Bayeux

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Bayeux
Bayeux centre.jpg
The historic centre, the Notre Dame Cathedral, the Aure and tourist office
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Location of Bayeux
Bayeux
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Bayeux
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Bayeux
Coordinates: 49°16′46″N0°42′10″W / 49.2794°N 0.7028°W / 49.2794; -0.7028 Coordinates: 49°16′46″N0°42′10″W / 49.2794°N 0.7028°W / 49.2794; -0.7028
Country France
Region Normandy
Department Calvados
Arrondissement Bayeux
Canton Bayeux
Intercommunality Bayeux Intercom
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Patrick Gomont [1]
Area
1
7.11 km2 (2.75 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019) [2]
12,682
  Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
14047 /14400
Elevation32–67 m (105–220 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Bayeux (French pronunciation:  [bajø] ) is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France.

Contents

Bayeux is the home of the Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England. It is also known as the first major town secured by the Allies during Operation Overlord. Charles de Gaulle made two famous speeches in this town.

Administration

Bayeux is a sub-prefecture of Calvados. It is the seat of the arrondissement of Bayeux and of the canton of Bayeux.

Location

Bayeux is located 7 kilometres (4 miles) from the coast of the English Channel and 30 km (19 mi) north-west of Caen. The city, with elevations varying from 32 to 67 metres (105 to 220 feet) above sea level – with an average of 46 metres (151 feet) – is bisected by the River Aure. Bayeux is located at the crossroads of RN 13 and the train route Paris-Caen-Cherbourg. The city is the capital of the Bessin, which extends north-west of Calvados.

Etymology

The city was known as Augustodurum in the Roman Empire. It means the durum (Celtic word duro- 'door', 'gate', Welsh dor, Breton dor 'door', 'gate') dedicated to Augustus, Roman Emperor. The Celtic word duron, Latinised as durum, was probably used to translate the Latin word forum (Compare Fréjus Forum Julii, dedicated to Julius (Caesar)). [3]

In the Late Empire it took the name of the Celtic tribe who lived here: the Bodiocassi, Latinized in Bajocassi, Bajocasses , and this word explains the place-names Bayeux and Bessin. Bodiocassi has been compared with Old Irish Buidechass 'with blond locks'. [4]

History

Origins

Founded as a Gallo-Roman settlement in the 1st century BC under the name Augustodurum, Bayeux is the capital of the former territory of the Baiocasses people of Gaul, whose name appears in Pliny's Natural History (iv.107). Evidence of earlier human occupation of the territory comes from fortified Celtic camps, but there is no evidence of any major pre-existing Celtic town before the organization of Gaul in Roman civitates . Any settlement was more likely confined to scattered Druid huts along the banks of the Aure and Drome rivers or on Mount Phaunus where they worshipped. Cemeteries have been found on the nearby Mount Phaunus indicating the area as a Druid centre. Titus Sabinus, a lieutenant of Julius Caesar, subjected the Bessin region to Roman domination. The 5th-century Notitia provinciarum et civitatum Galliae mentions Suevi that had been officially settled here ( laeti ). [5]

The town is mentioned by Ptolemy, writing in the reign of Antoninus Pius, under the name Noemagus Biducassium (for *Noviomagus Badiocassium 'New market of the Badiocassi') and remained so until the time of the Roman Empire. The main street was already the heart of the city. Two baths, under the Church of St. Lawrence and the post office in rue Laitière, and a sculpted head of the goddess Minerva have been found, attesting to the adoption of Roman culture. In 1990 a closer examination of huge blocks discovered in the cathedral in the 19th century indicated the presence of an old Roman building. Bayeux was built on a crossroads between Lisieux and Valognes, developing first on the west bank of the river. By the end of the 3rd century a walled enclosure surrounded the city and remained until it was removed in the 18th century. Its layout is still visible and can be followed today. The citadel of the city was located in the southwest corner, and the cathedral in the southeast. An important city in Normandy, Bayeux was part of the coastal defence of the Roman Empire against the pirates of the region, and a Roman legion was stationed there.

Middle Ages

Bayeux (Bagias), depicted in scene 22 of the Bayeux Tapestry BayeuxTapestryScene22.jpg
Bayeux (Bagias), depicted in scene 22 of the Bayeux Tapestry

The city was largely destroyed during the Viking raids of the late 9th century but was rebuilt in the early 10th century under the reign of Bothon. In the middle of the 10th century Bayeux was controlled by Hagrold, a pagan Viking who defended the city against the Franks. The 12th-century poet Benoît de Saint-Maure, in his verse history of the dukes of Normandy, remarked on the "Danish" commonly spoken at Bayeux. [6]

The 11th century saw the creation of five villages beyond the walls to the northeast, evidence of its growth during Ducal Normandy. William the Conqueror's half brother Odo, Earl of Kent completed the cathedral in the city and it was dedicated in 1077. However the city began to lose prominence when William placed his capital at Caen. When King Henry I of England defeated his brother Robert Curthose for the rule of Normandy, the city was burned to set an example to the rest of the duchy. Under Richard the Lionheart, Bayeux was wealthy enough to purchase a municipal charter. From the end of Richard's reign to the end of the Hundred Years' War, Bayeux was repeatedly pillaged until Henry V of England captured the city in 1417. After the Battle of Formigny, Charles VII of France recaptured the city and granted a general amnesty to its populace in 1450. The capture of Bayeux heralded a return to prosperity as new families replaced those decimated by war, and they built some 60 mansions scattered throughout the city, with stone supplanting wood.

Post-medieval

Bayeux city centre (2011) Bayeux-centre-ville.jpg
Bayeux city centre (2011)

The area around Bayeux is called the Bessin, which was the bailiwick of the province Normandy until the French Revolution. During the Second World War, Bayeux was the first city of the Battle of Normandy to be liberated, and on 16 June 1944 General Charles de Gaulle made the first of two major speeches in Bayeux in which he made clear that France sided with the Allies. The buildings in Bayeux were virtually untouched during the Battle of Normandy, the German forces being fully involved in defending Caen from the Allies.

The Bayeux War Cemetery with its memorial includes the largest British cemetery dating from the Second World War in France. There are 4,648 graves, including 3,935 British and 466 Germans. Most of those buried there were killed in the invasion of Normandy.

Royal British Legion National, every 5 June at 1530 hrs, attends the 3rd Division Cean Memorial Service and beating retreat ceremony. On the 6th of June, it holds a remembrance service in Bayeux Cathedral starting at 1015 hrs, and later at 1200 hrs, the Royal British Legion National holds a service of remembrance at the Bayeux Cemetery. All services are open to the public, all Standards RBL, NVA, RN, ARMY, and RAF service and Regimental Associations are welcome to attend and parade. Details can be found at www.rblsomme.org

Bayeux is also the home of a memorial to all of the journalists who have lost their lives while reporting. The memorial was designed by Samuel Craquelin, who is a French architect. The memorial lists the names of 1,889 journalists killed between 1944 and 2007. The memorial was established in Bayeux because of its historic liberation on 7 June 1944. [7]

Natural features

The river Aure flows through Bayeux, offering panoramic views from a number of locations. The Aure has a relatively high level of turbidity and the speed of its brownish water is moderate because of the slight slope of the watercourse, although where it is narrow in places like the centre of Bayeux, higher surface speeds are generated. In the centre of Bayeux near the Bayeux Tapestry Museum, pH levels were measured at 8.35 and the electrical conductivity of water was tested at 37 microsiemens per centimetre. Turbidity was measured at 13 centimetres by the Secchi disk method. At this point of reference, flows are generally of the order of 50 cubic feet per second (1.4 m3/s). [8]

The Bajocian Age in the Jurassic Period of geological time takes its name from the Latinised name of the inhabitants of Bayeux (the Bajocassi)

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
179310,578    
18009,600−9.2%
180610,419+8.5%
182110,280−1.3%
183110,303+0.2%
183610,242−0.6%
18419,840−3.9%
18469,765−0.8%
18519,360−4.1%
18569,667+3.3%
18619,483−1.9%
18669,138−3.6%
18728,536−6.6%
18768,614+0.9%
18818,357−3.0%
18868,347−0.1%
18918,102−2.9%
YearPop.±%
18967,912−2.3%
19017,806−1.3%
19067,736−0.9%
19117,638−1.3%
19217,206−5.7%
19267,525+4.4%
19317,351−2.3%
19367,637+3.9%
194610,246+34.2%
195410,077−1.6%
19629,678−4.0%
196811,451+18.3%
197513,457+17.5%
198214,721+9.4%
199014,704−0.1%
199914,961+1.7%
200813,478−9.9%

The inhabitants of Bayeux are called Bayeusains [bajøzɛ̃] or Bajocasses [baʒokas] .[ citation needed ]

Sights

Bayeux Cathedral Bayeux Cathedral.JPG
Bayeux Cathedral

Bayeux is a major tourist attraction, best known to British and French visitors for the Bayeux Tapestry, made to commemorate events in the Norman Conquest of England in 1066. According to French tradition, the tapestry was made by the attendants of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William the Conqueror. In fact, it was almost certainly designed and stitched in England, as evidenced by its English spellings. [9] It is displayed in a museum in the town centre. The large Norman-Romanesque and Gothic Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Bayeux, [10] consecrated in 1077, was probably the original home of the tapestry, where William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux (represented on the tapestry wielding a wooden club at the Battle of Hastings) would have had it displayed.

The Jardin botanique de Bayeux is a local botanical garden dating from 1864.

Personalities

International relations

Bayeux is twinned with: [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

Normandy Geographical and cultural region of France

Normandy is a geographical and cultural region in Northwestern Europe, roughly coextensive with the historical Duchy of Normandy.

Calvados (department) Department of France

Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It takes its name from a cluster of rocks off the English Channel coast.

Caen Prefecture and commune in Normandy, France

Caen is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the department of Calvados. The city proper has 108,365 inhabitants, while its urban area has 420,000, making Caen the largest city in former Lower Normandy. It is also the third largest municipality in all of Normandy after Le Havre and Rouen and the third largest city proper in Normandy, also after Rouen and Le Havre. The metropolitan area of Caen, in turn, is the second largest in Normandy after that of Rouen, the 21st largest in France.

Lower Normandy Place in France

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Aignerville Part of Formigny La Bataille in Normandy, France

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Asnelles Commune in Normandy, France

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Asnières-en-Bessin Commune in Normandy, France

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Aunay-sur-Odon Part of Les Monts dAunay in Normandy, France

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Avenay Commune in Normandy, France

Avenay is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region of north-western France.

Cintheaux Commune in Normandy, France

Cintheaux is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

Étréham Commune in Normandy, France

Étréham is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

Lisieux Subprefecture and commune in Normandy, France

Lisieux is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It is the capital of the Pays d'Auge area, which is characterised by valleys and hedged farmland.

Ouistreham Commune in Normandy, France

Ouistreham is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy region in northwestern France.

Vire Part of Vire-Normandie in Normandy, France

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Arrondissement of Bayeux Arrondissement in Normandy, France

The Arrondissement of Bayeux an arrondissement of France in the Calvados department in the Normandy region. It has 123 communes. Its population is 73,896 (2016), and its area is 976.6 km2 (377.1 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Vire Arrondissement in Normandy, France

The arrondissement of Vire is an arrondissement of France in the Calvados department in the Normandy region. It has 44 communes. Its population is 72,565 (2016), and its area is 1,205.9 km2 (465.6 sq mi).

Saint-André-sur-Orne Commune in Normandy, France

Saint-André-sur-Orne is a village in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.

Bayeux may refer to:

Church of Saint-Étienne-le-Vieux Church in Caen, France

The Church of Saint-Étienne-le-Vieux is a former Catholic church, today partly ruined, located in the old city of Caen, Calvados, France. It is not to be confused with the nearby Church of Saint-Étienne, the former church of the Abbaye aux Hommes. This church has been classified as a monument historique since August 22, 1903.

Regnobert of Bayeux French Roman Catholic saint

Regnobert of Bayeux, Regnobertus in Latin, also transcribed in Renobert, Rénobert, Rennobert or Raimbert, was the twelfth bishop of Bayeux and a Saint of the Roman Catholic Church in the 7th century.

References

  1. "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
  2. "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. fr:Pierre-Yves Lambert, La langue gauloise, éditions errance 1994.
  4. Xavier Delamarre, Dictionnaire de la langue Gauloise, éditions errance 2003.
  5. Laeti Suevorum, noted in Jean Roemer, Origins of the English People and the English Language, p. 207 note 2.
  6. Benoît, Chronique: "Mais a Baiues en a tanz/ Qui ne sevent si daneis non."
  7. "The French town of Bayeux and Reporters Without Borders inaugurate a journalists memorial on the eve of World Freedom Day". Reporters Without Borders. 2007-05-03. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
  8. fr:Bayeux
  9. World Book Encyclopedia, p. 177, World Book Inc.
  10. Cathedral of Bayeux: France Tourism Summaries
  11. "Les villes jumelles". bayeux.fr (in French). Bayeux. Retrieved 2019-11-21.