Ben Kuroki

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Ben Kuroki
Ben Kuroki.jpg
Ben Kuroki in flight jacket
Nickname(s)Most Honorable Son, Sad Saki [lower-alpha 1]
Born(1917-05-16)May 16, 1917
Gothenburg, Nebraska
DiedSeptember 1, 2015(2015-09-01) (aged 98)
Camarillo, California
Allegiance Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg United States
Service/branch US Army Air Corps Hap Arnold Wings.svg United States Army Air Forces
Years of service1941–1946
Rank Technical Sergeant
Battles/wars World War II
Awards Distinguished Service Medal
Distinguished Flying Cross (×3)
Air Medal with oak leaf clusters (×5)

Ben Kuroki (May 16, 1917 – September 1, 2015) was the only American of Japanese descent in the United States Army Air Forces to serve in combat operations in the Pacific theater of World War II. [2] He flew a total of 58 combat missions over Japan, Europe and North Africa during World War II.

Japanese Americans ethnic group

Japanese Americans are Americans who are fully or partially of Japanese descent, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. Japanese Americans were among the three largest Asian American ethnic communities during the 20th century; but, according to the 2000 census, they have declined in number to constitute the sixth largest Asian American group at around 1.4 million, including those of partial ancestry. According to the 2010 census, the largest Japanese American communities were found in California with 272,528, Hawaii with 185,502, New York with 37,780, Washington with 35,008, Illinois with 17,542, and Ohio with 16,995. Southern California has the largest Japanese American population in North America and the city of Torrance holds the densest Japanese American population in the 48 contiguous states.

United States Army Air Forces Aerial warfare branch of the United States army from 1941 to 1947

The United States Army Air Forces, informally known as the Air Force,or United States Army Air Force, was the aerial warfare service component of the United States Army during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services. The AAF was a component of the United States Army, which in 1942 was divided functionally by executive order into three autonomous forces: the Army Ground Forces, the Services of Supply, and the Army Air Forces. Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff.

Pacific Ocean theater of World War II

The Pacific Ocean theater, during World War II, was a major theater of the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan. It was defined by the Allied powers' Pacific Ocean Area command, which included most of the Pacific Ocean and its islands, while mainland Asia was excluded, as were the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Borneo, Australia, most of the Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands.

Contents

Childhood and Army enlistment

Ben Kuroki was born in Gothenburg, Nebraska to Japanese immigrants, Shosuke and Naka (née Yokoyama) Kuroki on May 16, 1917; they had 10 children. When Ben was a year old the Kuroki family relocated to Hershey, Nebraska, where they owned and operated a farm. The Lincoln County town had a population of about 500. [3] He attended Hershey High School and was the Vice-President of his senior class, graduating in 1936. [4]

Gothenburg, Nebraska City in Nebraska, United States

Gothenburg is a city in Dawson County, Nebraska, United States. It is part of the Lexington, Nebraska Micropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 3,574 at the 2010 census.

Hershey, Nebraska Village in Nebraska, United States

Hershey is a village in Lincoln County, Nebraska, United States. It is part of the North Platte, Nebraska Micropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 665 at the 2010 census.

Nebraska State of the United States of America

Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States. It is bordered by South Dakota to the north; Iowa to the east and Missouri to the southeast, both across the Missouri River; Kansas to the south; Colorado to the southwest; and Wyoming to the west. It is the only triply landlocked U.S. state.

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941, Ben's father encouraged him and his brother Fred to enlist in the U.S. Military. The brothers were initially rejected by the recruiters in Grand Island, so they tried again at North Platte, where their enlistment was processed without any questions — perhaps, as a humorous story suggests, the recruiters thought that Kuroki was a Polish name.[ citation needed ] In retelling the enlistment story, Ben Kuroki said the recruiter in North Platte told him that nationality was not a problem as he made $2 for every recruit. [5] Later, two other brothers, Bill and Henry Kuroki also served in the military during the war.

Attack on Pearl Harbor Surprise attack by the Imperial Japanese Navy on the U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor in Hawaii

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, and as Operation Z during its planning.

Grand Island, Nebraska City in Nebraska, United States

Grand Island is a city in and the county seat of Hall County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 48,520 at the 2010 census.

North Platte, Nebraska City in Nebraska, United States

North Platte is a city in and the county seat of Lincoln County, Nebraska, United States. It is located in the southwestern part of the state, along Interstate 80, at the confluence of the North and South Platte Rivers forming the Platte River. The population was 24,733 at the 2010 census.

When Ben and Fred enlisted in the U.S. Army they were among the very first Nisei to do so. After enlisting they were sent to basic training at Sheppard Field, Texas in January 1942, not much more than a month after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Nisei(二世, "second generation") is a Japanese language term used in countries in North America and South America to specify the ethnically Japanese children born in the new country to Japanese-born immigrants. The Nisei are considered the second generation and the grandchildren of the Japanese-born immigrants are called Sansei or third generation.

Military career

Assigned to the 93rd Bombardment Group at Fort Myers, Florida, he was told that Japanese Americans would not be allowed to serve overseas. In 1942 Kuroki petitioned his commanding officer and was allowed to work as a clerk for the Eighth Air Force at a base in England. The need for aerial gunners was high and after Kuroki volunteered, he was sent to gunnery school for two weeks and became a dorsal turret gunner on a B-24 Liberator, [6] the most widely produced American heavy bomber to be used by Allied forces in World War II. [5] Kuroki was in a B-24 that crash landed in Spanish Morocco and was captured by Spanish authorities. His crew was released by the Spanish after three months. After the U.S. Department of State secured his release, he returned to England and rejoined his squadron.

Fort Myers, Florida City in Florida, United States

Fort Myers or Ft. Myers, is the county seat and commercial center of Lee County, Florida, United States. It has grown rapidly in recent years. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 62,298 and in 2017 was estimated at 79,943.

Eighth Air Force Numbered air force of the United States Air Force responsible for strategic bomber forces

The Eighth Air Force is a numbered air force (NAF) of the United States Air Force's Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC). It is headquartered at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. The command serves as Air Forces Strategic – Global Strike, one of the air components of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). The Eighth Air Force includes the heart of America's heavy bomber force: the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber, the B-1 Lancer supersonic bomber, and the B-52 Stratofortress heavy bomber aircraft.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Technical Sergeant Ben Kuroki shown wearing Distinguished Flying Cross (x3), Air Medal with oak leaf clusters (x5) and service medals for World War II service Ben Kuroki (SDASM Archives).jpg
Technical Sergeant Ben Kuroki shown wearing Distinguished Flying Cross (×3), Air Medal with oak leaf clusters (×5) and service medals for World War II service

On August 1, 1943, he participated in the bombing mission known as Operation Tidal Wave, an effort to destroy the major oil refinery located in Ploiești, Romania. [5] Kuroki flew 30 combat missions in the European theater, when the regular enlistment only required 25. After a medical review, he was allowed to fly 5 more missions above the mandated enlistment. Kuroki said he did so for his brother Fred, who was still stationed stateside. On his 30th mission he was slightly injured when his gun turret was hit by flak. [7]

Operation Tidal Wave military operation

Operation Tidal Wave was an air attack by bombers of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) based in Libya and Southern Italy on nine oil refineries around Ploiești, Romania on 1 August 1943, during World War II. It was a strategic bombing mission and part of the "oil campaign" to deny petroleum-based fuel to the Axis. The mission resulted in "no curtailment of overall product output."

Anti-aircraft warfare combat operations and doctrine aimed at defeating enemy aerial forces; all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action

Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action". They include surface based, subsurface, and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures. It may be used to protect naval, ground, and air forces in any location. However, for most countries the main effort has tended to be 'homeland defence'. NATO refers to airborne air defence as counter-air and naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare. Missile defence is an extension of air defence as are initiatives to adapt air defence to the task of intercepting any projectile in flight.

During rest and recovery back in the United States, Kuroki was directed by the Army to visit a number of Japanese American internment camps in order to encourage able-bodied males to enlist in the U.S. military. Kuroki was the subject of a number of news articles including one in Time magazine.

Kuroki requested but was denied the opportunity to participate in the Pacific theater. Only after the intervention of Henry Stimson, the Secretary of War was that request granted. [8] Kuroki was later permitted to join the crew of a B-29 Superfortress (who named its plane Sad Saki after Kuroki) in the 484th Squadron, 505th Bombardment Group, 20th U.S. Army Air Force, based on Tinian Island. Kuroki then participated in another 28 bombing missions over mainland Japan and other locations. [9]

Kuroki is the only Japanese American known to have participated in air combat missions in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the war. [2] Kuroki was awarded one Distinguished Flying Cross for his 25 missions in Europe and another for participation in the Ploiești raid. [7] After another 28 missions in the Pacific Theater, Kuroki was awarded a third Distinguished Flying Cross as well as the Air Medal with five oak leaf clusters. [2] By the end of the war, Ben Kuroki had completed 58 combat missions and was promoted to the rank of Technical Sergeant.

The New York Times recalled in an editorial on December 7, 1991, the 50th anniversary of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, how “Gen. George Marshall asked to meet [Kuroki]; so did Generals Bradley, Spaatz, Wainwright and Jimmy Doolittle.” [10]

Advocacy efforts

Fiercely patriotic, but understanding first-hand some of the racial and other inequalities people of color had to endure, after the war Kuroki continued to speak about the need for racial equality and against racial prejudice. He engaged in a series of speaking tours discussing these issues, which he funded with his own savings and with minor donations, including proceeds from Ralph G. Martin's biography written about him entitled Boy From Nebraska: The Story of Ben Kuroki.

When asked about his battle to overcome prejudice which almost prevented him from being allowed to participate in overseas aerial combat missions, Kuroki stated, "I had to fight like hell for the right to fight for my own country". [11]

Post-military career

Kuroki later attended the University of Nebraska, attaining a Bachelor's degree in journalism in 1950. He was a reporter and editor for a number of newspapers in several different states, retiring in 1984. On August 12, 2005, Kuroki was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for his impressive combat participation during the war and for overcoming numerous incidents of prejudice. He was awarded an honorary Doctorate from the University of Nebraska on August 13, 2005 and is the subject of the Public Broadcasting Service documentary "Most Honorable Son: Ben Kuroki's Amazing War Story". [11] [12] On September 1, 2015 he died in hospice care in Camarillo, California at the age of 98. [1]

Awards

Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon.svg
Silver oakleaf-3d.svg
Air Medal ribbon.svg
AF Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon.png Army Good Conduct ribbon.svg
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg
Silver-service-star-3d.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal ribbon.svg
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg
1st Row Distinguished Service Medal
2nd Row Distinguished Flying Cross with two oak leaf clusters Air Medal with five oak leaf clusters Presidential Unit Citation Good Conduct Medal
3rd Row American Campaign Medal European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver and three bronze campaign stars Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with two bronze campaign stars World War II Victory Medal

See also

Notes

  1. A pun on "sad sack", a World War II-era phrase; see Sad Sack. [1]

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References

  1. 1 2 Goldstein, Richard (September 5, 2015). "Ben Kuroki Dies at 98; Japanese-American Overcame Bias to Fight for U.S." New York Times. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 Mitchell, Ronnie. "Ben Kuroki". Nebraska Department of Transportation, Division of Aeronautics. Retrieved February 3, 2018.
  3. Yenne, Bill (July 10, 2007). Rising Sons: The Japanese American GIs Who Fought for the United States in World War II (1st ed.). Thomas Dunne Books. p. 137. ISBN   978-0312354640.
  4. McGowan, Sam, "Most Honorable Son", WWII History, July 2011, pp. 40–47.
  5. 1 2 3 Yenne, p. 138; Sterner, Douglas C. (2007). Go for Broke: The Nisei Warriors of World War II Who Conquered Germany, Japan, and American Bigotry, p. 124.
  6. Frank, Abe (2000). "Ben Kuroki". Conscience and the Constitution. Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  7. 1 2 "Ben Kuroki, American". Time. 1944-02-07. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
  8. Yenne, pp. 139-140.
  9. Yenne, p. 140.
  10. "The Hidden Heroes". The New York Times. December 7, 1991. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  11. 1 2 "Nebraska WWII Hero Ben Kuroki to be Honored at Premiere of NET Television" (PDF). NET Nebraska. 2007-06-28. Archived from the original (pdf) on August 14, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  12. "Proud to be Ben Kuroki's kind of people". Journal Star. 2007-08-02. Retrieved 2007-08-06.

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