Beşiktaş

Last updated
Beşiktaş
District
Besiktas District Collage.jpg
Clockwise, from top: Ortaköy Mosque, Arnavutköy, Levent and Etiler, view of Büyükdere Avenue, Akaretler Row Houses, Dolmabahçe Palace
Istanbul location Besiktas.svg
Location of Beşiktaş in Istanbul
Coordinates(Beşiktaş Square):
41°02′33″N29°00′26″E / 41.04250°N 29.00722°E / 41.04250; 29.00722 Coordinates: 41°02′33″N29°00′26″E / 41.04250°N 29.00722°E / 41.04250; 29.00722
Country Turkey
Region Marmara Region
Province Istanbul Province
Settled4th century CE
District established1930
Municipality founded1984
Neighborhoods
Government
  Municipal presidentNone (removed from office)
   Kaymakam Dr. Abdullah Kalkan
Area
[1]
  District21.33 km2 (8.24 sq mi)
Population
 (2017) [2]
  District
185,447
  District density8,700/km2 (23,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Beşiktaşlı
Website en.besiktas.bel.tr

Beşiktaş (pronounced [beˈʃiktaʃ] ) is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait. It is bordered on the north by Sarıyer and Şişli, on the west by Kağıthane and Şişli, on the south by Beyoğlu, and on the east by the Bosphorus. Directly across the Bosphorus is the district of Üsküdar.

Istanbul Metropolitan municipality in Marmara, Turkey

Istanbul, formerly known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is a bridge between the East and West.

Turkey Republic in Western Asia

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located mainly in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; Georgia to its northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. Istanbul is the largest city, but more central Ankara is the capital. Approximately 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority; the size of the Kurdish population is a subject of dispute with estimates placing the figure at anywhere from 12 to 25 per cent of the population.

Sarıyer District in Istanbul, Turkey

Sarıyer is the northernmost district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European side of the city. The Sarıyer district is a huge area consisting of the villages on the European side of the Bosphorus from Rumelifeneri, down through Tarabya, Yeniköy, İstinye, Emirgan to Rumelihisarı. Sarıyer also administers the Black Sea coast to the west of the mouth of the Bosphorus including the village of Kilyos. Its neighbours are Eyüp to the northwest, Beşiktaş to the south and Kağıthane to the west. Sarıyer has a population of approximately 260,000. The mayor is Şükrü Genç (CHP). Some parts of Beyoğlu and Çatalca was joined and Sarıyer became district centre in 1930. District boundaries were shrunk after county of Kemerburgaz was given to Eyüp in 1936 and villages of Maslak and Ayazağa were given to Şişli in 1954. Sarıyer has present boundaries after joining boroughs of Maslak, Ayazağa and Huzur from Şişli district in 2012.

Contents

The district includes a number of important sites along the European shore of the Bosphorus, from Dolmabahçe Palace in the south to the Bebek area in the north. It is also home to many inland (and relatively expensive, upper-middle class) neighborhoods such as Levent and Etiler. Some of its other well-known neighborhoods include Yıldız, Kuruçeşme, Ortaköy, and Arnavutköy.

Dolmabahçe Palace palace

Dolmabahçe Palace located in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, on the European coast of the Bosphorus, served as the main administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1856 to 1887 and 1909 to 1922.

Levent neighbourhood and one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey

Levent is a neighbourhood and one of the main business districts of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city. It is a part of the municipality of Beşiktaş which is situated to the north of the Golden Horn, at the western shore of the Bosphorus strait.

Etiler Beşiktaş, Istanbul

Etiler is a neighbourhood on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey, in the district of Beşiktaş, close to the business quarters of Levent and Maslak.

Beşiktaş' historic commercial centre is the Beşiktaş  [ tr ] quarter and Çarşı (literally, "marketplace"), [3] which adjoins the small Abbasağa Park. Running in the north-south direction, Barbaros Boulevard is a major feeder road for the inner-city motorway O-1 otoyolu.png O-1 and the Bosphorus Bridge, terminating in the important public transport hub of Zincirlikuyu. Büyükdere Avenue also runs through the district.

Barbaros Boulevard

The Barbaros Boulevard is a 3.1 km (1.9 mi)-long major street in the Beşiktaş district on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey. It runs in a straight line in south-north direction from Beşiktaş Square over Yıldız up to Zincirlikuyu, where it passes over to Büyükdere Avenue. It is named after the Ottoman admiral of the fleet Hayreddin Barbarossa, whose tomb is located in Beşiktaş.

Otoyol 1 highway in Turkey

Otoyol 1, abbreviated as O-1 and locally referred to as The First Beltway, is a controlled access highway in Istanbul, Turkey. The O-1 serves as the Inner Beltway and is one of three beltways in the city, the others being the O-2, and O-6,as well as connecting the European and Asian parts of the city via the Bosphorus Bridge.

Bosphorus Bridge Bridge on Bosphorus in Istanbul, Turkey

The Bosphorus Bridge, known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge and unofficially as the First Bridge, is one of the three suspension bridges spanning the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, Turkey, thus connecting Europe and Asia. The bridge extends between Ortaköy and Beylerbeyi.

Although it is a relatively small district of Istanbul, both in terms of population and area, Beşiktaş is one of the city's most important areas due to its business and shopping areas, historic sites, universities, scenic views of the Bosphorus strait, and feeder roads for the Bosphorus and Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridges passing through it. The district is also the leading financial center of Turkey. [4]

Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge suspension bridge

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge, is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait. When completed in 1988, it was the 5th-longest suspension bridge span in the world; today it is the 24th.

In a 2013 ranking of Turkish districts, Beşiktaş placed first overall due to its high quality of life, prosperity, and cultural level. [5] Beşiktaş is also the highest ranking Turkish district in terms of the Human Development Index, with an HDI of 0.864, while also ranking first in the individual indexes for income and education. [6] [7] The municipality is taking part in the Cities4Europe campaign [8] and has qualified as a "European 12 Star City". [9]

Quality of life (QOL) is an overarching term for the quality of the various domains in life. It is a standard level that consists of the expectations of an individual or society for a good life. These expectations are guided by the values, goals and socio-cultural context in which an individual lives. It is a subjective, multidimensional concept that defines a standard level for emotional, physical, material and social well-being. It serves as a reference against which an individual or society can measure the different domains of one’s own life. The extent to which one's own life coincides with this desired standard level, put differently, the degree to which these domains give satisfaction and as such contribute to one's subjective well-being, is called life satisfaction.

Human Development Index composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office.

In 2016 and 2017, there were two terror attacks in the district. One was outside a stadium and the other was at a nightclub. [10]

December 2016 Istanbul bombings Suicide bombing

On the evening of 10 December 2016, two explosions caused by a car bombing and suicide bombing in Istanbul's Beşiktaş municipality killed 48 people and injured 166 others. 36 of those killed were police officers, 8 were civilians and one remains unidentified. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks (TAK) assumed responsibility, claiming that their members killed more than 100 police officers.

Vodafone Park stadium in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey

Vodafone Park is an all-seater, multi-purpose stadium in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey. It is the home ground of Beşiktaş JK. The stadium was built on the site of Beşiktaş's former home, BJK İnönü Stadium. It has a capacity of approximately 41,188 spectators, after initially being planned for 41,903.

Name

The district takes its name from the Beşiktaş quarter located in the modern-day Sinanpaşa neighborhood. Along with Çarşı, this historic centre is sometimes referred to as Köyiçi (roughly "inner village") by locals.

The word beşik means "cradle" in Turkish, while taş means "stone".

According to one story, there was a Byzantine church in modern-day Beşiktaş with the name Kounopetra, Greek for "stone cradle". The church was built to honor a relic, a stone reportedly taken from the stable in Bethlehem where Jesus was born. This stone was later relocated to Hagia Sophia and disappeared during the Fourth Crusade, possibly to be sold in Europe's relics market. [11]

Another story states that a cleric from a Saint Menas (Aya Menas) Church where Beşiktaş now is returned from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem with a cradle-shaped stone used in the baptism of Jesus and placed it in the church. [12]

One other explanation is that the name is a corruption of beş taş, Turkish for "five stones", referring to the five stone pillars built to moor ships by Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha. [13]

History

Besiktas circa 1850 Beschiktasch um 1850.jpg
Beşiktaş circa 1850
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Memorial by Zuhtu Muridoglu and Ali Hadi Bara Barbaros Park Statue.jpg
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Memorial by Zühtü Müridoğlu and Ali Hadi Bara

The Bosphorus has been settled for a long time, and there are many places of historical interest in Beşiktaş. The area is believed to have been settled by Constantine the Great during his reign (306-337 CE). [4] This stretch of the Bosphorus shore is somewhat sheltered from the strong northeasterly winds that bring storms to Istanbul, and thus it forms an ideal mooring place for ships.

In Byzantine times, the area was called Diplokionion, meaning "double pillar" in Greek, as it was the location of a set of twin pillars marking a key entry from the water into Constantinople. These columns would later provide the model for the twin pillars at the water's edge in Venice. [14]

In ancient times the villages on the Bosphorus shore were isolated communities in the forest that lined the water-side. The Bosphorus, however, was prominent in the history and mythology of the ancient Greeks, and villages like Beşiktaş would have had their place in traditional tales such as Jason and the Argonauts . In the Byzantine, era churches and a monastery were built and the tradition of having a summer palace on the Bosphorus was begun by the Byzantines with their Ayios Mamas palace complex. The Bosphorus settlements however, being outside the city walls, were vulnerable to raiders from the Black Sea coasts and little of this architecture or the statuary that would have decorated it so gloriously has survived.

In the Ottoman period, once the emperors had established control of the Black Sea coasts, the Ottoman navy was docked in the Bosphorus and the Bosphorus villages became safe and attractive again. One man in particular, the legendary sailor Barbarossa Hayreddin, built his palace and mosque in Beşiktaş, making it his home. By now Beşiktaş was an established Bosphorus crossing for caravans trading across Anatolia and along the Silk Road, and for the great Ottoman armies.

This coast was very attractive to the Ottoman rulers, who built hunting lodges and then great palaces in the area, and the Beşiktaş district today contains some of the most important and attractive Ottoman buildings. The area was thus the scene of great intrigues of the late Ottoman period such as the dethronement of Sultan Abdülaziz at Dolmabahçe Palace in a coup in 1876, the announcement of the founding of the Ottoman parliament in 1908, and the deposing of Sultan Abdul Hamid II at Yıldız Palace in 1909.

Following the foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the Ottoman ruling family was deported and the palaces and mansions along the coast were emptied out. Some were given to new government ministries, some used as schools and other public buildings, others were demolished.

Today, it is widely accepted by the residents of the area that the most significant resident of Beşiktaş was Zübeyde Hanım, the mother of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who lived in the old quarter at the heart of Beşiktaş, literally right next to the then headquarters of Beşiktaş J.K. [15]

Besides the more historic areas such as Yıldız, Ortaköy, Kuruçeşme, Arnavutköy, Bebek, many residential areas in the district started to form around the 1950s. For example, the foundations of Levent (named after the Levent Farm previously located there) were established in the 1950s when construction began on a prestigious suburban mass housing project. [16] The Etiler, Konaklar, Akatlar, Nisbetiye, Levazım and Kültür neighborhoods followed soon after.

Geography

A panoramic view of the Bosphorus strait and Asia from Ulus Istanbul Bogazici Ulus view 3690-3699.jpg
A panoramic view of the Bosphorus strait and Asia from Ulus

Government

Beşiktaş is located on the European side of Istanbul Province. It became an independent district in 1930 after its separation from Beyoğlu, and the municipal government was founded in 1984. [4] The district is composed of 23 neighborhoods.

Ulus is located within the top half of Ortakoy on this antiquated map. It had been a part of Ortakoy until 1988. Besiktas mahalleler.png
Ulus is located within the top half of Ortaköy on this antiquated map. It had been a part of Ortaköy until 1988.
2014 guide map of the district. Besiktas Guide Map.jpg
2014 guide map of the district.

Neighborhoods

Local election results

Beşiktaş Municipal Elections [17]
YearMunicipal PresidentPartyVote
1984 Mümtaz Kola ANAP %59,22
1989 Ayfer Atay SHP %47,79
1994 Ayfer Atay SHP %29,26
1999 Yusuf Namoğlu ANAP %28,95
2004 İsmail Ünal CHP %44,61
2009 İsmail Ünal CHP %60,66
2014 Murat Hazinedar CHP %76,29
2019 Riza Akpolat CHP %73.06

Historic quarters

Arnavutkoy Arnavutkoy-SA400006.jpg
Arnavutköy
Bebek bay Vbebek.JPG
Bebek bay
Ortakoy Ortakoey Istanbul Bosporusbruecke Mrz2005.jpg
Ortaköy

Arnavutköy: Located between Bebek and Kuruçeşme.

Aşiyan: Located between Bebek and Rumelihisarı.

Balmumcu  [ tr ]: Located along Barboros Boulevard, between Yıldız and Zincirlikuyu junction.

Bebek: The origins for Bebek's name go back to the Conquest of Istanbul.

Beşiktaş  [ tr ]: One of Istanbul's oldest quarters and the origin of the district's name.

Kuruçeşme: Located along the Bosphorus and known for its mansions.

Ortaköy: Known today for its iconic mosque and square. Historically a multicultural area.

Yıldız: Located to the east of Barbaros Boulevard.

Places of interest

Beşiktaş is home to many historic and modern places of interest. Among the most notable are Dolmabahçe Palace, Çırağan Palace, Yıldız Palace, and Ortaköy Mosque.

The Levent neighborhood is home to many modern shopping malls and office buildings. Some of Turkey's tallest buildings are located in the area, along Büyükdere Avenue.

Historic

Modern

Economy

Skyline from the Bosphorus with Dolmabahce Palace at front, Sisli in the left half and Besiktas in the right half. Istanbul Skyline Besiktas Sisli.JPG
Skyline from the Bosphorus with Dolmabahçe Palace at front, Şişli in the left half and Beşiktaş in the right half.

Sports and Beşiktaş JK

View of BJK Inonu Stadium, 1967 Inonu Stadyumu1967.jpg
View of BJK İnönü Stadium, 1967
Interior view of Vodafone Park Besiktas J.K. vs Bursaspor 11 April 2016 (5).jpg
Interior view of Vodafone Park

The area gives its name to Turkey's oldest sports club, Beşiktaş Jimnastik Kulübü (Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club), founded in 1903. The club's football team is one of the top three in Turkey, having won 15 Turkish Super League titles and participating regularly in the UEFA Champions League and Europa League. The team played their home games at the historic İnönü Stadium, which was demolished in 2013 and replaced on the same grounds by the 41,903 seat Vodafone Park. The stadium is near Dolmabahçe Palace at the shore of the Bosphorus. The football team wears black and white shirts and is nicknamed the Black Eagles. The club has earned notoriety for its faithful fans, who have broken volume records with 132 decibel cheers. [18] [19] BJK Akatlar Arena is the home of the basketball team. The club's most famous supporter group is called Çarşı, and is known for its involvement in social and political issues.

Besides Beşiktaş JK, the district is also home to the smaller yet historic Ortaköy SK. The Istanbul Specialized Swimming Club was the first specialized swimming club in the country.[ citation needed ] In addition, there are a number of other amateur sports clubs and Levent Tennis Club.

Many of the notable sporting facilities in the district belong to Beşiktaş JK; such as Vodafone Park, BJK Akatlar Arena, Süleyman Seba Sports Centre, Fulya Training Facilities and Çilekli Football Field.

Education and culture

Beşiktaş is arguably the most important educational center of Istanbul. [4] The central campuses of some of Turkey's leading universities, such as Boğaziçi University, Galatasaray University, and Yıldız Technical University are located in the district. The Turkish War Academies and central parts of Beykent University, Kadir Has University, Istanbul Technical University, and Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University can also be found here. [20]

Many notable primary and secondary schools such as Robert College, Etiler Anadolu Lisesi, the Istanbul Japanese School, [21] MEF International School, the Etiler campus of the British International School Istanbul, and the Etiler campus of the Tarabya British Schools, [22] can be found in Beşiktaş. [23] A total of 43 K-12 schools (12 private) are listed by the municipality. [24]

Museums in the district include the Aşiyan Museum, the Beşiktaş JK Museum, Istanbul Naval Museum, Istanbul State Art and Sculpture Museum, Istanbul City Museum, Yıldız Palace Museum, and the Firefighting Museum. [25]

As of 2018, there are 18 art galleries, 20 libraries, 12 theatre venues, and 8 movie theatres with numerous screens listed by the municipality. [26] [27] [28] [29] In addition, there are other notable performance venues such as Kuruçeşme Arena and Zorlu Performing Arts Center.

Beşiktaş Culture Center  [ tr ], founded in 1994 by Yılmaz Erdoğan and Necati Akpınar  [ tr ], is known nationwide for its theatre, cinema, and television productions. [30]

Transportation

Beşiktaş is an important transport hub with ferries going to the Asian side and dozens of buses departing from the area.

Besiktas Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha pier Barbaros Hayrettin Pasa Pier, Besiktas.jpg
Beşiktaş Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha pier

International relations

Involvement

The municipality is an associated partner of Eurocities and is involved in a number of working groups ranging from urban ageing to migration and integration. [31] It is also a part of the Cities4Europe campaign. [8]

Beşiktaş was awarded the '12 Star City' title for 2016 and 2017 by the Council of Europe. [9]

Twin municipalities

Related Research Articles

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Mehmed VI 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

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Murad V Ottoman Sultan

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Ortaköy

Ortaköy in Greek known as Agios Fokas in the Byzantine period and Mesachorion later, is a neighbourhood, formerly a small village, within the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, Turkey, located in the middle of the European bank of the Bosphorus.

Balyan family Armenian dynasty of Ottoman architects

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Ortaköy Mosque mosque in Turkey

Ortaköy Mosque, officially the Büyük Mecidiye Camii in Beşiktaş, Istanbul, Turkey, is situated at the waterside of the Ortaköy pier square, one of the most popular locations on the Bosphorus.

Arnavutköy Place in Istanbul, Turkey

Arnavutköy is a historic neighbourhood in Istanbul, Turkey, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and seafood restaurants, as well as the campus of the prestigious Robert College with its centennial buildings. It is part of the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul, and is located between Ortaköy and Bebek on the European shoreline of the Bosphorus strait.

Yıldız Clock Tower

Yıldız Clock Tower, is a clock tower situated next to the courtyard of the Yıldız Hamidiye Mosque, in Yıldız neighborhood of Beşiktaş district in Istanbul, Turkey at the European side of Bosphorus.

Bebek, Beşiktaş

Bebek is a historic Istanbul neighbourhood that falls within the boundaries and administration of the Beşiktaş district. It is located on Bebek Bay along the European shores of the Bosphorus strait and is surrounded by similarly affluent neighbourhoods such as Arnavutköy, Etiler and Rumeli Hisarı.

Abdulmejid I Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Abdülmecid I or Tanzimatçı Sultan Abdülmecid due to the Tanzimat reforms he conducted, he is also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839. His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdulmejid wanted to encourage Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdulmejid's biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat (reorganization) reforms which were prepared by his father and effectively started the modernization of the Ottoman Empire in 1839. For this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdulmejid, was named after him.

Kanlıca Neighborhood in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey

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Kuruçeşme Neighborhood in Istanbul, Marmara, Turkey

Kuruçeşme is a neighborhood in Beşiktaş district of İstanbul, Turkey. It is on the European side of Bosphorous between the neighborhoods of Ortaköy and Arnavutköy.

Aşiyan is a planned underground station and the eastern terminus of the under construction F4 funicular line of the Istanbul Metro in Beşiktaş, Istanbul. The station will be located next to the Aşiyan Park, along Cevdet Paşa Avenue on the Bosphorus strait in Bebek. The station is expected to open, along with the F4 line, in 2019.

Outline of Istanbul Overview of and topical guide to Istanbul

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Istanbul:

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