Bento de Jesus Caraça
|Born||18 April 1901|
|Died||25 June 1948 (aged 47)|
Bento de Jesus Caraça, GCSE, GOL (18 April 1901 – 25 June 1948) was an influential Portuguese mathematician, economist and statistician. Caraça was also a member of the Portuguese Communist Party and so, he became one of the most famous personalities in the resistance against the authoritarian regime led by António Oliveira Salazar.
The Order of Liberty, or the Order of Freedom, is a Portuguese honorific civil order that distinguishes relevant services to the cause of democracy and freedom, in the defense of the values of civilization and human dignity. The order was created in 1976, after the Carnation Revolution of 1974 in which the corporatist authoritarian Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcello Caetano was deposed. The Grand Collar can also be given by the President of Portugal to former Heads of State and others whose deeds are of an extraordinary nature and particular relevance to Portugal, making them worthy of such a distinction. This can include political acts, physical acts of defense for Portugal, or the good representation of Portugal in other countries.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe. It is bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Caraça was born in Vila Viçosa, Évora District, in the south of Portugal. He was the son of two peasants, João António Caraça and Domingas da Conceição Espadinha. He lived his first years in the family's farm and he managed to learn how to read with another peasant, José Percheiro.
Vila Viçosa is a municipality in the District of Évora in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 8,319, in an area of 194.86 km².
Évora District is located in Alentejo, in southern Portugal. The district capital is the city of Évora.
The great easiness in learning new things that Caraça demonstrated made the spouse of the owner of the farm where he lived to take care of his education and, in 1911, Caraça finished the first studies and left his hometown in order to study in Lisbon. After finishing high school with top grades, Caraça joined the Superior Institute of Economic and Financial Sciences (Portuguese : Instituto Superior de Ciências Económicas e Financeiras or ISCEF, later known as ISEG)
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, including the Portuguese Riviera,. It is mainland Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the River Tagus. The westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, which is known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains.
Portuguese is a Western Romance language originating in the Iberian Peninsula. It is the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It also has co-official language status in East Timor, Equatorial Guinea and Macau in China. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa, Daman and Diu in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka; in the Indonesian island of Flores; in the Malacca state of Malaysia; and the ABC islands in the Caribbean where Papiamento is spoken, while Cape Verdean Creole is the most widely spoken Portuguese-based Creole. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "Lusophone" in both English and Portuguese.
On November 1, 1919, being a 2nd-year student, Caraça was nominated 2nd assistant by his teacher Mira Fernandes. He graduated in 1923.
On December 13, 1924, he was nominated 1st assistant and, on October 14, 1927, he was nominated, professor. On December 28, 1929, he was nominated cathedratic professor, teaching algebra and infinitesimal calculus.
Algebra is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. It includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra; the more abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine and economics. Abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians.
Meanwhile, Caraça had participated in the foundation of the < Portuguese Popular University, an institution created to give working-class people the chance to study. Caraça became a member of the Administration Council when he was still a student and in 1928 he became President of the University. He carried out organizing the University's library and several conferences about Mathematics, Art, History and several other topics.
The University of Lisbon is a public research university in Lisbon, and the largest university in Portugal. It was founded in 2013, from the merger of two previous public universities located in Lisbon, the former Classical University of Lisbon (1911–2013) and the Technical University of Lisbon (1930–2013). The history of a university in Lisbon dates back to the 13th century.
Instituto Superior Técnico is a public school of engineering and technology, part of Universidade de Lisboa. Founded in 1911, IST is the largest and most prestigious school of engineering in Portugal, having a large degree of scientific and financial autonomy. Its alumni have held prominent positions in both the private and public sectors of Portuguese society, having produced numerous CEOs, government ministers, 3 Prime Ministers of Portugal, and 1 Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Polytechnic of Porto - School of Engineering (ISEP) is a public polytechnic higher learning and research engineering institute, located in the city of Porto, Portugal. ISEP is divided in 8 departments, with an emphasis on applied science and technology.
The Technical University of Lisbon was a Portuguese public university. It was created in 1930 in Lisbon, as a confederation of preexisting schools, and comprised the faculties and institutes of veterinary medicine; agricultural sciences; economics and business administration; engineering, social and political sciences; architecture; and human kinetics.
Carlos Chagas Filho was a Brazilian physician, biologist and scientist active in the field of neuroscience. He was internationally renowned for his investigations on the neural mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of electrogenesis by the electroplaques of electric fishes. He was also an important scientific leader, being one of the founders of the Biophysics Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and was also a president for 16 years of the Vatican's Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and president of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (1965–1967).
The Portuguese Mathematical Society (SPM) is a Portuguese institution, founded on December 12, 1940, whose objectives are the development of education and the dissemination and promotion of mathematical research in Portugal. SPM is responsible for the edition of scientific journal Portugaliæ Mathematica, Boletim SPM, Gazeta de Matemática and several books. Its activities include the organization of congresses, conferences, scientific meetings and training courses for teachers. SPM organizes the Portuguese Mathematical Olympiad and it also promotes the television show "This is mathematics", broadcast on SIC Notícias and SIC International. It brings together teachers and math researchers interested in the progress of the discipline in the country.
The University of São Tomé and Príncipe, USTP, is a public institution of higher education in São Tomé and Príncipe. It is the main institution dedicated to teaching, research and university extension of the country. It was established in 2014 by merging three older institutions of higher education: ISP, EFOPE and ICS.
The University of Cape Verde is the only public university of Cape Verde. The main campus is in Palmarejo, Praia, but there are also institutes in Mindelo, Assomada and São Jorge dos Órgãos. It has over 5000 students. A new campus for Uni-CV is under construction in Palmarejo, financed by the Chinese government. It should be completed by July 2020. It will have capacity for 4,890 students and 476 professors, with a library, dorms, cafeterias and sports facilities. It will have 61 class rooms, five auditoriums with a capacity of 150 seats, eight computer rooms, eight reading rooms and 34 laboratories.
João de Pina-Cabral is a Portuguese anthropologist and a senior researcher at the Instituto de Ciências Sociais of the University of Lisbon, where he was President of the Scientific Council (1997–2004). At present he is professor of social anthropology at the University of Kent.
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC, GColL, is an economist who was the 19th President of Portugal, in office from 9 March 2006 to 9 March 2016. He had been previously Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 November 1985 to 28 October 1995. His 10-year tenure was the longest of any prime minister since António de Oliveira Salazar, and he was the first Portuguese prime minister to win an absolute parliamentary majority under the current constitutional system. He is best known for leading Portugal into the European Union.
ISCTE – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, abbreviated ISCTE-IUL, is a Portuguese public university located in the city centre of Lisbon.
António Câmara is a professor at the Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa and has been a Visiting Professor at both Cornell University (1988–89) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1998–99). He was a Senior Consultant to the Expo '98 project and Senior Advisor to the National Geographical Information System. He was a member of the engineering team which studied and evaluated the Alqueva Dam's environmental impact. He has been YDreams CEO and founder since the company was created in June 2000. In 2006, Câmara was awarded with the Pessoa.
António Fernando de Vasconcelos Nogueira is a Portuguese philosopher, Social Science researcher, author, dramatist, and freelance journalist.
Julio Rey Pastor was a Spanish mathematician and historian of science.
The University of Porto is a Portuguese public university located in Porto, and founded on 22 March 1911. It is the second largest Portuguese university by number of enrolled students, after the University of Lisbon, and has one of the most noted research outputs in Portugal.
The University of Lisbon (UL) was a public university in Lisbon, Portugal. It was founded in 1911 after the fall of the Portuguese monarchy and was later integrated in the new University of Lisbon along with the former Technical University of Lisbon. The history of a university in Lisbon dates back to the 13th century.
Francisco José Tenreiro was a São Toméan geographer and poet who lived during the colonial era. He was taught at the Overseas Political and Social Sciences Institute, now known as the Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas of the University of Lisbon.