Benawa or banawa is a type of ship from Gowa, an old principality in the southwest corner of Sulawesi, Indonesia. The earliest record of this vessel is from Hikayat Banjar, which has been written gradually from 14th-17th century.In the present, the type is already extinct; pelari and paduwakan, vessels with similar hull, have taken its place.
The word benawa or banawa comes from kawi Javanese language, which means boat or ship.In old Javanese language and Malay language the meaning is more or less the same. In different language, the word may refer to different type of vessel, depending on the context of the sentence.
The benawa was specially made for the transport of horses and buffaloes. The hull was broad in beam with convex keel, with stempost and sternpost running high up. On both sides an outboard fore and aft gangway is attached to a number of crossbeams which are secured to the bulwark. The secondary function of these beams is to divide the deckspace into an equal compartments for the cattle. The upper deck covering the "stable" consist of bamboo lattice.
It is steered with 2 quarter rudders, which are fixed to a set of heavy crossbeams in a way to enable a quick emergency release. The helmsmen stood on the outboard galleries. There is a cramped cabin for the captain below the poop deck. The vessel has 2 to 3 masts, both were tripod with the rear legs fixed to heavy tabernacles by means of a horizontal spar round which they can revolve. If the foreleg comes adrift from the hook that holds it in place, the mast can be lowered easily. The sails are tanja and made with karoro matting.With European influence in the latter centuries, western-styled sails can also be used. In the past, Makassarese sailor may sail them as far as New Guinea and Singapore.
A junk is a type of Chinese sailing ship. They were developed during the Song dynasty (960–1279) based on Austronesian ship designs, examples of which have been trading with the Eastern Han dynasty since the 2nd century AD. They continued to evolve in the later dynasties, and were predominantly used by Chinese traders throughout Southeast Asia. They were found, and in lesser numbers are still found, throughout Southeast Asia and India, but primarily in China. Found more broadly today is a growing number of modern recreational junk-rigged sailboats. Chinese junks referred to many types of coastal or river ships. They were usually cargo ships, pleasure boats, or houseboats. They vary greatly in size and there are significant regional variations in the type of rig, however they all employ fully battened sails.
This is a partial glossary of nautical terms; some remain current, while many date from the 17th to 19th centuries. See also Wiktionary's nautical terms, Category:Nautical terms, and Nautical metaphors in English. See the Further reading section for additional words and references.
The term pinisi or phinisi refer to a type of rig, the masts, sails and the configuration of the ropes (‘lines’) of Indonesian sailing vessels. It was mainly built by the Konjo people, an ethnic group in the Bulukumba regency of South Sulawesi, but was, and still is used widely by Buginese and Makassarese seafarers, mostly for inter-insular transportation, cargo and fishing purposes within Indonesian archipelago.
Tongkang or "Tong'kang" refers to several type of boats used to carry goods along rivers and shoreline in Maritime Southeast Asia. One of the earliest record of tongkang comes from 15th century Malay Annals. One passage mentioned it as being used by Majapahit empire during the 1350 attack on Singapura.
The term lambo or lamba refer to two types of traditional boats from Indonesia.
The pinas, sometimes called "pinis" as well, is one of two types of junk rigged schooners of the east coast of the Malay peninsula, built in the Terengganu area. This kind of vessel was built of Chengal wood by the Malays since the 19th century and roamed the South China Sea and adjacent oceans as one of the two types of traditional sailing vessels the late Malay maritime culture has developed: The bedar and the pinas.
A Sandeq is a type of outrigger sailboat or trimaran used by the Mandarese people for fishing and as a means of transportation between islands. The size of Sandeq varies, with hulls ranging from 5 to 15 metres long and 0.5 to 1.5 metres wide. Its carrying capacity ranges from a few hundred kilograms to over 2 tons. The sleek shape of the Sandeq makes it more agile and faster than other sailboats. The name of the vessel comes from a word in the Mandar language that means pointy, referring to the bow's shape.
The djong, jong, or jung is a type of ancient sailing ship originating from Java that was widely used by Javanese and Malay sailors. The word was and is spelled jong in its languages of origin, the "djong" spelling being the colonial Dutch romanisation.
Tanja sail or tanja rig is a type of sail commonly used by the Malay people and other Austronesians, particularly in Maritime Southeast Asia. It is also known as the tilted square sail, canted rectangular sail, or balance lug sail in English. In historical sources, tanja sail is sometimes incorrectly to referred as lateen sail or simply square sail.
Padewakang were traditional boats used by the Bugis, Mandar, and Makassar people of South Sulawesi. Padewakang were used for long distance voyages serving the south Sulawesi kingdoms.
Pencalang is a traditional merchant ship from Nusantara. Historically it was called as pantchiallang or pantjalang. It was originally built by Malay people, but has been copied by Javanese shipwrights. By the end of the 17th century this ship has been built by Javanese and Chinese shipbuilders in and around Rembang. However it was a popular choice for Balinese skippers followed by Sulawesian skippers.
Palari is a type of Indonesian sailing vessel from South Sulawesi. It was mainly used by the people of Ara and Lemo Lemo, for transporting goods and people. This vessel is rigged with pinisi rig, which often makes it better known as "Pinisi" instead of its name. In Singapore, palari is known as "Makassartrader".
Pajala is a type of traditional perahu from western South Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is used mainly for fishing, but in the present it's a Bugis/Makassar name for small to medium-sized boat hull.
Malangbang is a type of medieval sailing ship from Indonesia. It is mentioned in mainly in the Story of King Banjar. The name "malangbang" is considered to originate from the Old Javanese language, malabong which refers to a typical type of boat. Malangbang is one of Majapahit's main naval vessel type after jong and kelulus. Not much is known from this type of ship, apart from the fact that it also used oar beside the sails to propel it, and was a "medium-sized" ship, between the size of jong and kelulus, larger and faster than pilang (pelang).
Kakap is a narrow river or coastal boat used for fishing in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. They are also sometimes used as auxiliary vessels to larger warships for piracy and coastal raids.
Pelang or pilang is a traditional boat from Indonesia and Malaysia. It may refer to several different type of boats in the Nusantara, but commonly they refer to outrigger canoe. The function differs from where they were used, from transporting people, fishing, to trading. Pilang has been known from at least the 14th century.
Ghurab or gurab is a type of merchant and warship from Nusantara archipelago. The ship was a result of Mediterranean influences in the region, particularly introduced by the Arabs, Persians, and Ottoman.
Ghali, gali or gale refers to several types of galley-like ships from Nusantara archipelago. In the archipelago, already existed several native galley-like ships, some with outriggers. A ghali is the result of mediterranean impact of native shipbuilding, particularly introduced by the Arabs, Persians, Ottoman Turks, and Portuguese. However the terms may refer to Mediterranean vessels built by local people, or native vessels with Mediterranean influence.
Lancang is a type of sailing ship from Maritime Southeast Asia. It is used as warship, lighter, and as royal ship, particularly used by the people of Sumatran east coast, but can also be found in the coast of Kalimantan.
Bajak is a type of sailing prahu of the Dayak people of Borneo. It is propelled by both sail and oars. The bajak has a sharp but hollow bow, with projection at top. It has large square stern which projects at the sides of the hull and supported by two strong beams. On the side of the vessel are projecting open galleries for oarsmen. Bajak has two mast with lug rig, and a bowsprit which support headsails. The sail of bajak is made of cotton. It has a large deckhouse between the foremast and mainmast, a hatchway is present abaft the mainmast. The name may have originated from Malay word bajak means "plow", or membajak, "to plow". This prahu may have been used by Sea Dayak for use in piracy owing to its double type of propulsion which is very common amongst pirate prahu of the region, and may have influenced the Javanese word bajak, which means hijack or piracy. Javanese word bajak laut means sea pirate.