Bender, Moldova

Last updated

Bendery, Tighina [1]
Dniester in Bender 04.JPG
Bender Fortress. Northern side 02.JPG
Gorispolkom Bendery.jpg
Transfiguration Cathedral in Bender 03.JPG
Memorial arch in Bender 01.JPG
Sinagoga bondarei 2.jpg
Khoral'naia sinagoga 1e.jpg
Bender Fortress. Church 05.JPG
Views of Bender
Coat of Arms of Bendery.gif
Coat of arms
Bender map 2008.png
Municipality of Bender (in red)
Coordinates: 46°50′N29°29′E / 46.833°N 29.483°E / 46.833; 29.483 Coordinates: 46°50′N29°29′E / 46.833°N 29.483°E / 46.833; 29.483
Country Moldova
self-proclaimed state Transnistria [2]
  Head of the State Administration of BenderyNikolai Gliga [3]
  Total97.29 km2 (37.56 sq mi)
Elevation15 m (49 ft)
Population (2015)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
Climate Cfb

Bender [4] ( [benˈder] ; de facto official name Bendery (Russian : Бендеры, [bʲɪnˈdɛrɨ] ); also known by other alternative names) is a city within the internationally recognized borders of Moldova under de facto control of the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria) (PMR) since 1992. It is located on the western bank of the river Dniester in the historical region of Bessarabia.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.

Moldova republic in Eastern Europe

Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south. The capital city is Chișinău.

Transnistria de facto unrecognized state in Eastern Europe that has declared independence from Moldova

Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, is an unrecognised state which split off from Moldova after the dissolution of the USSR and mostly consists of a narrow strip of land between the river Dniester and the territory of Ukraine. Transnistria has been recognised only by three other mostly non-recognised states: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia. The region is considered by the UN to be part of Moldova.


Together with its suburb Proteagailovca, the city forms a municipality, which is separate from Transnistria (as an administrative unit of Moldova) according to Moldovan law. Bender is located in the buffer zone established at the end of the 1992 War of Transnistria. While the Joint Control Commission has overriding powers in the city, Transnistria has de facto administrative control.

Proteagailovca Village in Bender municipality, Moldova

Proteagailovca is a village in the municipality of Bender (Tighina), Moldova. It had a population of 3,142 at the 2004 Census. The locality, although situated on the right (western) bank of the river Dniester, is under the control of the breakaway Transnistrian authorities. Proteagailovca is located immediately to the west of the city, and is the only other locality in the municipality, except the city of Bender itself.

Transnistria autonomous territorial unit administrative territorial entity of Moldova

Transnistria autonomous territorial unit, officially The Administrative-Territorial Units of the Left Bank of the Dniester is a formal administrative unit of Moldova established by the Government of Moldova to delineate the territory controlled by the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic.

Buffer zone Intermediate region, typically between belligerent entitites

A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas, but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them. Common types of buffer zones are demilitarized zones, border zones and certain restrictive easement zones and green belts. Such zones may be, but not necessarily be, comprised by a sovereign state, forming a buffer state.

The fortress of Tighina was one of the important historic fortresses of the Principality of Moldova.


First mentioned in 1408 as Tyagyanyakyacha (Тягянякяча) in a document in Old Slavonic (the term has Cuman origins [5] ), the town was known in the Middle Ages as Tighina in Moldavian sources and later as Bender in Ottoman sources. The fortress and the city were called Bender for most of the time they were a rayah of the Ottomans (1538–1812), and during most of the time they belonged to the Russian Empire (1828–1917). They were known as Tighina (Тигина, [tiˈɡina] ) in the Principality of Moldavia, in the early part of the Russian Empire period (1812–1828), and during the time the city belonged to Romania (1918–1940; 1941–1944).

Common Eastern Slavic, Common Russian or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'. Dialects of it were spoken, though not exclusively, in the area today occupied by Belarus, central and northern Ukraine, and parts of western Russia. It is descended from Proto-Slavic.

Cumans Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman-Kipchak confederation

The Cumans were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation. After the Mongol invasion (1237), many sought asylum in the Kingdom of Hungary, as many Cumans had settled in Hungary, the Second Bulgarian Empire, and Anatolia before the invasion.

Moldavia principality in Southeast Europe between 1330–1859 (nowadays historical and geographical region in Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine)

Moldavia is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time.

The fortress of Bender on a Moldovan stamp Cetatea Tighina.JPG
The fortress of Bender on a Moldovan stamp

The city is part of the historical region of Bessarabia and of Bessarabia Governorate within the Russian Empire. During the Soviet period the city was known in the Moldavian SSR as Bender in Moldovan, written Бендер with the Cyrillic alphabet, as Bendery (Бендéры) in Russian and Bendery (Бенде́ри) in Ukrainian. Today the city is officially named Bender, but both Bender and Tighina are in use. [6]


Bessarabia is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west. Today Bessarabia is mostly part of modern-day Moldova, with the Ukrainian Budjak region covering the southern coastal region and part of the Ukrainian Chernivtsi Oblast covering a small area in the north.

Bessarabia Governorate governorate of the Russian Empire

Bessarabia Oblast was an oblast (1812–1871) and later a guberniya in the Russian Empire. It included the eastern part of the Principality of Moldavia along with the neighboring Ottoman-ruled territories annexed by Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest following the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. The Governorate was disbanded in 1917, with the establishment of Sfatul Ţării, a national assembly which proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic in December 1917. The latter united with Romania in April 1918.

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.


The remnants of fortress walls with the Dniester River in the background. Transnistrienfortress.jpg
The remnants of fortress walls with the Dniester River in the background.

The town was first mentioned as an important customs post in a commerce grant issued by the Moldavian voivode Alexander the Good to the merchants of Lviv on October 8, 1408. The name "Tighina" is found in documents from the second half of the 15th century. The town was the main Moldavian customs point on the commercial road linking the country to Tatar Crimea. [7] During his reign of Moldavia, Stephen III had a small wooden fort built in the town to defend the settlement from Tatar raids. [8]

Voivode or Vojvoda is an Eastern European title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans, first Bulgaria being established as permanent Slavic state in the region. The title voevodas was first used in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos De Administrando Imperio to identify Hungarian military leaders.

Lviv City of regional significance in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016. Lviv is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine.

The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺 (Ta-tar). Historically, the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as the Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages.

City centre Bendery Zentrum.jpg
City centre
The historical military cemetery in the city. Friedhof.jpg
The historical military cemetery in the city.
Bender Railway Station Bender Station 2.JPG
Bender Railway Station
Bender Fortress Bendery Fortress - Bendery - Transnistria - 07 (36841451595).jpg
Bender Fortress
Horse and carriage at Bender Fortress Horse and Carriage - Bendery Fortress - Bendery - Transnistria (36032560843).jpg
Horse and carriage at Bender Fortress
Soviet-era memorial with flower bed, Bender Soviet-Era Memorial with Flower Bed - Bendery - Transnistria (36032549573).jpg
Soviet-era memorial with flower bed, Bender
Downtown fountain, Bender Kids in Fountain with Facade Backdrop - Bendery - Transnistria (36445273450).jpg
Downtown fountain, Bender
Transnistrian crest on plinth, Bender National Crest on Plinth - Bendery - Transnistria (36032553743).jpg
Transnistrian crest on plinth, Bender

In 1538, the Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the town from Moldavia, and renamed it Bender. Its fortifications were developed into a full fortress under the same name under the supervision of the Turkish architect Koji Mimar Sinan. The Ottomans used it to keep the pressure on Moldavia. At the end of the 16th century several unsuccessful attempts to retake the fortress were made: in the summer of 1574 Prince John III the Terrible led a siege on the fortress, as did Michael the Brave in 1595 and 1600. About the same time the fortress was attacked by Zaporozhian Cossacks.

In the 18th century, the fort's area was expanded and modernized by the prince of Moldavia Antioh Cantemir, who carried out these works under Ottoman supervision.

In 1713, the fortress, the town, and the neighboring village Varnița were the site of skirmishes (kalabalik) between Charles XII of Sweden, who had taken refuge there with the Cossack Hetman Ivan Mazepa after his defeat in the Battle of Poltava, and Turks who wished to enforce the departure of the Swedish king. [9]

During the second half of the 18th century, the fortress fell three times to the Russians during the Russo-Turkish Wars (in 1770, 1789, and in 1806 without a fight).

Along with Bessarabia, the city was annexed to the Russian Empire in 1812, and remained part of the Russian Governorate of Bessarabia until 1917. Many Ukrainians, Russians and Jews settled in or around Bender, and the town quickly became predominantly Russian-speaking. By 1897, speakers of Romanian and Moldovan made up only around 7% of Bender's population, while 33.4% were Jews. [10]

Tighina was part of the Moldavian Democratic Republic in 1917–1918, and after 1918, as part of Bessarabia, the city belonged to Romania, where it was the seat of Tighina County.[ citation needed ] In 1918, it was shortly controlled by the Odessa Soviet Republic which was driven out by the Romanian army. The local population was critical of Romanian authorities; pro-Soviet separatism remained popular. [11] On Easter Day, 1919, the bridge over the Dniester River was blown up by the French Army in order to block the Bolsheviks from coming to the city. [1] In the same year, there was a pro-Soviet uprising in Bender, attempting to attach the city to the newly founded Soviet Union. Several hundred communist workers and Red Army members from Bessarabia, headed by Grigori Stary, seized control in Bender on May 27. However, the uprising was crushed on the same day by the Romanian army.

Romania launched a policy of Romanianization and the use of Russian was now discouraged and in certain cases restricted. In Bender, however, Russian continued to be the city's most widely spoken language, being native to 53% of its residents in 1930. Although their share had doubled, Romanian-speakers made up only 15%. [12]

Along with Bessarabia, the city was occupied by the Soviet Union on June 28, 1940, following an ultimatum. In the course of World War II, it was retaken by Romania in July 1941, and again by the USSR in August 1944. Most of the city's Jews were killed during the Holocaust, although Bender continued to have a significant Jewish community well until the 1990s.

From 1940–41, and 1944–1991 it was one of the four "republican cities", not subordinated to a district, of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union. Since 1991, the city has been disputed between the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria. Due to the city's key strategic location on the right bank of the Dniester river, 10 km (6 mi) from left-bank Tiraspol, Bender saw the heaviest fighting of the 1992 War of Transnistria. Since then, it is controlled by Transnistrian authorities, although it has been formally in the demilitarized zone established at the end of the conflict. Most of the city's remaining Jews emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Moldovan authorities control the commune of Varnița, a suburb fringing the city to the north. Transnistrian authorities control the suburban communes of Proteagailovca, which borders the city to the west and Gîsca, which borders the city to the south-west. They also control Chițcani and Cremenciug, further to the south-east, while Moldovans are in control of Copanca, further to the south-east.


Nikolai Gliga is the head of the state administration of Bender as of 2015.

List of Heads of the state administration of Bender

People and culture


In 1920, the population of Bender was approximately 26,000. At that time, one third of the population was Jewish. One third of the population was Romanian. Germans, Russians, and Bulgarians were also mixed into the population during that time. [1]

At the 2004 Census, the city had a population of 100,169, of which the city itself 97,027, and the commune of Proteagailovca, 3,142.

Ethnic composition
Ethnic group1930 census1959 census1970 census1979 census1989 census2004 census
the city
Proteagailovca The
Russians 15,116N/AN/AN/A57,80041,9491,48243,43143.35%
Moldovans 1-N/AN/AN/A41,40024,31375625,06925.03%
Romanians 15,464N/AN/AN/A-610-561-660.06%
Ukrainians 2-N/AN/AN/A25,10017,34865818,00617.98%
Ruthenians 21,349N/AN/AN/A-----
Bulgarians 170N/AN/AN/A3,8003,0011633,1643.16%
Gagauzians 40N/AN/AN/A1,6001,066251,0911.09%
Jews 8,279N/AN/AN/A-38323850.38%
Germans 243N/AN/A--25862640.26%
Poles 309N/AN/AN/A-1900-12190-2020.20%
Armenians 46N/AN/AN/A-1730-16173-1890.18%
Roma 24N/AN/AN/A-1320-5132-1370.13%
Belorussians 188N/AN/AN/A-713197320.73%
Greeks 37N/AN/A-N/A
Hungarians 24N/AN/AN/AN/A
Serbs, Croats, Slovenes 22N/AN/AN/AN/A
Czechs, Slovaks 19N/AN/AN/AN/A
Turks 2N/AN/AN/AN/A
Albanians 1N/AN/AN/AN/A
Total31,384 [23] 43,00072,300101,292 [24] 138,000 [25] 97,027 [26] 3,142 [26] 100,169100%

Note:1 Since the independence of Moldova, there has been ongoing controversy over whether Romanians and Moldovans should be counted officially as the same ethnic group or not. At the census, every citizen could only declare one nationality. Consequently, one could not declare oneself both Moldovan and Romanian.

Note:2 The Ukrainian population of Bessarabia was counted in the past as "Ruthenians" in a similar way the Romanian population is counted as "Moldovan" today

Native language
Language1930 census2004 census
Russian 16,566N/A
Yiddish 8,117N/A
Romanian 4,718N/A
Ukrainian 1,286N/A
German 225N/A
Polish 219N/A
Bulgarian 78N/A
Turkish 26N/A
Greek 21N/A
Hungarian 20N/A
Gypsy 16N/A
Czech, Slovak 14N/A
Armenian 11N/A
Serbo-Croatian, Slovene 8N/A
Albanian 2N/A
Total31,384 [23] 100,169


Notable people

Lev Berg L. S. Berg.jpg
Lev Berg
Tamara Buciuceanu Tamara Buciuceanu (1).jpg
Tamara Buciuceanu



FC Dinamo Bender is the city's professional football club, formerly playing in the top Moldovan football league, the Divizia Naţională, before being relegated.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Bender is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded. The principality was a vassal of the Ottoman Empire from 1538 until the 19th century. In 1812, following one of several Russian-Turkish wars, the eastern half of the principality, Bessarabia, was annexed by the Russian Empire. In 1918, Bessarabia briefly became independent as the Moldavian Democratic Republic and, following the decision of the Parliament, united with Romania. In 1940 it was annexed by the Soviet Union, joined to the Moldavian ASSR, and became the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the USSR. In 1991 a part of the country declared independence as the Republic of Moldova.

Tiraspol Municipality in Transnistria, Moldova

Tiraspol is internationally recognised as the second largest city in Moldova, but is effectively the capital and administrative centre of the unrecognised Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria). The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production.

Budjak historical region

Budjak or Budzhak is a historical region in Ukraine and Moldova. Lying along the Black Sea between the Danube and Dniester rivers, this thinly populated multi-ethnic 600,000-people region of 13,188 km2 is located in the southern part of historical Bessarabia. Nowadays, the larger part of the region is included in Ukraine's Odessa Oblast, while the rest is included in the southern districts of Moldova. The region is bordered to the north by the rest of Moldova, to the west and south by Romania, and to the east by the Black Sea and the rest of Ukraine.

Rîbnița Place in Transnistria, Moldova

Rîbnița or Rybnitsa is a city in Moldova, under the administration of the breakaway government of Transnistria. According to the 2004 Census in Transnistria, it has a population of 53,648. Rîbnița is situated in the northern half of Transnistria, on the left bank of the Dniester, and separated from the river by a concrete dam. The city is the seat of the Rîbnița District.

Rîbnița District district in Transnistria, Moldova

Rîbnița District, also spelled Râbnița District, is an administrative district of Transnistria, Moldova. Its seat is the city of Rîbnița (Râbnița). It is located at 47°45′N29°00′E. The district contains this city and 22 communes :

Transnistria War early 1990s armed conflict

The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out in November 1990 in Dubăsari between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard, militia and Cossack units, and pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police. Fighting intensified on 1 March 1992 and, alternating with ad hoc ceasefires, lasted throughout the spring and early summer of 1992 until a ceasefire was declared on 21 July 1992, which has held. The conflict remained unresolved, but in 2011 talks were held under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) with Lithuania holding the rotating chairmanship.

Camenca District district in Transnistria, Moldova

Camenca District is a district of Transnistria, Moldova. Its seat is the town of Camenca. The district contains this town and 12 communes :

Political status of Transnistria

The political status of Transnistria, a self-proclaimed state on the internationally recognized territory of Moldova, has been disputed since the Transnistrian declaration of independence on September 2, 1990. This declaration sought to establish a Soviet Socialist Republic separate from the Moldavian SSR, while still part of the Soviet Union. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union and Moldova's own declaration of independence in 1991, the PMSSR was transformed into the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), commonly referred to as Transnistria. No United Nations member country recognizes the PMR's bid to sovereignty.

History of Transnistria

This is the history of Transnistria. See also the history of Europe.

Human rights in Transnistria

The state of affairs with human rights in Transnistria has been criticized by several governments and international organizations. The Republic of Moldova, and other states and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) claim that the government of Transnistria is authoritarian and has a record of arbitrary arrest and torture.

Varnița, Anenii Noi Commune in Anenii Noi, Republic of Moldova

Varnița is a village in the Anenii Noi District, Moldova, located near Bender (Tighina). It is also considered a suburb of Bender. After the 1992 War of Transnistria, Varnița remained controlled by the government of the Republic of Moldova, while the city of Bender is controlled by the authorities of Transnistria.

Timeline of the Transnistria War

This timeline of events is a chronological list of incidents and other notable occurrences related to the War of Transnistria, including events leading up to the war.

Armenians in Moldova

Armenians in Moldova are the ethnic Armenians that live in Moldova. They settled in the Principality of Moldavia since the Late Middle Ages, and were well known as a merchant community. They prospered, and built a number of Armenian churches. Since the 18th century, however, their numbers decreased due to assimilation and emigration to other countries. During Soviet occupation, the number of Armenians increased a little, both during the 1950s-1980s, and when new immigrants came from Armenia, Azerbaijan during Nagorno Karabakh War in late 1980s. But after the fall of the Soviet Union, it decreased again.

Administrative divisions of Transnistria

The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic is subdivided into five raions :

Nina Shtanski Transnistrian politician

Nina Viktorovna Shtanski is a Transnistrian former state politician and public figure. She has been the Deputy Prime Minister for the International Cooperation of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic from 24 January 2012 to 2 September 2015. Ph.D. (2012). She became an honoured foreign service officer Transnistrian Moldovan Republic in 2012. She held the rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

Vadim Krasnoselsky politician

Vadim Nikolaevich Krasnoselsky is a Transnistrian politician who is the 3rd and current President of Transnistria. Previously, he served as a member of the Supreme Council of Transnistria from the 7th district, as 6th Speaker of the Supreme Council (2015–2016) and the 7th Minister of the Interior.

Republic Day of Transnistria

The Republic Day of Transnistria also known in the West as Independence Day or National Day is the main state holiday in the partially recognized republic of Transnistria. This date is celebrated annually on September 2.

Transnistria (geographical region) Narrow region between the River Dniester and the Moldova-Ukraine border

Transnistria - region in the east Europe, a narrow strip of territory to the east of the River Dniester. The PMR controls main part of this region, and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank, in the historical region of Bessarabia.


  1. 1 2 3 Kaba, John (1919). Politico-economic Review of Basarabia. United States: American Relief Administration. pp. 14–15.
  2. Transnistria's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any country. The Moldovan government and all the world's other states consider Transnistria de jure a part of Moldova territory.
  3. 1 2 "Указ Президента ПМР №139 "О временно исполняющем обязанности главы государственной администрации города Бендеры"". Официальный сайт Президента ПМР.
  4. (in Romanian) Law 764-XV from December 27, 2001 on administrative-territorial organisation of the Republic of Moldova, Monitorul Oficial al Republicii Moldova, no. 16/53, December 29, 2001 (subsequent modifications taken into account)
  5. History of Bender on the Official website of Republic of Moldova Archived March 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine .: "trecătoare" înseamnă în limba cumană Tighina
  6. (in Romanian) "Cetatea Tighina" Archived April 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . on
  7. Ion Nistor, Istoria Basarabiei, Cernăuți, 1923, reprint Chișinău, Cartea Moldovenească, 1991, p.76
  8. "Bender fortress" Archived February 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . on
  9. Charles XII of Sweden first took refuge in a Moldavian house in the town, then moved to a house specially built for him in Varnița. cf. Ion Nistor, Ibidem, p.140
  10. "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". Archived from the original on 2014-04-21.
  11. "Turism istoric: Tighina sub epoleti".
  12. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
  13. (in Russian) Olvia Press News Agency Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine .
  14. (in Russian) Olvia Press News Agency Archived October 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine .
  15. (in Russian) REGNUM News Agency
  16. (in Russian) Official website of the Supreme Council of Transnistria
  17. (in Russian) Transnistrian News Portal Pridnestrovets.RF
  18. (in Russian) Official website of the President of Transnistria
  19. Указ Президента ПМР №754 Archived November 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine .
  20. "Указ Президента ПМР №14 "О назначении главы государственной администрации города Бендеры"". Официальный сайт Президента ПМР.
  21. "Указ Президента ПМР № 120 "О временно исполняющем обязанности главы государственной администрации города Бендеры"". Официальный сайт Президента ПМР.
  22. "Указ Президента ПМР №138 "О прекращении исполнения обязанностей главы государственной администрации города Бендеры"". Официальный сайт Президента ПМР.
  23. 1 2 1930 Romanian Census data for the Tighina County Archived July 20, 2011, at the Wayback Machine .
  24. "Moldova".
  25. Marian Enache, Dorin Cimpoesu, Misiune Diplomatica in Republica Moldova (Iași: Polirom, 2000), p. 399
  26. 1 2 "". Archived from the original on March 18, 2009.