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|Battle of the Terek River|
|Part of Tokhtamysh–Timur war|
|Commanders and leaders|
The Battle of the Terek River was the second major battle of Tokhtamysh–Timur war. It took place at the Terek River, North Caucasus. Tokhtamysh cavalry attacked the right flank and the center of Timur's army. However, some Golden Horde emirs went over to Timur's side. This helped Timur defeat the left flank of Tokhtamysh's army and then the whole army itself. The victorious army of Timur pursued Tokhtamysh's, annihilating cities while staying on the Volga. The destroyed cities include Xacitarxan, Azaq, Majar, Sarai al-Jadid, Ukek.
The Tokhtamysh–Timur war was fought from 1389 to 1395 between Tokhtamysh, khan of the Golden Horde, and the warlord and conqueror Timur, founder of the Timurid Empire, in the areas of the Caucasus mountains, Turkistan and Eastern Europe. The battle between the two Mongol rulers played a key role in the decline of the Mongol power over early Russian principalities.
The Terek River, a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flows through South Ossetia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. It rises in South Ossetia near the juncture of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range and the Khokh Range, to the southwest of Mount Kazbek, winding north in a white torrent between the town of Stepantsminda and the village of Gergeti toward the Russian region North Ossetia and the city of Vladikavkaz. It turns east to flow through Chechnya and Dagestan before dividing into two branches which empty into the Caspian Sea. Below the city of Kizlyar it forms a swampy river delta around 100 kilometres (62 mi) wide. The river is a key natural asset in the region, providing irrigation and hydroelectric power in its upper reaches.
The North Caucasus or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within Asian Russia. Geographically, the Northern Caucasus includes the Russian republics and krais of the North Caucasus. As part of the Russian Federation, the Northern Caucasus region is included in the North Caucasian and Southern Federal Districts and consists of Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, and the constituent republics, approximately from west to east: the Republic of Adygea, Karachay–Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia–Alania, Ingushetia, Chechnya, and the Republic of Dagestan.
Year 1395 (MCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.
The Golden Horde was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.
The Battle of Ankara or Angora was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Tchubuk plain near Angora between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (Bajazet) and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire. The battle was a major victory for Timur, and it led to a period of crisis for the Ottoman Empire. However, the Timurid Empire went into terminal decline following Timur's death just three years after the battle, while the Ottoman Empire made a full recovery, and continued to increase in power for another two to three centuries.
Bolghar was intermittently capital of Volga Bulgaria from the 8th to the 15th centuries, along with Bilyar and Nur-Suvar. It was situated on the bank of the Volga River, about 30 km downstream from its confluence with the Kama River and some 130 km from modern Kazan in what is now Spassky District. West of it lies a small modern town, since 1991 known as Bolgar. The UNESCO World Heritage Committee declared ancient Bolghar hill fort as a World Heritage Site in 2014.
The Battle of the Vorskla River was a great battle in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. It was fought on August 12, 1399, between the Tatars, under Edigu and Temur Qutlugh, and the armies of Tokhtamysh and Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. The battle ended in a decisive Tatar victory.
Berke Khan was a Mongolian military commander and ruler of the Golden Horde who effectively consolidated the power of the Blue Horde and White Horde from 1257 to 1266. He succeeded his brother Batu Khan of the Blue Horde (West) and was responsible for the first official establishment of Islam in a khanate of the Mongol Empire. He allied with the Egyptian Mamluks against another Mongol khanate based in Persia, the Ilkhanate. Berke supported Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil War, but did not intervene militarily in the war.
Edigu (1352–1419) was a Turkic Muslim Emir of the White Horde who founded a new political entity, which came to be known as the Nogai Horde.
The Battle of Suzdal or the Battle of the Kamenka River was fought of July 7, 1445 between Russians under Vasily II and Tatars troops of Oluğ Möxämmäd, invaded the principality of Nizhny Novgorod. Russians were defeated by troops of beg Mäxmüd, who became Mäxmüd of Kazan after the battle. Vasily was taken prisoner and was set free only after the enormous ransom was paid. He also promised restitution of the lands of Mishar Yurt, that were bought from Tokhtamysh in 1343. Qasim Khanate was founded there to become a buffer state and the vassal of Muscovy later.
The Battle of the Kondurcha River was the first major battle of the Tokhtamysh–Timur war. It took place at the Kondurcha River, in the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde, in what today is Samara Oblast in Russia. Tokhtamysh's cavalry tried to encircle Timur's army from the flanks. However, the Central Asian army withstood the assault, after which its sudden frontal attack put the Horde troops to flight. However, many of the Golden Horde troops escaped to fight again at Terek.
Majar or Macar was a medieval city of Golden Horde in 13th-14th centuries. It once played a major role in the trade between Idel-Ural, Caucasus and the Black Sea region. In 1310–1311 the city minted its own money. In 1395 it was sacked by troops of Timur.
Temür Qutlugh was a khan of Golden Horde in 1397–1399. He was a son of Timur-Malik, khan of the White Horde, who struggled against Tokhtamysh. After the death of Temur Malik in 1379 Qutlugh was reared at Tokhtamysh's court. After an unsuccessful revolt against Toqtamysh in 1388, he, along with Edigu, fled to Timur. During the Tokhtamysh–Timur war in 1391–1395, they founded an independent ulus (district) in the region of the lower Volga and Ural Rivers, placing their capital in Saray-Jük. After the defeat of Tokhtamysh, Qutlugh, with Edigu's help, was crowned as Khan of the Golden Horde, although Edigu was the real holder of power. In 1398, Qutlugh coined his own money, and in 1399, he participated in the battle of the Vorskla River. He was killed in a conflict with Tokhtamysh's son.
The Siege of Moscow in 1382 was a battle between the Muscovite forces and Tokhtamysh, Khan of the Golden Horde who was supported by Timur.
Georgia, a Christian kingdom in the Caucasus, was subjected, between 1386 and 1403, to several disastrous invasions by the armies of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, whose vast empire stretched, at its greatest extent, from Central Asia into Anatolia. These conflicts were intimately linked with the wars between Timur (Tamerlane) and Tokhtamysh, the last khan of the Golden Horde and Timur’s major rival for control over the Islamic world. Timur officially proclaimed his invasions to be jihad against the region's non-Muslims. Although he was able to invade parts of Georgia, he was never able to make the country Muslim and even recognized Georgia to be a Christian state.
Timur, historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol conqueror. As the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and Central Asia, he became the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an islamized and iranized society", and not steppe nomadic.
The Battle of Kulikovo was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow. The battle took place on 8 September 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River and was won by Dmitry, who became known as Donskoy after the battle.
Timurid conquests and invasions started in the eighth decade of 14th century with Timur's control over Chagatai Khanate and ended at the start of the 15th century with the death of Timur. Due to the sheer scale of Timurid wars, and the fact that he was generally undefeated in battle, he has been regarded as one of the most successful military commanders of all time. These wars resulted the supremacy of Timur over Central Asia, Persia, Western Asia, South Asia, Caucasus and Eastern Europe and also the formation of short-lived Timurid Empire. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.
Mu’iz-ud-din Umar Shaikh Mirza was a member of the Timurid dynasty and a son of its founder, the Central Asian conqueror Timur. Known for being a skilled soldier, Umar Shaikh was one of Timur's military commanders and also served as a regional governor. He died in 1394, predeceasing his father by over a decade.
(in Tatar)"Терек буендагы сугыш". Tatar Encyclopaedia . Kazan: The Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002.
Tatar Encyclopaedic Dictionary is the first encyclopaedic dictionary published in Tatar language about history of Tatarstan and the Tatar people. The publication is produced by Tatar Encyclopedia Institute of the Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences.
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,243,500, it is the sixth most populous city in Russia. Kazan is one of the largest religious, economic, political, scientific, educational, cultural and sports centers in Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia, about 715 kilometres (444 mi) east from Moscow. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
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