Batu, East Java

Last updated
Batu
City of Batu
Kota Batu
Other transcription(s)
   Javanese ꦏꦸꦛꦧꦠꦸ
Batu city and Mount Panderman-Kawi-Butak from Brakseng 2019-01-12.jpg
Selecta Recreational Park.jpg
Dino Mall Jatim Park 3 20180922 084928.jpg
Museum Satwa Jatim Park 2 2017-09-18.jpg
Alun-Alun Batu, East Java.jpg
From top and left to right: Plantation on hillside of Arjuno and background's far view of Mount Kawi and Butak; Selecta Recreational Park, Dino Park Mall of Jawa Timur Park 3, Animal Museum of Jawa Timur Park 2, and Alun-alun Batu.
Logo Kota Batu, Jawa Timur (Seal of Batu, East Java).svg
Coat of arms
Motto(s): 
Javanese: ꦲꦏꦂꦪꦒꦸꦤꦩꦩꦪꦸꦧꦮꦤ
English: Work to Advancing the World
Locator kota batu.png
Location within East Java
Indonesia Java location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Batu
Location in Java and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Batu
Batu (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 7°52′19″S112°31′30″E / 7.872°S 112.525°E / -7.872; 112.525 Coordinates: 7°52′19″S112°31′30″E / 7.872°S 112.525°E / -7.872; 112.525
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Java
Province Flag of East Java.svg  East Java
Established21 June 2001
Government
  MayorDewanti Rumpoko
  Vice MayorPunjul Santoso
Area
  Total199.09 km2 (76.87 sq mi)
Elevation
[1]
953 m (3,127 ft)
Highest elevation
1,800 m (5,900 ft)
Lowest elevation
700 m (2,300 ft)
Population
 (2020 Census)
  Total213,046
  Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
  [2]
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62) 341
Website batukota.go.id

Batu, officially the City of Batu (Indonesian : Kota Batu, Javanese : ꦏꦸꦛꦧꦠꦸ), is a landlocked city in the East Java Province of Indonesia. It is about 20 km to the northwest of Malang. Formerly, it was a part of Malang Regency; but in 2001, Batu became an independent city legalized by Act No. 11 of 2001, when it became an independent municipal city with its own mayor and council. [3]

Contents

With a population of 213,046 people at the 2020 Census, it lies on the southern slopes of Mount Arjuno-Welirang. Its population largely consists of Javanese. The town used to be a recreation place for the Dutch colonial officers in the Dutch colonial area (before 1945). Batu means "rock" in Indonesian.

History

Since the 10th century, the area of Batu and its surroundings has been known as a resting place for the royal family, because the region is a mountainous area with comfortable air, also supported by the beauty of natural scenery as a characteristic of mountainous regions. [4]

During the reign of Medang Kingdom under King Sindok, a royal official named Mpu Supo was ordered by the King to build a royal family resting place in the mountains with nearby water springs. With a hard effort, finally Mpu Supo discovered an area which is now better known as the tourist area of Songgoriti. With the approval of King Sindok, Mpu Supo began to build the Songgoriti area as a royal family retreat and built a temple named Supo Temple. [4]

From some local community leaders, it has been told that the title Batu comes from the name of a cleric follower of Prince Diponegoro named Abu Ghonaim or referred to as the Kyai Gubug Angin which later the local community was familiar with calling it Mbah Wastu. From Javanese cultural habits that often shorten and shorten the designation of someone's name which is considered too long, also to make it shorter and faster when calling someone, finally Mbah Wastu is called Mbah Tu to be Mbatu or Batu as a term used for a mild climate city in East Java. [4]

The history of Abu Ghonaim's existence as a forerunner and person known as a community leader who started the babad alas and was used as inspiration from the designation of the Batu region, in fact Abu Ghonaim himself was from the Central Java region. Abu Ghonaim as a loyal follower of Prince Diponegoro, intentionally left his native area of Central Java and moved to the hillside of Mount Panderman to avoid the pursuit and arrest of the Dutch soldiers (Kompeni). Abu Ghonaim or Mbah Wastu who started his new life together with the surrounding community. Finally, many residents and surrounding communities and other communities came around the residence of Mbah Wastu. Initially they lived in a group (community) in the Bumiaji, Sisir and Temas. [4]

View of Batu from Gunung Banyak View Of Batu & Malang From Gunung Banyak.jpg
View of Batu from Gunung Banyak


Geography

The city of Batu lies on the slopes of several mountains. The most prominent are Mount Anjasmoro (2,277 m), Mount Arjuno (3,339 m), Mount Welirang (3,156 m), Mount Banyak (1,306 m), Mount Kawi (2,551 m), Mount Panderman (2,045 m), Mount Semeru (3.676 m), and Mount Wukir (335 m). [5]

In the 19th century, the Dutch East Indies government developed Batu as a mountain resort. Villas and resort facilities were built in Batu during the period. Most of the topography of Batu city is dominated by highland and hilly terrain with valleys running down mountain slopes. In northern Batu, there is a dense forest, Raden Soerjo Forest Park, which is a protected forest area. [5]

Most soils in Batu city are andosols, sequentially present with cambisol, latosol and alluvial. These form mechanical soils which contain substantial amounts of minerals coming from volcanic eruptions. These soils tend to be very fertile. [5]

Batu is a near-exact antipode (or polar opposite) to the city of San Fernando de Apure, Venezuela. [5]

Climate

The climate in Batu city at lower elevation (700-900 meters) features tropical monsoon climate (Am), and at higher elevation (900-1800 meters), the city's climate is classified by Köppen as subtropical highland climate (Cwb). The driest month is August with precipitation total 35 mm, while the wettest month is January with precipitation total 406 mm. The temperature is moderated by the altitude, as the city is located at average 953 meters above sea level. The hottest month is October with average 22.2 °C, while the coolest month is August with average 11.4 °C.

Climate data for Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Batu (elevation 1,610 m or 5,280 ft)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
21.2
(70.2)
20.7
(69.3)
21
(70)
21.8
(71.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
17.8
(64.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
16.9
(62.4)
16.1
(61.0)
16.2
(61.2)
16.9
(62.4)
17.6
(63.7)
17.9
(64.2)
17.6
(63.7)
17.3
(63.1)
Average low °C (°F)13.9
(57.0)
13.9
(57.0)
14.1
(57.4)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
12.6
(54.7)
11.5
(52.7)
11.4
(52.5)
12
(54)
13.1
(55.6)
14
(57)
13.8
(56.8)
13.1
(55.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)406
(16.0)
353
(13.9)
395
(15.6)
242
(9.5)
176
(6.9)
81
(3.2)
52
(2.0)
35
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
130
(5.1)
282
(11.1)
385
(15.2)
2,583
(101.7)
Average relative humidity (%)81.782.382.279.279.877.375.172.970.970.974.479.177.1
Source 1: Climate-Data.org (temp & precip) [6]
Source 2: Weatherbase (humidity) [7]

Administration

The city is divided into three districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census [8] and 2020 Census. [9]

NameArea
in km2
Population
Census 2010
Population
Census 2020
Batu (district)45.4688,17896,921
Junrejo25.6546,38255,105
Bumiaji127.9855,62461,020
Totals199.09190,184213,046

The districts are further subdivided into 24 villages (kelurahan). The names of the villages are:

Economy

The economy of Batu City is highly dependent on tourism and agriculture. The location of Batu City which is in the mountainous region and rapid tourism development makes most of the GDP growth in Batu depended by this sector. In agriculture, Batu is one of the largest apple-producing regions in Indonesia, which makes it dubbed "The City of Apples". Apple agriculture in Batu has four varieties, there are "Manalagi", "Rome Beauty", "Anna", and "Wangling". Also the city produces a lot of vegetables, and garlic. Besides that, Batu is also an artist city where there are many painting and art galleries in this city. [10]

Batu has several shopping centers ranging from modern shopping centers to modern and traditional markets. Among the most famous modern shopping centers are Lippo Plaza Batu and Plaza Batu, while the famous traditional market in Batu is Pasar Batu. In addition, there is also a floating market in Batu called the Nusantara Floating Market which makes it the first floating market in East Java. The Nusantara Floating Market Complex is a unit of the Museum Angkut tourism complex in Batu. [10]

Tourism

Batu is well known for its tourism sites. Some are:

There is a historic colonial-style hotel, the Kartika Wijaya, which was founded in 1891 by the Sarkies Brothers, prominent Armenian immigrants best known for founding a chain of luxury hotels throughout Southeast Asia, especially Dutch East Indies. It was originally built as a vacation villa for the Sarkies family and was later turned into a hotel.

Related Research Articles

East Java Province of Indonesia

East Java is a province of Indonesia. It has a land border only with the province of Central Java to the west; the Java Sea and the Indian Ocean border its northern and southern coasts, respectively, while the narrow Bali Strait to the east separates Java from Bali. Located in eastern Java, it also includes the island of Madura, as well as the Kangean islands and other smaller island groups located further east and Masalembu archipelagos in the north. Its capital is Surabaya, the second largest city in Indonesia, a major industrial center and also a major business center. Banyuwangi is the largest regency in East Java and the largest on the island of Java.

Surakarta City in Central Java, Indonesia

Surakarta, known colloquially as Solo, is a city in Central Java, Indonesia. The 44 km2 city adjoins Karanganyar Regency and Boyolali Regency to the north, Karanganyar Regency and Sukoharjo Regency to the east and west, and Sukoharjo Regency to the south. On the eastern side of Solo lies Solo River. Its built-up area, consisting of Surakarta Municipality and 59 districts spread over seven regencies, was home to 3,649,254 inhabitants as of 2010 census.

Cirebon City in West Java, Indonesia

Cirebon is a port city on the northern coast of the Indonesian island of Java. It is the only coastal city of West Java, located about 40 km west of the provincial border with Central Java, approximately 297 km (185 mi) east of Jakarta, at 6°43′S108°34′E. It had a population of 296,389 at the 2010 Census and 333,303 at the 2020 Census.

Semarang city in Central Java, Indonesia

Semarang is the capital and largest city of Central Java province in Indonesia. It was a major port during the Dutch colonial era, and is still an important regional center and port today. The city has been named as the cleanest tourist destination in Southeast Asia by the ASEAN Clean Tourist City Standard (ACTCS) for 2020–2022.

Malang City in Indonesia

Malang is a landlocked city in the Indonesian province of East Java. It has a history dating back to the age of Singhasari Kingdom. It is the second most populous city in the province, with a population of 820,043 at the 2010 Census and 843,810 at the 2020 Census. Its metropolitan area is home to 3,663,691 inhabitants in 2010, spread across two cities and 22 districts. Malang is the third largest city by economy in East Java, after Surabaya and Kediri, with an estimated 2016 GDP at Rp. 44.30 trillion.

Singosari

Singosari is a district in Malang Regency, East Java, Indonesia. It is situated about 400 m above sea-level, and is therefore quite cool especially from June to August. Temperature hovers around 18–20 degrees Celsius at night.

Probolinggo City in East Java

Probolinggo is a city on the north coast of East Java province, Indonesia. It covers an area of 56.67 sq. km, and had a population of 217,062 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate is 223,159. It is surrounded on the landward side by Probolinggo Regency but is not part of the regency.

Madiun City in East Java, Indonesia

Madiun is a landlocked city in the western part of East Java, Indonesia, known for its agricultural center. It was formerly the capital of the Madiun Regency, but is now administratively separated from the regency.

Mojokerto City in East Java, Indonesia

Mojokerto is a city in East Java Province, Indonesia. It is located 40 km southwest of Surabaya, and constitutes one of the component units of the Surabaya metropolitan area which comprises Gresik Regency, Bangkalan Regency, Mojokerto Regency, Mojokerto City, Surabaya City, Sidoarjo Regency, and Lamongan Regency. The city had a population of 120,196 at the 2010 census and 132,434 at the 2020 Census.

Yogyakarta City in Java, Indonesia

Yogyakarta is the capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, on the island of Java. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, drama, literature, music, poetry, silversmithing, visual arts, and wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious.

Klaten Regency Place in Central Java, Indonesia

Klaten is a regency in Central Java province in Indonesia. It covers an area of 655.56 km2 and had a population of 1,130,047 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate of population is 1,174,986. Its capital is the town of the same name.

Kediri (city) City in East Java, Indonesia

Kediri is an Indonesian city, located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java on the island of Java. It covers an area of 63.40 km2 and had a population of 268,950 at the 2010 Census and 286,796 at the 2020 Census. It is one of two 'Daerah Tingkat II' that have the name 'Kediri'. The city is administratively separated from the Regency, of which it was formerly the capital.

Arjuno-Welirang Stratovolcano in East Java, Indonesia

Mount Arjuno-Welirang is a stratovolcano in the province of East Java on Java, Indonesia. Mount Arjuno-Welirang lies about 50 kilometers south of Surabaya, and 20 kilometers north of Malang. It is a twin volcano, with the 'twins' being Arjuno and Welirang. There is at least one other stratovolcano in the area, and there are around 10 pyroclastic cones nearby. They are located in a 6 km line between Arjuno and Welirang. The Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex itself lies in the older two volcanoes, Mount Ringgit to the east and Mount Linting to the south. The summit lacks vegetation. Fumarolic areas with sulfur deposits are found in several locations on Welirang.

Malang Regency Regency in East Java, Indonesia

The Malang Regency is a regency in East Java, Indonesia. Malang Regency is the second largest regency in East Java after Banyuwangi Regency, with a total area of 3,534.86 km². Malang is rich in potential for agriculture, medicinal plants and tourism.

Serang City in Banten, Indonesia

Serang municipality is the capital of Banten province and was formerly also the administrative center of Serang Regency in Indonesia. The city is located towards the north of Banten province, on the island of Java. Before Banten province was formed in 2000 Serang was part of West Java province.

Brantas River River in Indonesia

The Brantas is the longest river in East Java, Indonesia. It has a length of 320 km, and drains an area over 11,000 km² from the southern slope of Mount Kawi-Kelud-Butak, Mount Wilis, and the northern slopes of Mount Liman-Limas, Mount Welirang, and Mount Anjasmoro. Its course is semi-circular or spiral in shape: at its source the river heads southeast, but gradually curves south, then southwest, then west, then north, and finally it flows generally eastward at the point where it branches off to become the Kalimas and Porong River.

Kediri Regency Regency in East Java, Indonesia

Kediri Regency is a regency (kabupaten) located in East Java province, Indonesia. It is one of two 'Daerah Tingkat II' that has the name 'Kediri'. It covers an area of 1,523.92 km2 and had a population of 1,499,768 as of the 2010 Census and 1,635,294 at the 2020 Census, comprising 825,867 males and 809,427 females.

Bangil Town in East Java, Indonesia

Bangil or called "Bangel" is the name of a district and of a Capital city in the Pasuruan Regency, East Java, Indonesia. This city is the first metropolitan area in Pasuruan Regency.

Museum Angkut Transport museum in East Java, Indonesia

Museum Angkut is a transport museum located in Batu, East Java, Indonesia and located on hillside of Mount Panderman, part of Mount Kawi-Butak. The museum has more than 300 collections of types of traditional to modern transportation. The museum is divided into several zones decorated with the background of building models from the continents of Asia, Europe to America. Especially in the European Zone, its setting by 1800-1900s French-style with various vintage European cars. Museum Angkut is the first all type and mode of transportation museum in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.

Greater Malang Place in East Java, Indonesia

Greater Malang is a region in East Java, Indonesia, encompassing the municipality of Malang. Over 3 million people in East Java came from Greater Malang. The principal city, Malang is well-known as home of notable universities in Indonesia, and its suburb, Batu is well-known as tourism center in East Java.

References

  1. "Website Batukota". website.batukota.go.id. Retrieved 2018-12-18.[ permanent dead link ]
  2. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. Indonesia Humanity Foundation, Batu, Indonesia
  4. 1 2 3 4 Zaenuddin, H.M. (2013). Asal usul Kota-kota di Indonesia Tempo Doeloe [History of cities in old Indonesia] (in Indonesian) (1 ed.). Change. ISBN   978-602-11-3930-1.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Geography of Batu, East Java". website.batukota.go.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2019-01-26. Retrieved 2019-01-26.
  6. "Climate: Tulungrejo, Bumiaji, Batu City". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  7. "BATU, INDONESIA". Weatherbase. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  8. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  9. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  10. 1 2 "Kota Kecil Prestasi Besar, 17 Tahun Kota Batu Diakui karena Inovasi Wisata". Malang Post Online - Tepercaya, Cepat dan Akurat. Retrieved 2019-01-26.