Bayview–Hunters Point, San Francisco

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Bayview–Hunters Point
Bayview San Francisco USA (cropped).jpg
A bird's-eye view of the Bayview–Hunters Point neighborhood of San Francisco. Candlestick Park, demolished in 2015, is in the foreground
Nicknames: 
Beacon Point & Conch Point(1700s), Potrero Viejo(1830s–1860s), Butchertown(1830s–1960s), Southern San Francisco(1839; on some maps), Hunters Point Shipyard(1869–1939), Railroad Avenue(former name for "3rd Street"; 1886–1910), Bayview-Hunter's Point(1960s–present), Bayview Heights("redevelopment" name; 2010s–present)The Point(nickname), The Port(nickname), The Yard(nickname ref to the Shipyard), The Bayview(nickname), HP(nickname), District 10(in politics), Bayview-HP(shortened in media), BVHP(abbreviated on paper), Bayview-Hunter's Point, San Francisco(to avoid confusion with other neighborhoods with the name "Bayview")
Location map San Francisco Bayview-Hunters Point.png
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Bayview–Hunters Point
Location within San Francisco
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Bayview–Hunters Point
Bayview–Hunters Point (San Francisco County)
Coordinates: 37°43′37″N122°23′19″W / 37.72687°N 122.38873°W / 37.72687; -122.38873 Coordinates: 37°43′37″N122°23′19″W / 37.72687°N 122.38873°W / 37.72687; -122.38873
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of California.svg  California
City-county San Francisco
Government
   Supervisor Shamann Walton
   Assemblymember David Chiu (D) [1]
   State senator Scott Wiener (D) [1]
   U. S. rep. Nancy Pelosi (D) [2]
Area
[3]
  Total3.95 sq mi (10.2 km2)
Population
 (2010) [4]
  Total35,890
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific)
  Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP Code
94124
Area codes 415/628

Bayview–Hunters Point (sometimes spelled Bay View) is the San Francisco, California, neighborhood combining the Bayview and Hunters Point neighborhoods in the southeastern corner of the city. The decommissioned Hunters Point Naval Shipyard is located within its boundaries and Candlestick Park, which was demolished in 2015, was on the southern edge. Due to the South East location, the two neighborhoods are often merged. Bayview–Hunter's Point has been labeled as San Francisco's "Most Isolated Neighborhood". [5]

Contents

Redevelopment projects for the neighborhood became the dominant issue of the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. Efforts include the Bayview Redevelopment Plan for Area B, which includes approximately 1300 acres of existing residential, commercial and industrial lands. This plan identifies seven economic activity nodes within the area. The former Navy Shipyard waterfront property is also the target of redevelopment to include residential, commercial, and recreational areas. [6]

Geography

The Bayview–Hunters Point districts are located in the southeastern part of San Francisco, strung along the main artery of Third Street from India Basin to Candlestick Point. The boundaries are Cesar Chavez Boulevard to the north, U.S. Highway 101 (Bayshore Freeway) to the west, Bayview Hill to the south, and the San Francisco Bay to the east. Neighborhoods within the district include Hunters Point, India Basin, Bayview, Silver Terrace, Bret Harte, Islais Creek Estuary and South Basin. The entire southern half of the neighborhood is the Candlestick Point State Recreation Area as well as the Candlestick Park Stadium [3] which was demolished in 2015.

History

The Ohlone people

The Ohlone people Ohlone People.gif
The Ohlone people

Primarily composed of tidal wetlands with some small hills, the area was inhabited by the Yelamu and Ramaytush Ohlone people prior to the arrival of Spanish missionaries in the 1700s. The Ohlone inhabited the land for ten thousand years. The Muwekma Ohlone are neither the original people of San Francisco nor the original peoples of the San Francisco Peninsula. All of their Ohlone ancestral villages of origin were located exclusively in the East Bay in Chochenyo territory; therefore, their members are Chochenyo not Ramaytush. It has been incorrectly claimed that Ramaytush territory is Muwekma territory and refers to all Ohlone peoples from the San Francisco Bay area as Muwekma Ohlone. The phrase, "Muwekma Ohlone" refers to a tribe and should not be used to refer to all of the Ohlones peoples of the San Francisco Bay Area, past or present. Such usage offends other Bay Area Ohlone peoples who are not members of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe. [7] The original peoples of the San Francisco Peninsula were and are referred to as Ramaytush, which is the Chochenyo word meaning "people of the west.". The Ramaytush spoke a dialect of San Francisco Bay Costanoan language, which was one of three dialects, including Chochenyo and Tamyen. There were six Costanoan languages in total: Karkin, San Francisco Bay, Awaswas, Mutsun, Rumsen, and Chalon. [7] The district consisted of what the Ohlone people called "shell mounds", which were sacred burial grounds. The Spanish called them, Costanoans, or "coast dwellers". The land was later colonized in 1775 by Juan Bautista Aguirre, [8] a ship pilot for Captain Juan Manuel de Ayala who named it La Punta Concha (English: Conch Point). [9] Later explorers renamed it Beacon Point. [10] For the next several decades it was used as pasture for cattle run by the Franciscan friars at Mission Dolores. [9]

Ohlone women painted by Louis Choris, which reads Habitants de Californie Choris Ohlone.jpg
Ohlone women painted by Louis Choris, which reads Habitants de Californie

In 1839, the area was part of the 4,446-acre (17.99 km2) Rancho Rincon de las Salinas y Potrero Viejo Mexican land grant given to José Cornelio Bernal (1796–1842). Following the California Gold Rush, Bernal sold what later became the Bayview–Hunters Point area for real estate development in 1849. Little actual development occurred but Bernal's agents were three brothers, John, Phillip and Robert Hunter, who built their homes and dairy farm on the land (then near the present-day corner of Griffith Street and Oakdale Avenue) and who gave rise to the name Hunters Point. [9] In 1850, Hunter began trying to sell lots in an entirely new city called “South San Francisco” on the peninsula that now bears his name. Physically isolated from the rest of the city by both Mission Bay and the Islais Creek estuary, the only way to get to Hunters Point aside from sailing was via the San Bruno Road, completed in 1858. [11]

The Bayview–Hunters Point district was labelled "Southern San Francisco" on some maps, not to be confused with the city of South San Francisco further to the south.

Islais Creek and "Sacred Sites"

The Muwekma Ohlone held and still hold Islais Creek by 3rd Street and Marin in the Bayview as one of fifty, "sacred sites". Unfortunately Islais Creek and the adjoining bay has been heavily polluted. [12]

Surviving Ohlone families

Of the original approximately 1500 people who inhabited the San Francisco Peninsula prior to the Portola Expedition in 1769, only one lineage is known to have survived. Their descendants form the four branches of the Ramaytush Ohlone peoples today.

Industrial development

After a San Francisco ordinance in 1868 banned the slaughter and processing of animals within the city proper, a group of butchers established a "butchers reservation" on 81-acre (0.33 km2) of tidal marshland in the Bayview district. Within ten years, 18 slaughterhouses were located in the area along with their associated production facilities for tanning, fertilizer, wool and tallow. The "reservation" (then bounded by present-day Ingalls Street, Third Street, from Islais Creek to Bayshore) and the surrounding houses and businesses became known as Butchertown. The butcher industry declined following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake until 1971 when the final slaughterhouse closed. [13]

From 1929 until 2006 the Bayview–Hunters Point district were home for the coal and oil-fired power plants which provided electricity to San Francisco. Smokestack effluvium and byproducts dumped in the vicinity have been cited for health and environmental problems in the neighborhood. In 1994, the San Francisco Energy Company proposed building another power plant in the neighborhood, but community activists protested and pushed to have the current facility shut down. [14] In 2008, Pacific Gas and Electric Company demolished the Hunters Point Power Plant and began a two-year remediation project to restore the land for residential development. [15] The area remains a hub of business along 3rd Street, represented by the Merchants of Butchertown. [16]

Chineses shrimping industry

From 1870 to the 1930s, shrimping industries developed as Chinese immigrants begin to operate most of the shrimp companies. By the 1930s, there were a dozen shrimp operations in Bayview. [5]

Shipyard

Enlisted men, wounded in battle, on board the USS President Hayes in 1945 at Hunter's Point shipyard Enlisted men, wounded in battle, on board the USS President Hayes (APA-20) at Hunter's Point, San Francisco, Cal.... - NARA - 520712.jpg
Enlisted men, wounded in battle, on board the USS President Hayes in 1945 at Hunter's Point shipyard

Shipbuilding became integral to Bayview–Hunters Point in 1867 with the construction there of the first permanent drydock on the Pacific coast. The Hunters Point Dry Docks were greatly expanded by Union Iron Works and Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation and were capable of housing the largest ships that could pass through the locks of the Panama Canal. World War I increased the contracts there for building Naval vessels and, in 1940, the United States Navy purchased a section of property to develop the San Francisco Naval Shipyard. Beginning in the 1920s, a strong presence of Maltese American immigrants, along with Italian Americans, began populating the Bayview, focused on the local Catholic St. Paul of the Shipwreck Church and the Maltese American Social Club. They were a presence until the 1960s when they began moving into the suburbs.

The shipbuilding industry saw a large influx of blue collar workers into the neighborhood, many of them African Americans taking part in the Great Migration. This migration into Bayview increased substantially after World War II due to racial segregation and eviction of African Americans from homes elsewhere in the city. [17] Between 1940 and 1950, the population of Bayview saw a fourfold increase to 51,000 residents. [18] The Hunter's Point shipyard at its peak employed 17,000 people and it was also where the first atomic bomb sailed for Japan in 1945. [19]

Until 1969, the Hunters Point shipyard was the site of the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory (NRDL). The NRDL decontaminated ships exposed to atomic weapons testing and also researched the effects of radiation on materials and living organisms. [20] This caused widespread radiological contamination and, in 1989, the base was declared a Superfund site requiring long-term clean-up. [21] [22] The Navy closed the shipyard and Naval base in 1994. The Base Realignment and Closure program manages various pollution remediation projects. [20]

Environmental impact report

On January 10, 2010, Ohlone representatives, Ann Marie Sayers, Corrina Gould, Charlene Sul, and Carmen Sandoval, Ohlone Profiles Project, American Indian Movement West and International Indian Treaty Council penned a letter to then mayor of San Francisco, Gavin Newsom, about preserving the Ohlone historical sites at the Candlestick Point–Hunters Point shipyard stating “This is an important opportunity to work together to protect these ancient historical sites, honor our ancestors and insure that development pressures do not further damage critical Ohlone Indigenous sites, the sites affected by the development are extremely significant and are believed to be burial or ceremonial sites, in addition to protecting these sites, we also want to work with the local community to protect their health, the land and the fragile Bay marine environment.” [23]

On June 12, 2014, Vice published an article on the history, environmental bigotry and radiation effects on the residents of the neighborhood. [24]

Italian, Portuguese, and Maltese community development

Upon late 1800s settlement, there were many Italian, Maltese, and Portuguese home-builders, ranchers and truck farmers in the Bayview from 1890 to 1910. [25] The growing population of Italian, Maltese, and Portuguese residents seemingly pushed out the early Chinese community that was located in the Bayview.

African-American community development

Redlining reports

In the 1930s, the distribution of race and income in the neighborhood was fairly even. Two redlining reports from this time characterize the residential makeup of the area as lower-income: that is, residents were either "white collar" workers or factory laborers who had jobs in the vicinity. While "many of the inhabitants [were] from foreign extraction, no racial problem [was] presented." Poverty in the neighborhood was widely attributed to the depression. [26] In 1937, the Home Owner's Loan Corporation made a redlining map to determine which San Francisco neighborhoods should receive loans for mortgages and general housing investment. Two districts in the Bayview Hunters Point received the two lowest possible grades. This lack of investment made it much harder for the area to rebound from the depression, and also made it very difficult for people trying to purchase new homes in the area. [27] In 1942, to address the housing shortage issue, the federal government built 5,500 'temporary' housing units in the area for the families of shipyard workers. As a result, Hunters Point began as one of the most integrated areas in the city. Toward the end of WWII, the San Francisco Housing Authority pushed for the hiring of an all-white police force to govern the neighborhood. Many of the officers were recruited from the segregated south. From this point onwards, racial discrimination – in terms of the environment, housing, employment, and policing – shaped the development of the Bayview Hunters Point and further contributed to its segregation from the rest of the city.

By the 1950s and 60s, the Bayview was a predominantly African-American neighborhood that housed a movie theater along the Third Street corridor, as well as a library, a gymnasium at the time, Cub scouts through "Rec and Park" as well as youth baseball teams such as "The Blue Diamonds" of Innes [Street].

Racial tensions

Robert F. Kennedy visited the Bayview in 1967 to discuss poverty with activist Ruth Williams of the Big Five of Bayview. Robert F. Kennedy 1964.jpeg
Robert F. Kennedy visited the Bayview in 1967 to discuss poverty with activist Ruth Williams of the Big Five of Bayview.

By the 1960s, the Bayview and Hunters Point neighborhoods were populated predominantly by African-Americans and other racial minorities, and the area was isolated from the rest of San Francisco. Pollution, substandard housing, declining infrastructure, limited employment and racial discrimination were notable problems. James Baldwin documented the marginalization of the community in a 1963 documentary, "Take This Hammer", stating, "this is the San Francisco America pretends does not exist." [10] [28] On September 27, 1966, a race riot occurred at Hunters Point, [29] sparked by the killing of a 16-year-old fleeing from a police officer. The policeman, Alvin Johnson, stated he "caught [a couple of kids] red-handed with a stolen car" and ordered Matthew Johnson to stop, firing several warning shots before fatally shooting Johnson. [30] In 1967 US Senators Robert F. Kennedy, George Murphy and Joseph S. Clark visited the Western Addition and Bayview-Hunter's Point Neighborhood accompanied by future mayor Willie Brown to speak to activist Ruth Williams about the inequalities occurring in the Bayview. [31] Closure of the naval shipyard, shipbuilding facilities and de-industrialization of the district in the 1970s and 1980s increased unemployment and local poverty levels. [10]

James Baldwin visited the Bayview to speak with the youth. James Baldwin 4 Allan Warren.jpg
James Baldwin visited the Bayview to speak with the youth.

Building projects to revitalize the district began in earnest in the 1990s and the 2000s. As in the rest of the city, housing prices rose 342% between 1996 and 2008. Many long-time African American residents, whether they could no longer afford to live there or sought to take advantage of their homes' soaring values, left what they perceived as an unsafe neighborhood and made an exodus to the Bay Area's outer suburbs. Once considered a historic African American district, the percentage of black people in the Bayview–Hunters Point population declined from 65 percent in 1990 to a minority in 2000. [32] Despite the decline, the 2010 U.S. Census shows the African American population in the Bayview to be greater in number than that of any other ethnicity.

In the 2000s, the neighborhood became the focus of several redevelopment projects. The MUNI [33] T-Third Street light-rail project was built through the neighborhood, replacing an aging bus line with several new stations, street lamps and landscaping. Private developer Lennar Inc. proposed a $2-billion project to build 10,500 homes, including rentals, and commercial spaces atop the former Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, and a new football stadium for the San Francisco 49ers, and a shopping complex for Candlestick Point. The stadium would reinvigorate the district, but the 49ers changed their focus to Santa Clara in 2006. A bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics in San Francisco that included plans to build an Olympic Village in Bayview–Hunters Point was also dropped. [34] Lennar Inc. proposed to build the stadium without the football team. [35] Local community activist groups have criticized much of the redevelopment for displacing rather than benefiting existing neighborhood residents. [10]

As of 2014, Lennar works on the mixed-use development, promising "12,500 new homes; 4 million-plus square feet of office, commercial and retail space; and 300 acres of open parks, trails and fields", although no rentals. [36]

Education

The Bayview, a historically predominant black neighborhood, is home to more elementary school-age students than any other neighborhood in the city and combined with the Mission and Excelsior, houses a quarter of all students in the district. Schools in the Bayview have suffered from declining enrollment for the past two decades. Out of the 6,000 students who live in the Bayview, more than 70% choose to attend school outside of their neighborhood. [37] In 2016, in attendance with Jonathan Garcia, Adonal Foyle and Theo Ellington, Willie L. Brown middle school in Bayview-Hunter's Point commemorated the unveiling of the new Golden State Warrior outside basketball court at the school, donated by the Warriors Community Foundation. [38] Bayview-Hunter's Point has several elementary and middle schools, one high school and has two college campuses. The schools include:

Elementary and early enrichment

Middle and junior high schools

High schools

Colleges

After school programs

Demographics

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Bayview–Hunters Point (ZIP 94124) had a population of 33,996, an increase of 826 from 2000. The census data showed the single-race racial composition of Bayview–Hunters Point was 33.7% African-American, 30.7% Asian (22.1% Chinese, 3.1% Filipino, 2.9% Vietnamese, 0.4% Cambodian, 0.3% Indian, 0.2% Burmese, 0.2% Korean, 0.2% Japanese, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.1% Laotian), 12.1% White, 3.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander (2.4% Samoan, 0.1% Tongan, 0.1% Native Hawaiian), 0.7% Native American, 15.1% other, and 5.1% mixed race. Of Bayview's population, 24.9% was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race (11.5% Mexican, 4.2% Salvadoran, 2.6% Guatemalan, 1.4% Honduran, 1.4% Nicaraguan, 0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Peruvian, 0.2% Spanish, 0.2% Spaniard, 0.1% Colombian, 0.1% Cuban, 0.1% Panamanian). [39]

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, Bayview–Hunters Point had the highest percentage of African-Americans among San Francisco neighborhoods, home to 21.5% of the city's Black population, and they were the predominant ethnic group in the Bayview. Census figures showed the percentage of African-Americans in Bayview declined from 48% in 2000 to 33.7% in 2010, while the percentage of Asian and White ethnicity increased from 24% and 10%, respectively, to 30.7% and 12.1%. However the eastern part of the neighborhood had a population of 12,308 and is still roughly 53% African-American.

According to the 2005–2009 American Community Survey (ACS), the Bayview district is estimated to have 10,540 housing units and an estimated owner-occupancy rate of 51%. The 2010 U.S. Census indicates the number of households to be 9,717, of which 155 belong to same-sex couples. Median home values were estimated in 2009 to be $586,201, [4] but that has since fallen dramatically to around $367,000 in 2011, the lowest of any of San Francisco's ZIP code areas. [40] Median Household Income was estimated in 2009 at $43,155. [4] Rent prices in the Bayview remain relatively low, by San Francisco standards, with over 50% of rents paid in 2009 at less than $750/mo. [41]

A recent Brookings Institution report identified Hunters Point as one of five Bay Area "extreme poverty" neighborhoods, in which over 40% of the inhabitants live below the Federal poverty level of an income of $22,300 for a family of four. [42] Nearly 12% of the population in the Bayview receives public assistance income, three times the national average, and more than double the state average. While the Bayview has a higher percentage of the population receiving either Social Security or retirement income than the state or national averages, the dollar amounts that these people receive is less than the averages in either the state or the nation.

Marginalization

Film director Spike Lee's film Sucker Free City focused on elements of poverty of the Bayview Spike Lee 1.jpg
Film director Spike Lee's film Sucker Free City focused on elements of poverty of the Bayview

Since the 1960s, the Bayview–Hunters Point community has been cited as a significant example of marginalization. [10] In 2011, it remained "one of the most economically disadvantaged areas of San Francisco". [43] Root causes include a working class populace historically segregated to the outskirts of the city, high levels of industrial pollution, the closure of industry, and loss of infrastructure. [10] The results have been high rates of unemployment, poverty, disease and crime. [44] [10] [45] Attempts to mitigate the effects of marginalization include the city's building of the Third Street light-rail line, establishment of the Southeast Community Facility (SECF) as a response from the SF Public Utilities Commission to a community-led effort to balance environmental injustice associated with public utilities, [46] the Southeast Food Access Workgroup, [47] initially formed by the SF Department of Public Health as part of the SF Mayor's ShapeUp SF health initiative, and implementation of enhanced local hiring policy that recognizes that regulations requiring hiring for public projects prioritize City residents and contractors may not help specific neighborhoods where job seekers and contractors may still be overlooked. Place-based and asset-based community building programs networked through the Quesada Gardens Initiative began in 2002 adding direct grassroots public participation to the social and environmental change landscape with a goal of preserving diversity and encouraging longterm residents to reinvest in their neighborhood.

The Hunter's Point shipyard's toxic waste pollution has been cited for elevated rates of asthma and other respiratory diseases among residents. [43] These adverse health effects coupled with rising housing costs contribute to what one community member and organizer has characterized as behavior "meeting the UN standard definition of genocide". [48]

Gang and drug activity, as well as a high murder rate, have plagued the Bayview–Hunters Point district. [49] A 2001 feature article in the San Francisco Chronicle cited feuding between small local gangs as the major cause of the area's unsolved homicides. [45] In 2011, The New York Times described Bayview as "one of the city's most violent" neighborhoods. [50] Police have made the removal of guns from the streets their top priority in recent years, leading to a 20% decline in major crimes between 2010 and 2011, including declines of 35% in homicides, 22% in aggravated assaults, 38% in arson, 30% in burglary, 34% in theft, 23% in auto theft, and 39% in robbery. Lesser crimes have also declined by about 24% over the past year.[ citation needed ]

Food desert

Until the late 2000s the neighborhood had no chain supermarkets. [51] In 2011, a San Francisco official described the area as "a food desert – an area with limited access to affordable, nutritious food like fresh produce at a full-size grocery store." [52] A large swath of the southeast sector of San Francisco sits within a Federally recognized food desert. [53] A Home Depot was approved by the city to be built in the area, but the Home Depot Corporation abandoned its plans following the late 2000s economic crisis. [54] Lowe's took over Home Depot's plans, and in 2010 opened their first store in San Francisco on the Bayshore Blvd. site. In August 2011, UK supermarket chain Tesco, owner of Fresh and Easy stores, opened Bayview–Hunters Point's first new grocery store in 20 years, though this store has closed as part of Fresh and Easy's larger corporate exit from the United States. [52] [55]

The neighborhood was the subject of a 2003 documentary, Straight Outta Hunters Point, [56] directed by lifelong Hunters Point resident Kevin Epps, and a 2012 sequel, "Straight Outta Hunters Point 2," movies that expose the daily drama of gang-related wars plaguing a community already fighting for social and economic survival. The Spike Lee film Sucker Free City used Hunters Point as a backdrop for a story on gentrification and street gangs. [57]

Community activism

In April 1968, baseball icon, hall-of-fame inductee, and San Francisco Giants legend Willie Mays and Osceola Washington campaigned for "Blacks and Whites Together Fund Drive for Youth Activities this Summer. Bayview-Hunters Point Neighborhood Community Center." [58]

A number of community groups, such as the India Basin Neighborhood Association, [59] the Quesada Gardens Initiative, [60] Literacy for Environmental Justice, [61] the Bayview Merchants' Association, [62] the Bayview Footprints Collaboration of Community-Building Groups, [63] and Greenaction for Health and Environmental Justice [64] work with community members, other organizations and citywide agencies to strengthen, improve, and fight for the protection of this diverse part of San Francisco.

Community gardening, art, and social history are popular in the area. The Quesada Gardens Initiative is a well recognized organization that has created a cluster of 35 community and backyard gardens in the heart of the neighborhood, including the original Quesada Garden on the 1700 block of Quesada Ave., the Founders' Garden, Bridgeview Teaching and Learning Garden (which won the 2011 Neighborhood Empowerment Network's [65] "Best Green Community Project Award," Krispy Korners, the Latona Community Garden, and the new Palou Community Garden. Major public art pieces honor unique hyper-local history, grassroots involvement, and the right of communities to define themselves.

Redevelopment

Mayor London Breed breaking ground at Alice Griffith Housing redevelopment London Breed joins Groundbreaking Ceremony for Rebuild of Alice Griffith Public Housing (18829874022).jpg
Mayor London Breed breaking ground at Alice Griffith Housing redevelopment

Linda Brooks-Burton Library

The original Anna E. Waden Bayview Branch Library was opened as a storefront facility in 1927. It was the 13th branch in the San Francisco Public Library system, replacing a "library station" that had been established in 1921. In 1969, a red brick building was built on the corner of 3rd Street and Revere Avenue in the Bayview-Hunters Point district. With a bequest from Anna E. Waden, a clerical employee of the City of San Francisco. Miss Waden's gift of $185,700 paid for the development of this cooperative community project. The building was completed in February 1969, and the formal dedication took place on July 12, 1969. The architect was John S. Bolles & Associates and the contractor was Nibbi Brothers. The façade included a sculpture by Jacques Overhoff. [66]

The Anna E. Waden Library finished construction in 2013, it was renamed in honor of Linda Brooks-Burton in 2015 and is located at Third Street and Revere. [67]

Shipyard redevelopment and environmental racism

In 2016, Tetra Tech, the firm in charge of overseeing the cleanup of toxic material on the naval base, was charged with negligence. In response, the Navy was forced to momentarily cease transferring shipyard land to Lennar for redevelopment. Hunters Point Shipyard was a redevelopment project being spearheaded by Lennar Corporation on the 702 acres at Candlestick Point and the San Francisco Naval Shipyard. [68] The plan called for 10,500 residential units, a new stadium to replace Candlestick Park, 3,700,000 square feet (340,000 m2) of commercial and retail space, an 8,000- to 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) arena; artists' village and 336 acres of waterfront park and recreational area. [69] The developers said the project would contribute up to 12,000 permanent jobs and 13,000 induced jobs. [70]

Bayview D10 Supervisor Malia Cohen elected in 2010 SupervisorMaliaCohen.jpg
Bayview D10 Supervisor Malia Cohen elected in 2010

The approval process required developers to address concerns of area residents and San Francisco government officials. Criticism of the project focused on the large-scale toxic clean-up of the industrial superfund site, environmental impact of waterfront construction, displacement of an impoverished neighborhood populace and a required build-up to solve transportation needs. [69]

In July 2010, Lennar Corporation received initial approval of an Environmental Impact Report from San Francisco supervisors. [70] [71] In September 2011, the court denied the transfer of property to Lennar Corporation prior to clean-up of contamination. [43] Per a letter sent from the EPA to the Navy, the process was placed on hold until “the actual potential public exposure to radioactive material at and near” the shipyard can be “clarified.” [72]

"I am Bayview" campaign

Partnered with the office of Supervisor of District 10 Malia Cohen and Bayview Underground, I am Bayview helmed by creative George McCalman and photographer Jason Madara created a series of images of photographed community members to visually communicate gentrification. George states that if "one is going to move into a neighborhood, you should get to know the people who live there, not simply displace an existing community. Gentrification is a hot button issue in San Francisco. This was our visual response. Twenty-nine posters are now installed along the 3rd Street corridor of the Dogpatch and Bayview, capturing the Bayview residents who represent their neighborhood proudly." [73]

I am Bayview has also been subject to criticism as some Bayview- and San Franciscan-born people felt it promoted the gentrification of the neighborhood. [74]

Pan-African flags

In 2017, Supervisor Malia Cohen and the city of San Francisco "tagged" Third Street poles with red, black and green stripes in honor of Black History Month and to honor Black residents' heritage in Bayview–Hunters Point. [75]

Arts and technology

Ike & Tina Turner performing in Hamburg, 1972. The couple performed at Club Long Island during their early years on Third Street. Ike & Tina Turner 231172 Dia14.jpg
Ike & Tina Turner performing in Hamburg, 1972. The couple performed at Club Long Island during their early years on Third Street.

The Bayview has also been a quiet hub for the arts since 1957 and technology going back as far as 1984. Acts such as Ike and Tina Turner performed at the former Club Long Island located on what is now Third & McKinnon. [76]

Murals in Bayview

In the 1980s an artist named Brooke Fancher's mural titled “Tazuri Watu” was commissioned and completed in 1987, "Tazuri Watu" has covered the side of a building located at the intersection of 3rd and Palou for three decades. Over time, the historical work of art had faded, and vandals have defaced portions of it. Earl Shaddix, executive director of Economic Development on Third, called for its restoration. Shaddix applied for a $25,000 grant from the city through the District 10 Participatory Budgeting program, spearheaded by former Supervisor Malia Cohen's office. The program allows residents of a few districts in San Francisco to vote on funding one-time neighborhood improvement projects. After a successful campaign, the city awarded the money in 2018, and planning for the restoration began. [77]

The city commissioned a Malcolm X mural on the Kirkwood Star Market, painted by artist Refa-1 in 1997 [78] and the murals painted on Joseph Lee Recreational Center by artist Dewey Crumpler titled "The Fire Next Time" (presumably after the James Baldwin book of the same name) in 1984 of Harriet Tubman, Paul Robeson, two Senufo birds which in African culture oversee the lives and creativity of the community, King Tut, Muhammed Ali, Willie Mays, Wilma Rudolph and Arthur Ashe. [79]

Along the Third Street corridor, there are many more murals including:

"Bayview Rise" (2013) is an illuminated animated mural located at the Port of San Francisco's Pier 92 grain silos on Islais Creek. The project was created to create images that reflect the Bayview neighborhood's changing economy, ecology, and community. Its large-scale graphics make its primary images visible from a distance but when viewed up close, it reveals the abstract patterns from which those images are composed. At night, the imagery is animated with lighting effects to allow viewers to enjoy the work throughout the day. The artwork was conceived to symbolize a gateway into Bayview Hunters Point and is visible and changing from day to night. [82]

On Egbert Street, painted by Korean artist Chris "Royal Dog" Chanyang Shim in 2016, a mural features a young African-American girl in a traditional Korean hanbok robe with Korean characters above her head translate to the phrase “You will be a blessing.” Other artists that contributed to the 9 murals alone Egbert St are Cameron Moberg, Ricky Watts, Dan Pan, Strider, Annie, Vanessa Agana Espinoza, Mel Waters, William Holland crowned "The Mayor of Egbert" by the community.

The murals were revealed during Imprint City's "block party" and was mostly commissioned with private funds, but public funds were secured by the California Arts Council.

Late tech entrepreneur Leila Janah Web Summit 2017 - Future Societies DG2 9183 (38287707351).jpg
Late tech entrepreneur Leila Janah

Multimedia and technology

Kimberly Bryant founded Black Girls Code, not-for-profit organization that focuses on providing technology education for African-American girls, in the Bayview in 2011. [83]

In 2012, Leila Janah started Samaschool with a pilot program in the Bayview-Hunters Point community. The model originally focused on training students to perform digital work competitively, to prepare them for success on online work sites like oDesk and Elance.[ citation needed ]

Talib Kweli headlines the BayviewLIVE Festival. Hip Hop legend Talib Kweli headlines BayviewLIVE Festival .jpg
Talib Kweli headlines the BayviewLIVE Festival.

A collaboration was completed with singer-songwriter Michael Franti and Freq Nasty, in which Franti's single "The Future" was remixed in support of a Bay Area nonprofit to help create a music studio for at-risk youth in Bayview-Hunters Point.[ citation needed ]

Although located in the Dogpatch district not Bayview, long time center for technology and the arts, BAYCAT Studio (short for Bayview Hunters Point Center for Arts and Technology provides a productive space for low-income youth, young people of color, and young women in the Bay Area to learn the technical side of multi-media production. According to their site, BAYCAT exists "to end racial, gender, and economic inequity by creating powerful, authentic media while diversifying the creative industry. Through the education and employment of low-income youth, young people of color, and young women in the Bay Area, and producing media for socially-minded clients, we are changing the stories that get shared with the world." [84]

Imprint City, BayviewLIVE, and music performances

Started by Tyra Fennell, Imprint City is a non-profit organization located in the Bayview that seeks to activate underutilized spaces with arts and culture events as well as community development projects, encouraging increased foot traffic and economic vitality. The BayviewLIVE Festival, celebrates urban performing and visual artists with past featured headliners such as Talib Kweli, Busta Rhymes, Kamaiyah, Nef the Pharaoh and Jidenna.

Dance

The Hunters Point Shipyard is home to the country's largest artist colony, "The Point". [85] Zaccho Dance Theatre, founded by Artistic Director Joanna Haigood, is the only professional dance company in BVHP since opening their studio in 1990. [86]

Landmarks and attractions

The Bayview Opera House (previously South San Francisco Opera House), was constructed in 1888 and designated a California landmark on December 8, 1968. It was nominated for the National Registry in 2010. South San Francisco Opera House, 1601 Newcomb Ave., San Francisco, CA 6-12-2011 5-36-01 PM.JPG
The Bayview Opera House (previously South San Francisco Opera House), was constructed in 1888 and designated a California landmark on December 8, 1968. It was nominated for the National Registry in 2010.

Historic houses

Danny Glover 2014.jpg
Cindy Herron EpcotMarch2015.jpg
Danny Glover (left), Cindy Herron (right) both credit the Bayview Opera House for jump starting their careers.

Four buildings in the district are listed in the California Registry of Historic Places. The Bayview Opera House (previously South San Francisco Opera House), [87] located at 4705 Third St., was constructed in 1888 and designated a California landmark on December 8, 1968. It was nominated for the National Registry in 2010, [88] and won the Governor's Award for Historic Preservation in 2011. [89]

Quinn House, located at 1562 McKinnon Avenue, was built in 1875 and designated 6 July 1974. [90]

The Albion Brewery was built in 1870 and opened as the Albion Ale And Porter Brewing Company. Located at 881 Innes Avenue, it was designated April 5, 1974. [91]

Sylvester House at 1556 Revere was built in 1870 and designated on April 5, 1974. [92]

Recreation areas

Candlestick Park

Candlestick Park served as an attraction in the Bayview from 1956 to 2013. Candlestick Park 2006-08-11.jpg
Candlestick Park served as an attraction in the Bayview from 1956 to 2013.

On July 26, 2013, prior to being demolished, Justin Timberlake and Jay-Z brought the Legends of the Summer Stadium Tour to Candlestick Park.

Many acts prior and after had also performed at Candlestick including The Beatles, Rolling Stones, Jimmy Buffett, Van Halen, Scorpions, Metallica and Paul McCartney. Pope John Paul II celebrated a Papal Mass on September 18, 1987 at Candlestick Park during his tour of America.

Martin Luther King Jr Memorial Swimming Pool

In 1968, actor Steve McQueen and mayor Joseph Alioto attended the ceremonial groundbreaking for the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial swimming pool at Third Street and Carroll Avenue. The makers of McQueen's film 'Bullitt', Warner Bros Studios, donated an initial $25,000 towards the pool's construction in hopes to raise another $50,000 at the movie premiere. Director Woody Allen is also credited with donating $5000 to this project. [93]

Parks

Bayview is home to three large parks: Bayview Park, located on Key Avenue offers sweeping views of the city; Bay View Park accompanied by K.C. Jones playground and Martin Luther King Jr swimming pool; and the Candlestick Point State Recreation Area located on the bay south of Bayview Hill at Candlestick Point is a popular attraction for kayakers and windsurfers. Heron's Head Park, located in the northern part of the neighborhood, is home to a recently resurgent population of Ridgway's rails [94] and the EPA Award-Winning [95] Heron's Head Eco Center.

The Quesada Garden, [60] located on Quesada Avenue and 3rd Street in the heart of the neighborhood, is a landmark community open space on a public right-of-way. It is connected to a showcase community food producing garden (Bridgeview Community Teaching and Learning Garden) by two large murals produced with the community by artists Deidre DeFranceaux, Santie Huckaby, Malik Seneferu, and Heidi Hardin. Together, these projects have turned one of the most dangerous and blighted corridors in San Francisco into the safe route through the neighborhood, and have created a destination point for residents and visitors. Karl Paige and Annette Young Smith, retired residents, started planting on an urban median strip in 2002, and were quickly joined by neighbors to complete what is now a 650-foot by 20-foot focal point for flowers, food, art and community building. Thirteen mature Canary Island date palm trees on the block are on the San Francisco Registry of Historic Trees. In 2008 Annette Smith, one of the founders of the revitalized Quesada Community Garden. [96]

Ghost streets

Earl Street along Hunter's Point fence Earl-street-along-hp-fence 0992.jpg
Earl Street along Hunter's Point fence

The Bayview and Hunter's Point has many "ghost streets", streets with long corridors that have been since the 1940s. "Ghost streets" exist at the streets Westbrook and Hunters View at the Westbook Public Housing at Fitch Street above Innes Avenue, "Hudson Street" (the fence) above Hawes and Innes. The slope here is a hotspot of native habitat, so aficionados of plants and insects. The locals treat Hudson Street as a way of relieving the heavy traffic on Hunters Point Blvd and Innes Avenue. Another is Earl Street which runs along the fence separating the India Basin Open Space and some private properties from the former Naval Base. [97]

"All My USO'S"

Yearly at Gilman Park in Bayview, the Polynesian and Samoan community host a BBQ called "All My Uso's". The BBQ is held to honor both the heritage of the communities as well as the humanity amongst people. Every year one of the founders JT Mauia who passed of cancer and community activist Taeotui "Jungle Joe" who tragically passed from gun violence are honored. [98] At the barbecue kids get free haircuts and face-paint jobs are also offered.

Businesses on the Third Street Corridor

Also along the Third Street corridor there were two Walgreens. One was located in the Bayview plaza (which is now closed) and another on Williams and Third Street (previously a meat packing company which burned to the ground). There is also a McDonald's located on Wallace Street and a Starbucks coffee in the Bayview plaza.

Speakeasy Brewery offers tours and beer, and hosts live music at their "Final Friday" events. [99] Restaurants such as Chef Eskender Aseged's Radio Africa & Kitchen, [100] Old Skool Cafe, [101] The Jazz Room, Limón Rotisserie, [102] and Brown Sugar Kitchen, [103] join an existing group of established restaurants up and down the Third Street corridor, including Frisco Fried, [104] El Azteca burrito shop, Las Isletas, and "Butcher Town" which includes Gratta Wines and Fox and Lion Bakery. The San Francisco Wholesale Produce Market, [105] located on Jerrold Ave., has been at the center of food distribution in San Francisco since long before moving to its Bayview location in 1963. [106]

After 60 years, the historic and iconic Sam's Jordan's Bar and Grill at 4004 3rd Street closed in 2019. Sam Jordan's Bar and Grill was the oldest African-American bar in San Francisco. The Galvez block was renamed "Sam Jordan's Way" in his honor. [107]

In June 2020, San Francisco native, Reese Benton, opened the cities first black-owned woman-led cannabis dispensary, Posh Green Retail Store. [108]

Mother Brown's Dining Room

Mother Brown's Dining Room United Council of Human Services has been a long staple in the Bayview and provides two meals a day to area homeless in the Bayview District but due to permit issues, beds cannot be provided so plastic chairs are provided instead. [109]

5700 & 5800 Third Street

5700 and 5800 Third Street in the Bayview has been the host of many businesses including Wing Stop, Limon Rotisserie, Fresh and Easy grocery store, locally owned grocery store Duc Loi as well as restaurants such as CDXX [110] and Corner Café. [111] None of which have been able to remain open due to the location along the Third Street corridor.

Post offices

The Evans Street post office, one of the largest post offices in San Francisco Evan Street San Francisco USPS Post Office.jpg
The Evans Street post office, one of the largest post offices in San Francisco

The Bayview currently has two major USPS offices, the second-largest branch (next to Napoleon Street) located on Evans Street, and a smaller branch on Williams Street.

The USPS in 2011 told Bayview postal employees, community leaders, and local politicians that the closure of Bayview's Williams location was "not in the plans" and "off the table". Months later, all Bayview postal customers were mailed official notifications of an impending closure. This stirred up controversy in the immediate community, sparking frustrations and outrage. From residents to politicians, many cited racial and social bias as the reasoning for the closure of the location. Residents were encouraged to use their voices and call local the local postmaster. [112]

In 2012 postmaster Raj Sanghera announced that the Bayview Williams location was taken off the closure list, with other branches as well located in Visitacion Valley, Civic Center, McLaren Station, and San Bruno Avenue. [113]

During the COVID pandemic in 2020, after calling for a #DontMessWithUSPS Day of Action and nearing the November 2020 elections, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi showed up at the Bayview Post Office in San Francisco on Williams Street to discuss her new bill funding the USPS and blocking the Trump administration's overhaul of it. She also had won concessions on mail delivery. [114] Pelosi accompanied with District 10 supervisor, Shamann Walton exclaimed that the Trump administration had been trying to "tamper" with the mail-in ballots by closing several post offices across the country. Other speakers at the Bayview event included letter carriers, someone whose mailbox had been removed, and a veteran with epilepsy who depends on the postal service for medication. [115]

Transportation

The T Third Street line runs through the Bayview. Northbound train at Third and Williams, July 2017.JPG
The T Third Street line runs through the Bayview.

The Bayview is served by the Muni bus and light rail system. Caltrain commuter rail service runs the eastern part of the neighborhood. The rail line formerly served the Paul Avenue station in the Bayview until it closed in 2005. The transportation system enables trips that are minutes to/from downtown being 1/2 mile from Hwy 101 and Interstate 280, and 1.5 miles from Dogpatch and UCSF-Mission Bay. The neighborhood is also 15 min way from SFO. Opening in 2007, the T-Third Street line, a line extension of the Muni Metro system, linked Bayview-Hunters Point to downtown San Francisco. In addition to facilitating a connection between the neighborhood and the rest of the city, many residents cite the T-Third Street also being a contributing factor to rising property values and housing prices in the area. [116]

Muni transit lines that run through the Bayview include:

Active lines

Defunct lines

San Francisco 49ers pre and post game-day shuttles

  • 75X Candlestick Express Balboa Park Station
  • 77X Candlestick Express California and Van Ness
  • 78X Candlestick Express Funston and California
  • 79X Candlestick Express Sutter and Sansome
  • 86 Candlestick Shuttle Bacon and San Bruno
  • 87 Candlestick Shuttle Gilman and Third Street
Thomas C. Fleming, the Sun-Reporter's greatest editor and one of the most influential African American journalists on the West Coast in the 20th century. Thomas C. Fleming, 1997.jpg
Thomas C. Fleming, the Sun-Reporter 's greatest editor and one of the most influential African American journalists on the West Coast in the 20th century.

Print

Radio

Film

Full-length films

Short films

  • Palm Trees Down 3rd Street, is a short film and film festival winner, directed by Maria Judice, that features the 3rd street corridor. [119]

Music videos

Music videos with prominent artists that feature the Bayview or Hunter's Point

Documentaries

Television

Notable residents

Bayview native Donald Strickland. Donald Strickland 2011.JPG
Bayview native Donald Strickland.
Martin Luther McCoy, guitarist and musician is also a Bayview native. Martinluther (300dpi).jpg
Martin Luther McCoy, guitarist and musician is also a Bayview native.
Marcus Orelias, recording artist, entrepreneur and Bayview native. Marcus Orelias Performing.jpg
Marcus Orelias, recording artist, entrepreneur and Bayview native.
Sophie Maxwell, former District 10 supervisor. Sophie MAXWELL, SF Supervisor, 2001.jpg
Sophie Maxwell, former District 10 supervisor.

Music

Film, theatre, and television

Sports and fitness

Medical

Education

Politics and activism

See also

Related Research Articles

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