Bela Palanka

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Bela Palanka

Бела Паланка
Bela Palanka pogled sa brda.JPG
View from heights
Blason de Bela Palanka.png
Coat of arms
Municipalities of Serbia Bela Palanka.png
Location of the municipality of Bela Palanka within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°13′N22°19′E / 43.217°N 22.317°E / 43.217; 22.317 Coordinates: 43°13′N22°19′E / 43.217°N 22.317°E / 43.217; 22.317
Country Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Region Southern and Eastern Serbia
District Pirot
Settlements46
Government
  MayorGoran Miljković (SNS)
Area
[1]
  Urban8.28 km2 (3.20 sq mi)
  Municipality551 km2 (213 sq mi)
Elevation
394 m (1,293 ft)
Population
 (2011 census) [2]
  Town
8,143
  Town density980/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
  Municipality
12,126
  Municipality density22/km2 (57/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
18310
Area code +381(0)18
Car plates PI
Website www.belapalanka.org.rs

Bela Palanka (Serbian Cyrillic: Бела Паланка, pronounced  [bɛ̂ːlaː pǎlaːŋka] ) is a town and municipality located in the Pirot District of southeastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the population of the town is 8,143, and the population of the municipality is 12,126. In ancient times, the town was known as Remesiana in Dacia Mediterranea. The name Bela Palanka means 'white town'.

Contents


History

Ancient Bela Palanka

The town was originally settled by the Dacians and was known under the ancient name of Aiadava or Aeadaba. Thracians inhabited the area until their assimilation into contemporary ethnic groups in the area.

After the Romans conquered Moesia in 75 BC, the new castrum (imperial domain with estates) and municipium was known initially as Ulpianorum and then Remesiana [3] (Moesi) and stood along the Via Militaris between Naissus and Serdica.

Emperor Justinian had following strongholds in the district of Remesiana:

Brittura Subaras Lamponiana Stronges Dalmatas Primiana Phrerraria Topera Tomes Cuas Tzertzenutzas Stens Aeadaba Destreba Pretzouries Cumudeba Deurias Lutzolo Rhepordenes Spelonca Scumbro Briparo Tulcoburgo Longiana Lupophantana Dardapara Burdomina Grinciapana Graecus Drasimarca

The patron saint of Romania, Nicetas of Remesiana, was a 4th-century bishop at Remesiana. Peter the Hermit was defeated by the Byzantines in the north and regrouped at an evacuated Bela Palanka, gathering the harvest before heading to Constantinople. [4]

Excavations include well-preserved castrum dating to 4th century and a hoard of 260 coins minted during the rule of Constantine I, Theodosius I, Tiberius Claudius Nero. [5] During the 1096 People's Crusade the town, left abandoned by its inhabitants, was briefly occupied by the pilgrims led by Peter the Hermit, Walter of Breteuil and Rainald of Breis.

Ottoman Empire

During the centuries of Ottoman control, Bela Palanka was the site of a major caravanserai (or han) along the Tsarigrad Road. Ottoman authorities ordered the first such caravanserai be built in the settlement (then named Izvor) from wood in 1598-99, during the Long Turkish War, largely due to persistent attacks on travelers by hajduks. This structure deteriorated after a few decades and was replaced by a larger and more durable caravanserai made of stone, commissioned by the local governor, Musa Pasha. This han differed from others in the region because of its large size and because it had separate large rooms for harems of dignitaries. The interior of the han was painted by an artist brought from Buda. To honor its patron, the name of the settlement was then changed to Musa-paša Palanka, from which the town's current name was derived. [6]

Modern Serbia

From 1929 to 1941, Bela Palanka was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

Geography

Bela Palanka is a small town in the southeast of the country and is surrounded by countryside and mountains. The town is accessible from the nearby city of Niš by the Niš Express buses that run from Niš to Pirot, Babušnica, Dimitrovgrad, and Sofia.

Climate

Bela Palanka has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), that's very close to a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb).

Climate data for Bela Palanka
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)3.6
(38.5)
6.4
(43.5)
12.1
(53.8)
16.8
(62.2)
21.6
(70.9)
25.3
(77.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
24.2
(75.6)
18.1
(64.6)
9.7
(49.5)
4.9
(40.8)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
2.5
(36.5)
6.9
(44.4)
11.1
(52.0)
15.7
(60.3)
19.1
(66.4)
20.8
(69.4)
20.9
(69.6)
17.3
(63.1)
12.4
(54.3)
5.8
(42.4)
1.8
(35.2)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F)−3.3
(26.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.7
(35.1)
5.4
(41.7)
9.8
(49.6)
12.9
(55.2)
14.1
(57.4)
13.9
(57.0)
10.5
(50.9)
6.7
(44.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.9
(42.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
41
(1.6)
49
(1.9)
67
(2.6)
65
(2.6)
49
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
42
(1.7)
42
(1.7)
55
(2.2)
52
(2.0)
582
(22.9)
Source: Climate-Data.org [7]


Settlements

Aside from the town of Bela Palanka, the municipality consists of the following villages:

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194829,641    
195328,756−0.60%
196124,982−1.74%
197121,325−1.57%
198118,744−1.28%
199116,447−1.30%
200214,381−1.21%
201112,126−1.88%
Source: [8]

According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has 12,126 inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic groupPopulation%
Serbs 10,39585.94%
Romani 1,41811.72%
Muslims 100.08%
Macedonians 80.07%
Bulgarians 80.07%
Others2572.12%
Total12,126

Economy

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018): [9]

ActivityTotal
Agriculture, forestry and fishing14
Mining and quarrying41
Manufacturing371
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply15
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities70
Construction173
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles232
Transportation and storage69
Accommodation and food services92
Information and communication20
Financial and insurance activities13
Real estate activities-
Professional, scientific and technical activities55
Administrative and support service activities45
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security141
Education159
Human health and social work activities120
Arts, entertainment and recreation66
Other service activities78
Individual agricultural workers23
Total1,798

See also

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References

  1. "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN   978-86-6161-109-4 . Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2011-01-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. God's war: a new history of the Crusades-Christopher Tyerman 2006
  5. Ancient diseases: the elements of palaeopathology-Srboljub Živanović 1982
  6. Florian Riedler; Nenad Stefanov (6 April 2021). The Balkan Route: Historical Transformations from Via Militaris to Autoput. De Gruyter. ISBN   978-3-11-061706-1.
  7. "Climate: Bela Palanka, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  8. "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  9. "MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2019" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.