Biggs
Pluto 8Commander James Bradby Fireship
Vulcan 8Commander James Lloyd Fireship
Alert 12Commander William George Fairfax
Casualties: 133 killed, 373 wounded, 506 total [19]

French fleet

The French line of battle was in reversed order (the Régiment du Dauphin provided a detachment of marines during the battle). [20]

Admiral Orvilliers' fleet [20] [21] [22]
DivisionShipGunsCommanderCasualtiesNotes
KilledWoundedTotal
Escadre bleue
Third Division Diadème 74 Captain Jacques de Boutier de La Cardonnie
Conquérant 74 Chef d'Escadre François-Aymar de Monteil Division flagship
Solitaire 64 Captain Bon Chrétien de Briqueville
First Division Intrépide 74 Captain Louis-André Beaussier de Chateauvert
Saint-Esprit 80 Lieutenant-General Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
Captain Toussaint-Guillaume Picquet de la Motte
Captain Pierre de Roquefeuil-Montpeyroux
Division and Squadron flagship
Zodiaque 74 Captain Paul-Jules de la Porte-Vezins
Second Division Roland 64 Captain Jean-François Gilart de Larchantel
Robuste 74 Chef d'Escadre François Joseph Paul de Grasse Division flagship
Sphinx 64 Captain Claude-René Pâris de Soulanges
Escadre blanche
Third Division Artésien 64 Captain Charles René Dominique Sochet, Chevalier Destouches
Orient 74 Chef d'Escadre Charles Jean d'Hector Division flagship
Actionnaire 64 Captain Vincent-Joseph-Marie de Proisy de Brison
First Division Fendant 74 Captain Louis-Philippe de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil
Bretagne 110Lieutenant-General Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers
Captain Louis Guillaume de Parscau du Plessix
Division, Squadron and Fleet flagship
Magnifique 74 Captain François-Louis de Brach
Second Division Actif 74 Captain Thomas d'Estienne d'Orves
Ville de Paris 90Chef d'Escadre Luc Urbain de Bouëxic, comte de Guichen
Captain Antoine de Thomassin de Peynier
Division flagship
Réfléchi 64 Captain Armand-François Cillart de Suville
Escadre blanche et bleue
Third Division Vengeur 64 Captain Claude-François Renart d'Amblimont
Glorieux 74 Chef d'Escadre Antoine Hilarion de Beausset Division flagship
Indien 64 Captain Charles-Marie de La Grandière
First Division Palmier 74 Captain Henry-César Boscal de Réals
Couronne 80 Lieutenant-General Louis Charles du Chaffault de Besné  ( WIA )
Captain Jean-Michel Huon de Kermadec
Division and Squadron flagship. [22] First officer Bessey de la Vouste killed. [23]
Bien-Aimé 74 Captain Marcel-Ambroise d’Aubenton
Second Division [Note 1] Éveillé 64 Captain Nicholas-Hyacinthe de Botderu
Amphion 50Captain Jean François Denis de Keredern de Trobriand
Dauphin Royal 70Captain Armand-Claude Poute de Nieuil
Reserve
Reserve Triton 64 Captain Gaspard de Ligondès
Saint Michel 64 Captain Claude Mithon de Genouilly
Fier 50Captain Jean-Baptiste Turpin du Breuil
Reconnaissance and signals
Frigates Junon 32
Sibylle 32
Fortunée 32
Résolue 32
Sensible 32
Nymphe 32
Danaé 32
Corvettes and lighter units Sylphide 12
Hirondelle 12
Lunette 4
Curieuse 10
Favorite 10
Espiègle 4 or 6
Casualties: 163 killed, 517 wounded, 680 total [24]

Notes

  1. The Second Division of the White-and-Blue squadron was under Chef d'Escadre Étienne-Pierre de Rochechouart, with his flag on Duc de Bourgogne, [15] who had detached from the fleet. [22]

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References

  1. 1 2 Chack 2001, p. 398.
  2. "1st Battle of Ushant, 27th July 1778". Three Decks' Forum. Simon Harrison.
  3. Mahan 1913, p. 83.
  4. "The indecisive Battle of Ushant 1778". The Dawlish Chronicles. 19 October 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  5. The Defence of Admiral Keppel. J. Almon. 1779.
  6. 1 2 Syrett 1998, p. 40.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Syrett 1998, p. 41.
  8. 1 2 3 Syrett 1998, p. 42.
  9. 1 2 Syrett 1998, p. 43.
  10. Syrett 1998, pp. 43–44.
  11. 1 2 Syrett 1998, p. 44.
  12. Ambrose 2008, p. 76.
  13. Ambrose 2008, pp. 76–77.
  14. Ambrose 2008, p. 79.
  15. 1 2 Naval History Division (2019), p. 1130.
  16. Blandemore 1779, passim.
  17. Rodger 2005, pp. 337–338.
  18. Clowes (1898), p. 415.
  19. Clowes (1898), p. 422.
  20. 1 2 Troude (1867), p. 7.
  21. Lacour-Gayet (1905), pp. 615–617.
  22. 1 2 3 Chack (2001), p. 379.
  23. Lacour-Gayet (1905), p. 615-617.
  24. Lacour-Gayet (1905), p. 132.

Sources