Battle of the Golden Spurs

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Battle of the Golden Spurs
Part of the Franco-Flemish War
Battle of Courtrai2.jpg
Depiction from the Grandes Chroniques de France
Date11 July 1302 [1]
Location
50°49′44″N3°16′34″E / 50.829°N 3.276°E / 50.829; 3.276 Coordinates: 50°49′44″N3°16′34″E / 50.829°N 3.276°E / 50.829; 3.276
Result Flemish victory
Belligerents
Blason Comte-de-Flandre.svg County of Flanders Arms of the Kings of France (France Ancien).svg Kingdom of France
Commanders and leaders
William of Jülich
Coat of arms of Zeeland.svg Guy of Namur
Pieter de Coninck
Jan Borluut
Jan van Renesse.svg Jan van Renesse
Arms of Robert dArtois.svg Robert II of Artois   [2]
Strength
8,400–10,400
8,000–10,000 militia infantry [3] [2]
400 men-at-arms [2]
8,000–8,500
1,000 pikemen [2]
1,000 crossbowmen [2]
3,500 assorted infantry [2]
2,500–3,000 men-at-arms
and knights [2] [3]
Casualties and losses
c.100–300 killed [4] c.1,000–1,500 men-at-arms and knights killed [5] [6]
Belgium relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Battlefield on a map of modern Belgium

The Battle of the Golden Spurs (Flemish : Guldensporenslag; French : Bataille des éperons d'or) was a military confrontation between the royal army of France and rebellious forces of the County of Flanders on 11 July 1302 during the Franco-Flemish War (1297–1305). It took place near the town of Kortrijk (Courtrai) in modern-day Belgium and resulted in an unexpected victory for the Flemish. It is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Courtrai.

Flemish variety of the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders (Belgium)

Flemish (Vlaams) also called Flemish Dutch (Vlaams-Nederlands), Belgian Dutch, or Southern Dutch (Zuid-Nederlands), is a Lower Franconian / Dutch dialect. It is spoken in the whole northern region of Belgium as well as French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people. The term is used in at least five ways. These are:

  1. as an indication of Dutch written and spoken in Flanders including the Dutch standard language as well as the non-standardized dialects, including intermediate languages between dialect and standard. Some linguists avoid the term Flemish in this context and prefer the designation Belgian-Dutch or South-Dutch.
  2. as a synonym for the so-called intermediate language in Flanders region, the Tussentaal.
  3. as an indication for the non-standardized dialects and regiolects of Flanders region.
  4. as an indication of the non-standardized dialects of only the former County of Flanders, ie the current provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, Zeelandic Flanders and Frans-Vlaanderen.
  5. as an indication of the non-standardized West Flemish dialects of the province of West Flanders, the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders and French Frans-Vlaanderen.
French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Contents

On 18 May 1302, after two years of French military occupation and several years of unrest, many cities in Flanders revolted against French rule and massacred many Frenchmen in the city of Bruges. King Philip IV of France immediately organized an expedition of 8,000 troops, including 2,500 men-at-arms, under Count Robert II of Artois to put down the rebellion. Meanwhile, 9,400 men from the civic militias of several Flemish cities were assembled to counter the expected French attack.

Bruges Municipality in Flemish Community, Belgium

Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country, and the seventh largest city of the country by population.

Philip IV of France King of France 1285–1314

Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 until his death. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Man-at-arms Armoured medieval soldier

A man-at-arms was a soldier of the High Medieval to Renaissance periods who was typically well-versed in the use of arms and served as a fully armoured heavy cavalryman. A man-at-arms could be a knight or nobleman, a member of a knight or nobleman's retinue or a mercenary in a company under a mercenary captain. Such men could serve for pay or through a feudal obligation. The terms knight and man-at-arms are often used interchangeably, but while all knights equipped for war certainly were men-at-arms, not all men-at-arms were knights.

When the two armies met outside the city of Kortrijk on 11 July, the cavalry charges of the mounted French men-at-arms proved unable to defeat the mail-armoured and well-trained Flemish militia infantry's pike formation on the battlefield. The result was a rout of the French nobles, who suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Flemish. The 500 pairs of spurs that were captured from the French horsemen gave the battle its popular name. The battle was a famous early example of an all-infantry army overcoming an army that depended on the shock attacks of heavy cavalry.

Military education and training training for military activities

Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles. It begins with recruit training, proceeds to education and training specific to military roles, and may also include additional training during a military career. Military training may be voluntary or compulsory duty.

Infantry military service branch that specializes in combat by individuals on foot

Infantry is a military specialization that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers or infanteers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress.

Pike (weapon) pole weapon

A pike is a pole weapon, a very long thrusting spear formerly used extensively by infantry. Pikes were used regularly in European warfare from the Late Middle Ages to the early 18th century, and were wielded by foot soldiers deployed in close quarters, until their replacement by the bayonet. The pike found extensive use with Landsknecht armies and Swiss mercenaries, who employed it as their main weapon and used it in pike square formations. A similar weapon, the sarissa, was also used by Alexander the Great's Macedonian phalanx infantry to great effect. Generally, a spear becomes a pike when it is too long to be wielded with one hand in combat.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, the Battle of the Golden Spurs became an important cultural reference point for the Flemish Movement. In 1973, the date of the battle was chosen to be the date of the official holiday of the Flemish Community in Belgium.

Flemish Movement political movement for emancipation and greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders

The Flemish Movement is the political movement for greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language, for the overall protection of Flemish culture and history, and in some cases, for splitting from Belgium and forming an independent state.

The Day of the Flemish Community of Belgium is an annual commemoration in the Flemish Community in Belgium on 11 July which marks the anniversary of the Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag) in 1302.

Background

The origins of the Franco-Flemish War (1297–1305) can be traced back to the accession of Philip IV "the Fair" to the French throne in 1285. Philip hoped to reassert control over the County of Flanders, a semi-independent polity notionally part of the Kingdom of France, and possibly even to annex it into the crown lands of France. [7] In the 1290s, Philip attempted to gain support from the Flemish aristocracy and succeeded in winning the allegiance of some local notables, including John of Avesnes (Count of Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland). He was opposed by a faction led by the Flemish knight Guy of Dampierre who attempted to form a marriage alliance with the English against Philip. [8] In Flanders, however, many of the cities were split into factions known as the "Lilies" (Leliaerts), who were pro-French, and the "Claws" (Clauwaerts), led by Pieter de Coninck in Bruges, who advocated independence. [9]

Franco-Flemish War conflict

The Franco-Flemish War was a conflict between the Kingdom of France and the County of Flanders between 1297 and 1305.

County of Flanders French fiefdom and historic territory in the Low Countries

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords.

The Flemish line of battle as depicted on the Courtrai Chest Goedendag on chest of Kortrijk.jpg
The Flemish line of battle as depicted on the Courtrai Chest

In June 1297, the French invaded Flanders and gained some rapid successes. The English, under Edward I, withdrew to face a war with Scotland and the Flemish and French signed a temporary armistice in 1297, the Truce of Sint-Baafs-Vijve, which halted the conflict. [10] In January 1300, when the truce expired, the French invaded Flanders again and by May were in total control of the county. Guy of Dampierre was imprisoned and Philip himself toured Flanders making administrative changes. [11]

Edward I of England 13th and 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Edward I, also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved from an early age in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and defeated the baronial leader Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Evesham in 1265. Within two years the rebellion was extinguished and, with England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 19 August.

First War of Scottish Independence war between English and Scottish forces

The First War of Scottish Independence was the initial chapter of engagements in a series of warring periods between English and Scottish forces lasting from the invasion by England in 1296 until the de jure restoration of Scottish independence with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. De facto independence was established in 1314 at the Battle of Bannockburn. England attempted to establish its authority over Scotland while the Scots fought to keep English rule and authority out of Scotland.

After Philip left Flanders, unrest broke out again in the Flemish city of Bruges directed against the French governor of Flanders, Jacques de Châtillon. On 18 May 1302, rebellious citizens who had fled Bruges returned to the city and murdered every Frenchman they could find, an act known as the Bruges Matins . [12] With Guy of Dampierre still imprisoned, command of the rebellion was taken by John and Guy of Namur. [12] Most of the towns of the County of Flanders agreed to join the Bruges rebellion except for the city of Ghent which refused to take part. Most of the Flemish nobility also took the French side, [12] fearful of what had become an attempt to take power by the lower classes.[ citation needed ]

Forces

In order to quell the revolt, Philip sent a powerful force led by Count Robert II of Artois to march on Bruges. Against the French, the Flemish under William of Jülich fielded a largely infantry force which was drawn mainly from Bruges, West Flanders and the east of the county. The city of Ypres sent a contingent of five hundred men under Jan van Renesse, and despite their city's refusal to join the revolt, Jan Borluut arrived with seven hundred volunteers from Ghent. [13]

Fragments of original goedendags preserved at the Kortrijk museum Goedendags in het museum Kortrijk 1302 9-01-2010 14-20-13.JPG
Fragments of original goedendags preserved at the Kortrijk museum

The Flemish were primarily town militia who were well equipped and trained. [1] The militia fought primarily as infantry, were organized by guild, and were equipped with steel helmets, mail haubergeons, [1] spears, pikes, bows, crossbows and the goedendag . [1] All Flemish troops at the battle had helmets, neck protection, iron or steel gloves and effective weapons, though not all could afford mail armor. [14] The goedendag was a specifically Flemish weapon, made from a thick 5 feet (1.5 m)-long wooden shaft and topped with a steel spike. [1] They were a well-organized force of 8,000–10,000 infantry, as well as four hundred noblemen, and the urban militias of the time prided themselves on their regular training and preparation. [3] About 900 of the Flemish were crossbowmen. [15] The Flemish militia formed a line formation against cavalry with goedendags and pikes pointed outward. [1] Because of the high rate of defections among the Flemish nobility, there were few mounted knights on the Flemish side. The Annals of Ghent claimed that there were just ten cavalrymen in the Flemish force. [13]

The French, by contrast, fielded a royal army with a core of 2,500 noble cavalry, including knights and squires, arrayed into ten formations of 250 armored horsemen. [2] [16] During the deployment for the battle, they were arranged into three battles, of which the first were to attack and the third to function as a rearguard and reserve. [16] They were supported by about 5,500 infantry, a mix of crossbowmen, spearmen, and light infantry. [2] The French had about 1,000 crossbowmen, most of whom were from the Kingdom of France and perhaps a few hundred were recruited from northern Italy and Spain. [15] Contemporary military theory valued each knight as equal to roughly ten footmen. [3]

The battle

Map of the Flemish and French positions at the start of the battle, with the river Leie to the right, and the castle at the top Srazhenie pri Kurtre.jpeg
Map of the Flemish and French positions at the start of the battle, with the river Leie to the right, and the castle at the top

The combined Flemish forces met at Kortrijk on 26 June and laid siege to the castle, which housed a French garrison. As the siege was being laid, the Flemish leaders began preparing a nearby field for battle. The size of the French response was impressive, with 3,000 knights and 4,000–5,000 infantry being an accepted estimate. The Flemish failed to take the castle and the two forces clashed on 11 July in an open field near the city next to the Groeninge stream. [13]

The field near Kortrijk was crossed by numerous ditches and streams dug by the Flemish as Philip's army assembled. Some drained from the river Leie or Lys, while others were concealed with dirt and tree branches, making it difficult for the French cavalry to charge the Flemish lines. The marshy ground also made the cavalry less effective. [13] The French sent servants to place wood in the streams, but they were attacked before they completed their task. The Flemish placed themselves in a strong defensive position, in deeply stacked lines forming a square. The rear of the square was covered by a curve of the river Leie. The front presented a wedge to the French army and was placed behind larger rivulets.[ citation needed ]

The 1,000 French crossbowmen attacked their 900 Flemish counterparts and succeeded in forcing them back. [17] Eventually, the French crossbow bolts and arrows began to hit the main Flemish infantry formations' front ranks but inflicted little damage. [17]

The French commander Robert of Artois was worried the outnumbered French foot would be attacked from all sides by superior, heavily armed Flemish infantry on the other side of the brooks. [17] Furthermore, the Flemish would then have their formations right on edge of the brooks and a successful French cavalry crossing would be extremely difficult. [17] He therefore recalled his foot soldiers to clear the way for 2,300 heavy cavalry arranged into two attack formations. [6] [17] The French cavalry unfurled their banners and advanced on the command "Forward!". [17]

The Flemish infantry pictured in the Florentine Nuova Cronica Courtrai.jpg
The Flemish infantry pictured in the Florentine Nuova Cronica

Some of the French footmen were trampled to death by the armoured cavalry, but most managed to get back around them or through the gaps in their lines. [17] The cavalry advanced rapidly across the streams and ditches to give the Flemish no time to react. [17] The brooks presented difficulties for the French horsemen and a few fell from their steeds. [17] Despite initial confusion, the crossing was successful in the end. [17] The French reorganized their formations on the other side to maximize their effectiveness in battle. [17]

Ready for combat, the French knights and men-at-arms charged at a quick trot and with their lances ready against the main Flemish line. [17] The Flemish crossbowmen and archers fell back behind the pikemen. [17] A great noise rose throughout the dramatic battle scene. [17] The disciplined Flemish foot-soldiers kept their pikes ready on the ground and their goedendags raised to meet the French charge. [17] The Flemish infantry wall did not flinch and a part of the French cavalry hesitated. [17] The bulk of the French formations carried on their forward momentum and fell on the Flemish in an ear-splitting crash of horses against men. [18] Unable at most points to break the Flemish line of pikemen, many French knights were knocked from their horses and killed with the goedendag, the spike of which was designed to penetrate the spaces between armour segments. [18] Those cavalry groups that succeeded in breaking through were set upon by the reserve lines, surrounded and wiped out. [18]

The attack of a French garrison at Courtrai as shown on the Courtrai Chest Kist van oxford 5.jpg
The attack of a French garrison at Courtrai as shown on the Courtrai Chest

To turn the tide of the battle, Artois ordered his rearguard of 700 men-at-arms to advance, joining the battle personally with his own knights and with trumpets blaring. [18] [6] The rearguard did not attack the Flemish however, remaining stationary after its initial advance to protect the French baggage train. Artois' charge routed some of the Flemish troops under Guy of Namur, but could not break the entire Flemish formation. [4] Artois' men-at-arms were attacked by fresh Flemish forces and the French fought back with desperate courage, aware of the danger they were in. [4] Artois defended himself skillfully. [4] His horse was struck down by a lay brother, Willem van Saeftinghe, and the count himself was killed, covered with multiple wounds. [4] According to some tales, he begged for his life, but the Flemish refused to spare him, claiming that they did not understand French. [13]

When ultimately the French knights became aware that they could no longer be reinforced, their attacks faltered and they were gradually driven back into the rivulet marshes. [4] There the disorganized, unhorsed, and mud-drowned French cavalry was an easy target for the heavily armed Flemish infantry. [4] A desperate charge by the French garrison in the besieged castle was thwarted by a Flemish contingent specifically placed there for that task. [18] The French infantry was visibly shaken by the sight of their knights being slaughtered and withdrew from the rivulets. The Flemish front ranks then charged forward, routing their opponents, who were massacred. The surviving French fled, only to be pursued over 10 km (6 mi) by the Flemish. Unusually for the period, the Flemish infantry took few if any of the French knights prisoner for ransom, in revenge for the French "cruelty". [19]

The Annals of Ghent concludes its description of the battle:

And so, by the disposition of God who orders all things, the art of war, the flower of knighthood, with horses and chargers of the finest, fell before weavers, fullers and the common folk and foot soldiers of Flanders, albeit strong, manly, well armed, courageous and under expert leaders. The beauty and strength of that great [French] army was turned into a dung-pit, and the [glory] of the French made dung and worms. [20]

Aftermath

The French Golden Spurs are collected by the Flemish. Depiction on the Courtrai Chest. Kist van oxford 6.jpg
The French Golden Spurs are collected by the Flemish. Depiction on the Courtrai Chest.
A depiction of French casualties in the Grandes Chroniques de France (c.1390-1401) GCF - Battle of the Golden Spurs.png
A depiction of French casualties in the Grandes Chroniques de France (c.1390-1401)

With the French army defeated, the Flemish consolidated control over the County. Kortrijk castle surrendered on 13 July and John of Namur entered Ghent on 14 July and the "patrician" regime in the city and in Ypres were overthrown and replaced by more representative regimes. Guilds were also officially recognised. [21]

The battle soon became known as the Battle of the Golden Spurs after the 500 pairs of spurs that were captured in the battle and offered at the nearby Church of Our Lady. [13] After the Battle of Roosebeke in 1382, the spurs were taken back by the French and Kortrijk was sacked by Charles VI in retaliation. [13]

According to the Annals, the French lost more than 1,000 men during the battle, including 75 important nobles. [19] These included:

The Flemish victory at Kortrijk in 1302 was quickly reversed by the French. In 1304, the French destroyed the Flemish fleet at the Battle of Zierikzee and decisively defeated the Flemish at the battle at Mons-en-Pévèle. [23] In June 1305, negotiations between the two sides led to the humiliating Peace of Athis-sur-Orge in which the Flemish were forced to pay the French substantial tribute. [23] Robert of Béthune subsequently lost against the French between 1314–20. [24]

The town of Kortrijk hosts many monuments and a museum dedicated to the battle. [25]

Historical significance

Effect on warfare

The Battle of the Golden Spurs had been seen as the first example of the gradual "Infantry Revolution" in Medieval warfare across Europe during the 14th century. [26] Conventional military theory placed emphasis on mounted and heavily armoured knights which were considered essential to military success. This meant that warfare was the preserve of a wealthy elite of bellatores (nobles specialized in warfare) serving as men-at-arms. [27] The fact that this form of army, which was expensive to maintain, could be defeated by militia drawn from the "lower orders" led to a gradual change in the nature of warfare during the subsequent century. [28] The tactics and composition of the Flemish army at Courtrai were later copied or adapted at the battles of Bannockburn (1314), Crecy (1346), Aljubarrota (1385), Sempach (1386), Agincourt (1415), Grandson (1476) and in the battles of the Hussite Wars (1419–34). [29] As a result, cavalry became less important [30] and nobles more commonly fought dismounted. [29] The comparatively low costs of militia armies allowed even small states (such as the Swiss) to raise militarily significant armies and meant that local rebellions were more likely to achieve military success. [31]

In Flemish culture and politics

Interest in Medieval history in Belgium emerged during the 19th century alongside the rise of Romanticism in art and literature. [32] According to the historian Jo Tollebeek, it soon became connected to nationalist ideals because the Middle Ages were "a period that could be linked with the most important contemporary aspirations" of romantic nationalism. [32]

Nicaise de Keyser's romantic depiction of the battle may have served as the inspiration for Hendrik Conscience's book The Lion of Flanders (1838) Nicaise de Keyser02.jpg
Nicaise de Keyser's romantic depiction of the battle may have served as the inspiration for Hendrik Conscience's book The Lion of Flanders (1838)

Amid this resurgence, the Battle of the Golden Spurs became the subject of an "extensive cult" in 19th- and 20th-century Flanders. [33] After Belgian independence in 1830, the Flemish victory was interpreted as a symbol of local pride. The battle was painted in 1836 by a leading Romanticist painter Nicaise de Keyser. [32] Probably inspired by the painting, the Flemish writer Hendrik Conscience used it as the centerpiece of his classic 1838 novel, The Lion of Flanders (De Leeuw van Vlaenderen) which brought the events to a mass audience for the first time. [33] It inspired an engraving by the artist James Ensor in 1895. A large monument and triumphal arch were also subsequently erected on the site of the battle between 1906–08. The battle was evoked by King Albert I at the start of World War I to inspire bravery among Flemish soldiers as an equivalent of the Walloon six hundred Franchimontois of 1468. In 1914, the Belgian victory against German cavalry at the Battle of Halen was dubbed the "Battle of the Silver Helmets" in analogy to the Golden Spurs. Its anniversary, 11 July, became an important annual Flemish observance. In 1973, the date was formalised as the official holiday of the Flemish Community.[ citation needed ]

As the Battle of the Golden Spurs became an important part of Flemish identity it became increasingly important within the Flemish Movement. Emerging in the 1860s, this sought autonomy or even independence for Dutch-speaking Flanders and became increasingly radical after World War I. The battle was seen as a "milestone" in a historic struggle for Flemish national liberation and a symbol of resistance to foreign rule. Flemish nationalists wrote poems and songs about the battle and celebrated its leaders. [33] As a result of this linguistic-based nationalism, the contribution of French-speaking soldiers and command of the battle by Walloon noble Guy of Namur was neglected. [13]

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On 23 August 1328, the Battle of Cassel took place near the city of Cassel, 30 km south of Dunkirk in present-day France. Philip VI, fought Nicolaas Zannekin, a wealthy farmer from Lampernisse. Zannekin was the leader of a band of Flemish independence rebels. The fighting erupted over taxation and punitive edicts of the French over the Flemish. The battle was won decisively by the French. Zannekin and about 3200 Flemish rebels were killed in the battle.

Brugse Belofte

The Brugse Belofte or Blindekens procession is a yearly Catholic parade held since 1304 in the Flemish city of Brugge on Assumption of Mary. In yearly remembrance of the safe homecoming of the craftsmen from the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle in 1304 against the French knights, a candle is brought by a procession to the church of Saint Mary of the Blinds.

The Battle of Arques was fought on 4 April 1303 in the French city of Arques between the County of Flanders and the Kingdom of France.

Willem van Saeftinghe politician

Willem van Saeftinghe was a lay brother in the Cistercian abbey of Ter Doest in Lissewege, West Flanders, Belgium. He fought at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, and became a Flemish folk hero.

The English expedition to Flanders (1297–98) was an English expedition to Flanders that lasted from August 1297 until March 1298. King Edward I of England in an alliance with Guy, Count of Flanders, as part of the wider Anglo-French War (1294–1303), led an English force to Flanders, hoping to form military alliances and support to lead a combined force against King Philip IV of France. The expedition was a failure in gaining military support and after a peace was reached between King Edward I of England and King Philip IV of France, Edward left Flanders in March 1298.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Rogers 1999, p. 137.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tucker 2010, p. 294.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Verbruggen 1997, p. 190.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Verbruggen 1997, p. 194.
  5. Rogers 1999, p. 141.
  6. 1 2 3 Verbruggen 2002, p. 193.
  7. Nicholas 1992, pp. 186–87.
  8. Nicholas 1992, pp. 187–89.
  9. Nicholas 1992, p. 190.
  10. Nicholas 1992, pp. 190–91.
  11. Nicholas 1992, pp. 191–92.
  12. 1 2 3 Nicholas 1992, p. 192.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Nicholas 1992, p. 193.
  14. Verbruggen 2002, p. 209.
  15. 1 2 Verbruggen 2002, p. 194.
  16. 1 2 Verbruggen 2002, p. 192.
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Verbruggen 1997, p. 192.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Verbruggen 1997, p. 193.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Annals of Ghent, p. 31.
  20. Annals of Ghent, pp. 30–31.
  21. Nicholas 1992, p. 194.
  22. DeVries 2006, p. 26.
  23. 1 2 Nicholas 1992, p. 195.
  24. Nicholas 1992, pp. 196–97.
  25. "Official site of the museum of the battle". Kortrijk 1302 (in Dutch). Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  26. Rogers 1999, pp. 141–43.
  27. Rogers 1999, pp. 139–42.
  28. Rogers 1999, pp. 142–44.
  29. 1 2 Rogers 1999, p. 142.
  30. Del Negro, Piero (2007). Guerra ed eserciti da Machiavelli a Napoleone[Warfare and armies from Machiavelli to Napoleon] (in Italian). Roma-Bari: Laterza. p. 7. ISBN   978-88-420-6295-0.
  31. Rogers 1999, p. 144.
  32. 1 2 3 Tollebeek 2011, p. 117.
  33. 1 2 3 Tollebeek 2011, p. 118.

Sources

Further reading