Belarus Free Theatre

Last updated

Belarus Free Theatre
Natalya kolyada.JPG
Natalia Koliada at a benefit in New York City, January 2011.
FormationMarch 2005
TypeTheatre group
Location
  • Belarus
Website belarusfreetheatre.com

Belarus Free Theatre is a Belarusian underground theatre group.

Contents

Under the current political system the Belarus Free Theatre has no official registration, no premises, nor any other facilities. Rehearsals and performances (always free of charge for the public) are normally held secretly in small private apartments, which, due to security and the risk of persecution, must constantly be changed.

On several occasions, performances were given in street cafes and in the countryside, in the woods. Staffs members have been repeatedly harassed by the authorities for their participation in the Belarus Free Theatre activities and the stage director together with other people were sacked from their jobs at state-run theatres.

History

The group was established in March 2005 by human rights activists Nikolai Khalezin, playwright and journalist, and Natalia Koliada, a theatre producer and Khalezin's wife. The theatre was meant to be an artistic form of resisting the pressure and censorship of the authoritarian regime of president Alexander Lukashenko in Belarus.

In May 2005 the team was joined by stage director Vladimir Shcherban, who has produced the majority of Free Theatre performances. Currently the theatre's staff consists of ten professional actors, one professional dramatist, four managers and two technical assistants.

The troupe's first production was 4.48 Psychosis , by the late British playwright Sarah Kane (1971–1999), which deals with "depression and suicide –– two themes that are taboo in state-controlled Belarusian art." The performance was directed by Vladimir Shcherban, and the premiere took place on 28 May 2005 in one of Minsk clubs. [1]

According to the website of the European Theatre Convention, "Since May 2005 the Free Theatre has produced seven performances based on thirteen plays. About 5,000 people attended performances of the Free Theatre in Belarus and more than 4,000 abroad during the first two years of existence. Free Theatre attracts other representatives of Belarusian underground culture in the variety of fields, such as independent music, art, photography, cinematography." [2]

On 8 February 2006, Steven Lee Myers reported in The New York Times that "The theater ... performs in private apartments and in places that are not openly advertised –– and, increasingly, abroad, where it is drawing international attention and support from prominent playwrights, including Tom Stoppard and Václav Havel." [3] [4]

The Free Theatre performed its original theatrical work Being Harold Pinter at the mid-April 2007 conference "Artist and Citizen: 50 Years of Performing Pinter, in Leeds, England, during which British playwright and 2005 Nobel Laureate Harold Pinter participated in the after-performance discussion. During the conference, there were scheduled screenings for conferees of the video of Square (Ploshcha), a documentary film about the situation in Belarus. [5] Michael Billington — Pinter's official biographer and theatre critic of The Guardian — wrote a laudatory account of the performance of Being Harold Pinter and the Free Theatre in his Guardian Online "Theatre Blog" on 16 April 2007, from the conference, observing that "A new production by the Belarus Free Theatre reinforces the global resonance of the British playwright's political works." [6]

Afterward, the Free Theatre went on to the European Theatre Convention (ETC) in Thessaloniki, Greece, site of the 11th Europe Theatre Prize conference (26–29 April 2007), and, the ETC invited the Free Theatre to join it, waiving membership fees: "In April 2007, Belarus Free Theatre became a full member of the European Theatre Convention," according to the ETC website, and in May 2007 "a member of [the] international network Trans European Halls." [2] [7]

Fewer than three weeks after meeting with former Czech President Václav Havel on 4 August 2007, at his country cottage in the Czech Republic on 22 August 2007, during the Free Theatre's première of Edward Bond's theatrical piece Eleven Vests, "special forces from the Belarusian police stormed the performance by the Belarus 'Free Theatre' in a private apartment in Minsk," and "Actors, directors, and audience members," including its director Khalezin, "were arrested"; though subsequently released, "the theatre's founder Nikolai Khalezin is still pretty shaken up," having stated: "'Police used to burst into our performances with machine guns but they disappeared just as fast. A mass arrest like this is a first.'" [7] [8] According to Petz, "Khalezin thinks that this is a concerted effort on the part of the police, the special forces OMON and the secret service KGB 'to exert pressure'." [8] Though Khalezin himself "is used to" such harassment in the past, he stated (as qtd. by Petz), "'But now it's affecting those who have never been arrested before. I'm afraid that some of them won't come back.'" [8] Regardless of all the intentions of special forces to stop the premiere, the performance took place the next day in one of the private houses outside of Minsk. Police were taking video of the event from the forest. [9]

On 19 December 2010, fifty thousand people went into the streets to protest what they believed to be the rigged election of Alexander Lukashenko. More than a thousand of those were beaten and arrested, including Artistic Director Natalia Koliada, [10] other members of the theatre, and prominent artists and poets. At the Belarus Embassy in London, dozens of leaders from the artistic community, including Ian McKellen, protested the arrests, bringing international attention. [11] Natalia Koliada was released, while Nikolai Khalezin went into hiding, where he remains. [12]

Aims

Khalezin, who is also a dramatist himself, having become "famous with his piece 'Ja prishel' (Here I am) which gleaned many international awards," observes that "'All theatres in Belarus are state-owned ... The directors and creative directors are appointed by the Ministry of Culture. The performances are censored, the programs are old and musty. We want to offer an alternative, a modern theatre that discusses social problems with a degree of creative freedom.'" [8]

According to its website, "the main aim" of the performances of the Free Theatre is to "break through stereotypes of the Belarusian population that are imposed by the ideological system of Belarusian dictatorial regime."

"Belarus Free Theatre will exist as long as it is creatively alive", says Nikolai Khalezin. [13]

Members of the Belarus Free Theatre and other Belarusian dissidents cite Václav Havel and the 1989 Velvet Revolution in the former Czechoslovakia, Polish theatre, and other Eastern European protest movements of the 1960s and '70s as inspirations and models for their artistic resistance as part of the status quo in Belarus. [5] [7]

Activities

Speaking about the Free Theatre's first production, Sarah Kane's 4.48 Psychosis , its founder Nikolai Khalezin observes that Kane's play "'is about a woman's psychological decay, homosexuality and suicide," and that, while "There's no politics in the play," in it "there is something that is threatening to a dictatorship –– open conversation . The dictatorship says: "We have no suicide, no alcoholism, no drug abuse." And we say: we have to talk if we want to solve problems.'" [8]

Claire Bigg asks: "If the Free Theater has no political agenda, then what makes it so subversive in the eyes of the authorities?" [14] In response, founder "Khalezin says [that] Lukashenka's[ sic ] authoritarian regime, which he describes as 'collective farm-like,' has failed, unlike the Soviets and the Nazis, to establish an aesthetic platform to promote its doctrines. ... The Belarusian leadership, he says, therefore feels threatened by any form of individual artistic expression that illustrates present-day dilemmas. ... Despite the pressure and obstacles, the Free Theater manages to deliver cutting-edge, effervescent performances –– and Khalezin says the troupe is determined to fight for its right to do so until Lukashenka's[ sic ] regime comes to an end.

Although also observing that "The project is often referred to as 'political theatre'," Petz stresses that Khalezin himself "definitely does not consider his art political. He says that would be too boring and adds, 'We don't have a single classically political play in our repertoire.' For him, "uprightness" is more important than the classic political play." [8]

Consequences

Such "uprightness", Petz cautions, "comes at a price in Belarus", as "Almost all the members of the ensemble have served time behind bars." [8] Director Vladimir Scherban was "fired by his state employer for being involved with the 'Free Theatre,' as were other actors." [8] Andrei Kolyada, a renowned Belarusian professor and specialist in scenic speech, was fired from Belarusian Academy of Arts for his collaboration with the Belarus Free Theatre. [15]

Educational project

In late 2008 thanks to the financial support of the British Embassy in Belarus [16] the Belarus Free Theatre launched an educational project named "Studio Fortinbras", destined to young Belarusians without theatre experience. In the framework of this project Natalia Koliada and Nikolai Khalezin are themselves lecturers in marketing, management and dramaturgy. The declared aim of the studio is the "forming of universal creator: a person who will know how to do everything – write, stage, perform – and will be able to propose the realization of his artistic product in any country of the world". [17] It is specified that "the Belarusian "Free theatre" is only interested in education of personnel who will work exclusively inside its own collective". [18] In December 2009 the managers of the theatre announced a new recruitment in the studio, having declared, that out of 30 students admitted from the beginning of the project "Fortinbras" almost all of them were "eliminated". [19] International professionals in theatre marketing, management and dramaturgy come to Minsk with workshops. [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] Apart from that Belarus Free Theatre holds educational workshops on contemporary theatre abroad. [25] [26]

International support

Famous playwrights like Tom Stoppard, Harold Pinter, Václav Havel, and Arthur Kopit have supported the Free Theatre, with "Pinter himself ... so enthusiastic about the collage [Being Harold Pinter] that [the Free Theatre] ... assembled from his Nobel Prize for Literature speech, plays and letters from political prisoners in Belarus, that he gave the 'Free Theater' [sic] the rights to his plays for free." [8] Stoppard, who "gave a course in Minsk" two years earlier, stated: "'I wish that all my plays would be performed by a theatre like this,'" becoming "one of the theatre's patrons," along with former Czech President Havel, whom a couple of them visited on 4 August 2007, prior to being "under attack" by the authorities again. On 30 July 2007, before going to the Czech Republic to meet with former President Havel, "The group ... met Rolling Stones singer Mick Jagger in Warsaw," another sponsor. [8] In 2009 Belarus Free Theatre met with Steven Spielberg in DreamWorks Headquarters in LA, USA. [27] Not only do "such famous sponsors bring glamour" to the Free Theatre, according to Petz, but they also afford "protection against even more drastic repressive measures" from the Belarusian authorities. [8] The theatre has also received moral support from free expression charity Index on Censorship, who have lobbied British MPs on the situation in Belarus. In late 2011, the Free Theatre conducted a highly successful crowdfunding campaign on UK-based platform Sponsume to help them continue their activity, banned in Belarus, through their London office. A number of artists, including actor Kevin Spacey supported the Free Theatre's Sponsume campaign.

Dangerous Acts Starring the Unstable Elements of Belarus

The Belarus Free Theatre was the subject of the 2012 documentary "Dangerous Acts Starring the Unstable Elements of Belarus". The film was directed and produced by American filmmaker Madeleine Sackler. [28]

Awards

Subsequent international support and press reviews

On 10 February 2008, there was a benefit performance of Being Harold Pinter as part of a Gala Evening at Soho Theatre, in London, staged in Russian with English surtitles, along with Generation Jeans, which Harold Pinter attended; the committee for this Gala Evening was chaired by Sir Tom Stoppard, and the event was "To raise vital funds for the UK presentation of The Belarus Free Theatre and associated contextual events including workshops and platform discussions on censorship and freedom of speech." The production, which was performed from 11 to 23 February 2008, received appreciative press reviews, including 5 stars from Pinter's official authorised biographer Michael Billington, in his Guardian review, [47] and 4 stars from the Times reviewer Sam Marlowe, who observed that "Drama doesn't come more urgently political than in the work of the Belarus Free Theatre." [48]

Being Harold Pinter premiered in New South Wales, Australia, at the Belvoir St Theatre, in Surry Hills, on 6 January 2009, playing there from 6 through 11 and 28 through 31 January and 1 February and at Q Theatre, Penrith, from 14 through 17 January 2009. [49] The production, a part of the Sydney Festival 2009 (10–31 January), took on "a particular poignancy" after Pinter's death occurred on 24 December 2008. [50]

International Festivals and Tours

See also

Related Research Articles

Minsk Capital of Belarus

Minsk is the capital and the largest city of Belarus, located on the Svislač and the Niamiha rivers. As the capital, Minsk has a special administrative status in Belarus and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblasć) and Minsk District (rajon). As of January 2018, its population was 1,982,444,, making Minsk the 11th most populous city in Europe. Minsk is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and seat of its Executive Secretary.

Harold Pinter English playwright (1930-2008)

Harold Pinter was a British playwright, screenwriter, director and actor. A Nobel Prize winner, Pinter was one of the most influential modern British dramatists with a writing career that spanned more than 50 years. His best-known plays include The Birthday Party (1957), The Homecoming (1964), and Betrayal (1978), each of which he adapted for the screen. His screenplay adaptations of others' works include The Servant (1963), The Go-Between (1971), The French Lieutenant's Woman (1981), The Trial (1993), and Sleuth (2007). He also directed or acted in radio, stage, television, and film productions of his own and others' works.

Alexander Lukashenko President of Belarus

Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksand(a)r Ryhoravich Lukashenka is a Belarusian politician who has served as the president of Belarus since the establishment of the office on 20 July 1994. Prior to his political career, Lukashenko worked as director of a state farm (sovkhoz), and served in the Soviet Border Troops and in the Soviet Army.

No Man's Land is a play by Harold Pinter written in 1974 and first produced and published in 1975. Its original production was at the Old Vic theatre in London by the National Theatre on 23 April 1975, and it later transferred to Wyndham's Theatre, July 1975 – January 1976, the Lyttelton Theatre April–May 1976, and New York October–December, returning to the Lyttelton, January–February 1977. It is a two act play.

Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest

Belarus has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 16 times since making its debut in 2004. The country's first appearance in a final was in 2007, with the song "Work Your Magic" performed by Dmitry Koldun, placing sixth. This remains Belarus' only top ten placement. Belarus also qualified for the final in 2010, 2013, 2014, 2017 and 2019.

The culture of Belarus is the product of a millennium of development under the impact of a number of diverse factors. These include the physical environment; the ethnographic background of Belarusians ; the paganism of the early settlers and their hosts; Eastern Orthodox Christianity as a link to the Byzantine literary and cultural traditions; the country's lack of natural borders; the flow of rivers toward both the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea; and the variety of religions in the region.

Jeans Revolution

The Jeans Revolution was a term used by Belarus' democratic opposition to describe their protests following the 2006 Belarusian presidential election.

National Opera and Ballet of Belarus

The National Academic Grand Opera and Ballet Theatre of the Republic of Belarus is located in a park in the Trinity Hill district of Minsk. Local people call it the "Opierny Teatr" (Belarusian) or the "Opera and Ballet Theatre." While the theatre opened on 15 May 1933, in the beginning, it did not have its own performance venue. Until 1938, the troupe performed at the Belarusian Drama Theatre building.

Michael Billington (critic)

Michael Keith Billington OBE is a British author and arts critic. He writes for The Guardian, and was the paper's chief drama critic from 1971 to 2019. Billington is "Britain's longest-serving theatre critic" and the author of biographical and critical studies relating to British theatre and the arts. He is the authorised biographer of the playwright Harold Pinter (1930–2008).

Bibliography for Harold Pinter is a list of selected published primary works, productions, secondary sources, and other resources related to English playwright Harold Pinter (1930–2008), the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature, who was also a screenwriter, actor, director, poet, author, and political activist. It lists works by and works about him, and it serves as the Bibliography for the main article on Harold Pinter and for several articles relating to him and his works.

Harold Pinter and academia concerns academic recognition of and scholarship pertaining to Harold Pinter, CH, CBE (1930–2008), English playwright, screenwriter, actor, director, poet, author, political activist, and the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature, at the time of his death considered by many "the most influential and imitated dramatist of his generation."

<i>Art, Truth and Politics</i> 2006 video by Harold Pinter

"Art, Truth and Politics" is the Nobel Lecture delivered on video by the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature Harold Pinter (1930–2008), who was at the time hospitalised and unable to travel to Stockholm to deliver it in person.

Uładzimir Katkoŭski

Uładzimir Katkoŭski was a Belarusian blogger, web designer and website creator.

Oleg Bogayev Russian writer (born 1970)

Oleg Anatolyevich Bogayev, born 1970, is a Russian playwright based in Yekaterinburg. He has been described by Moscow Times theatre critic John Freedman as "one of the first and best-known students to graduate from [Nikolai] Kolyada’s playwriting course at the Yekaterinburg State Theatre Institute." He is now on the faculty at the same school. Bogaev is also the editor of the Ural literary magazine, a post he took over from his mentor Nikolai Kolyada in August 2010.

Harold Pinter and politics concerns the political views, civic engagement, and political activism of British playwright Harold Pinter (1930–2008), the 2005 Nobel Laureate in Literature.

Franak Viačorka Belarusian politician (born 1988)

Francišak Valancinavič (Franak) Viačorka (Viachorka) is a journalist from Belarus, Vice President of the Digital Communication Network and consultant for U.S. Agency for Global Media.

Harold Pinter Theatre

The Harold Pinter Theatre, known as the Comedy Theatre until 2011, is a West End theatre, and opened on Panton Street in the City of Westminster, on 15 October 1881, as the Royal Comedy Theatre. It was designed by Thomas Verity and built in just six months in painted (stucco) stone and brick. By 1884 it was known as simply the Comedy Theatre. In the mid-1950s the theatre underwent major reconstruction and re-opened in December 1955; the auditorium remains essentially that of 1881, with three tiers of horseshoe-shaped balconies.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Minsk, Belarus.

Vladimir Makei Belarusian politician

Vladimir Vladimirovich Makei is a Belarusian politician who has served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Belarus since 2012.

Ilya Silchukov

Ilya Silchukov, could also be spelled Ilya Silchukou, is a Belarusian operatic baritone. He debuted his career in Tchaikovsky's Eugene Onegin at the National Opera and Ballet of Belarus in 2005. Ever since his debut he has shared his appearance at several European opera houses. His academic and vocal achievements had shown his preparedness and the alertness of a true opera singer.

References

  1. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  2. 1 2 "Belarus Free Theatre".
  3. "New Artistic Underground in Belarus Is Theater Group". The New York Times . 8 February 2006. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  4. "Belarus News and Analysis | New Artistic Underground in Belarus Is Theater Group". Data.minsk.by. 16 September 1999. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  5. 1 2 Further information about the film and its political human rights contexts are described in "Freedom Day in Brussels: Screening of the movie 'Ploshcha' (Square) and the Solidarity Concert" Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . Office for a Democratic Belarus, Brussels. democraticbelarus.eu, 25 March 2007. Web. 5 September 2007.
  6. Billington, Michael (16 April 2007). "The importance of being Pinter | Stage". theguardian.com. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  7. 1 2 3 Michael Batiukov, "Belarus 'Free Theatre' Is Under Attack by Militia in Minsk, Belarus" Archived 11 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine . AmericanChronicle.com. American Chronicle, [dated "November 30, 1999"]; updated, 22 August 2007. Web. 29 January 2009.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ingo Petz, "Arrests After the Second Act", originally published in Süddeutsche Zeitung , 30 August 2007. Signandsight.com, 3 September 2007. Web. 4 September 2007. (Bold font is Petz's own emphasis throughout.)
  9. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  10. Oliphant, Roland (25 December 2010). "Police guard threatened to rape Belarus Free Theatre director after election protest". Telegraph. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  11. Schulenburg, August (22 February 1999). "Statement from Belarus Free Theatre — TCG Circle". Tcgcircle.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  12. "Belarus Free Theatre Statement".
  13. ""Wir haben keine Angst" / Interview mit Nikolaj Chalezin vom Freien Theater Belarus | Beitrag | ostpol". Kulturama.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  14. Claire Bigg, "Belarus: Underground Troupe Brings Cutting-Edge Theater to Moscow". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), 3 February 2006. Web. 4 September 2007.
  15. "Чую я! - Наша Ніва: першая беларуская газета". Nn.by. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  16. "Web-site of the British Embassy in Belarus". Ukinbelarus.fco.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
  17. Rimma Ushkevich, «Theatre in the system of "Realpolitik"», 29 January 2010 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link); see also the bolg of Nikolai Khalezin: "Theatre laboratory Fortinbras" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link). One cannot help noticing a certain congruence of this universalistic conception of teaching with the method Study Tech applied in scientology
  18. Nikolai Khalezin, «Belarusian "Free theatre" is looking for talents», Charter'97, 1 December 2009 .
  19. Nikolai Khalezin, "Results. Common and particular", Charter'97, 1 January 2010 .
  20. "kilgor_trautt - Fortinbras. Американский курс". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 9 June 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  21. "kilgor_trautt - Fortinbras. Курс театра Royal Court". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 18 August 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  22. "kilgor_trautt - Fortinbras. Курс Андреа Пегинелли". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 3 September 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  23. "kilgor_trautt - Студия Fortinbras. Курс Марии Калабич". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 30 March 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  24. "kilgor_trautt - 10 апреля, суббота, 20.00". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 9 April 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  25. "kilgor_trautt - CalArts. Продолжение". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  26. "kilgor_trautt - "Тотальное погружение". Эндшпиль". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 23 February 2010. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  27. "kilgor_trautt - Лос-Анджелес. Штаб-квартира студии DreamWorks". Kilgor-trautt.livejournal.com. 5 October 2009. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  28. Johnston, Trevor (May 2014). "Dangerous Acts Starring the Unstable Elements of Belarus". Sight and Sound. 24: 71–72.
  29. "VII Международный Конкурс современной драматургии "Свободный театр"". Dramaturg.org. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  30. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  31. "Прэмію «Люблю Беларусь» нарэшце ўручылі ляўрэатам" (in Belarusian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 20 February 2010. Archived from the original on 28 April 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2021.
  32. Hemming, Sarah (17 February 2008). "Being Harold Pinter, Soho Theatre, London". FT.com. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  33. "Being Harold Pinter: Brilliant glimpses into the abyss". Telegraph. 18 February 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  34. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  35. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  36. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  37. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  38. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  39. Ravenhill, Mark (13 February 2008). "Mark Ravenhill on the Free Theatre of Belarus | Stage". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  40. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  41. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  42. Billington, Michael (18 February 2008). "Theatre review: Being Harold Pinter/Generation Jeans / Soho, London | Stage". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  43. Billington, Michael (15 April 2008). "Belarus Free Theatre will not be silenced | Stage | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  44. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  45. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  46. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  47. Billington, Michael (18 February 2008). "Theatre review: Being Harold Pinter/Generation Jeans / Soho, London | Stage | The Guardian". Arts.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  48. Sam Marlowe, "Being Harold Pinter/Generation Jeans at Soho Theatre". Times Online , Stage: Theatre. News Corporation, 20 February 2008. Web. 30 January 2009.
  49. "An arresting performance - literally". Sydney Morning Herald . Retrieved 28 November 2013. Fairfax Media, 15 December 2008. Web. 29 January 2009.
  50. Clare Morgan (with agencies), "Festival Rocked by Pinter's Death". Sydney Morning Herald . Fairfax Media, 26 December 2008. Web. 28 January 2009.
  51. "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  52. 1 2 "драматургический конкурс". Dramaturg.org. Retrieved 30 June 2013.
  53. "Belarus Free Theater (Wit-Rusland) - Generation Jeans | Programma | De Keuze". Deinternationalekeuze.nl. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  54. "King Lear performed by Belarus Free Theatre in Belarusian, Globe to Globe / Shakespeare's Globe / Shakespeare's Globe". Shakespearesglobe.com. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.

Further reading