Benxi

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Coordinates: 41°29′12″N123°41′06″E / 41.4868°N 123.6850°E / 41.4868; 123.6850

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Benxi

本溪市
Pingdinshan.jpg
Location of Benxi Prefecture within Liaoning (China).png
Location of Benxi City jurisdiction in Liaoning
China Liaoning relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Benxi
Location of the city centre in Liaoning
Coordinates(Benxi Bureau of Civil Affairs / 本溪市民政局): 41°18′14″N123°45′54″E / 41.3039°N 123.7649°E / 41.3039; 123.7649
CountryPeople's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Municipal seat Xihu District
Districts and Counties
List
  • Pingshan District
  • Xihu District
  • Mingshan District
  • Nanfen District
  • Benxi Manchu Autonomous County
  • Huanren Manchu Autonomous County
Government
   CPC BenxiCommittee Secretary
  MayorTian Shuhuai (田树槐)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 8,435 km2 (3,257 sq mi)
  Urban
  [1]
1,526.00 km2 (589.19 sq mi)
  Metro
907.0 km2 (350.2 sq mi)
Elevation
131 m (430 ft)
Population
 (2010 census) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 1,709,538
   Urban
  [1]
1,094,294
   Metro
1,011,377
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
117000
Area code(s) 24
ISO 3166 code CN-LN-05
Licence plates 辽E
Administrative division code 210500
Website http://www.benxi.gov.cn/

Benxi (Chinese : 本溪 ; pinyin :Běnxī) is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, south-southeast of the provincial capital Shenyang. Its population was 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 1,011,377 lived in the built-up area made of 3 urban districts (Pingshan, Xihu and Mingshan). It was founded as a metallurgical center in 1915. Benxi Iron and Steel Company (Bengang) is the largest employer in the city, and used to be the fourth-largest steel company in China. The second-largest industry in Benxi is coal mining. The city has pollution problems due to steel production and coal mining.

During the disaster of Air France flight AF447, Benxi Iron and Steel Company lost 5 employees, including the executive Chen Chiping who was the wife of Liaoning's provincial governor. [3]

History

As early as 400,000 years ago, there were people living in Benxi prefecture, which was indicated by Miaohou Mountain ruins with human fossils and stone tools explored in this region.

The worst coal mining disaster in the world took place on April 26, 1942 in Benxihu Colliery. A coal-dust explosion killed 1,549 miners working that day, making it the worst disaster in the history of coal mining and the second worst recorded industrial accident. The explosion sent flames bursting out of the mine shaft entrance. Miners' relatives rushed to the site but were denied entry by a cordon of Japanese guards who erected electric fences to keep them out. [4] In an attempt to curtail the fire underground, the Japanese shut off the ventilation and sealed the pit head. Witnesses say that the Japanese did not evacuate the pit fully before sealing it, trapping many Chinese workers underground to suffocate in the smoke. [5]

The city is home to a notable number of Manchu and Hui people.

Administrative divisions

Benxi contains 4 districts and 2 autonomous counties:

Map
#Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.)Area (km²)Density (/km²)
1 Pingshan District 平山区Píngshān Qū350,0001771,977
2 Xihu District 溪湖区Xīhú Qū220,000320688
3 Mingshan District 明山区Míngshān Qū300,000410732
4 Nanfen District 南芬区Nánfēn Qū80,000619129
5 Benxi Manchu Autonomous County 本溪满族
自治县
Běnxī Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
300,0003,36289
6 Huanren Manchu Autonomous County 桓仁满族
自治县
Huánrén Mǎnzú
Zìzhìxiàn
300,0003,54785

Within these there are 25 counties, 40 villages and towns, 229 communities and 289 village committees.

Geography

Benxi is located within latitude 40° 49'–41° 35' N and longitude 123° 34'–125° 46' E, and has a total area of 8,411.31 square kilometres (3,247.62 sq mi). It is bordered by Tonghua (Jilin) to the east, Dandong to the south, Liaoyang to the west, Shenyang to the northwest, and Fushun to the north. The area has many mountains as well as a high degree of forest coverage (74%). [6]

Climate

Benxi has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), characterised by hot, humid summers, due to the East Asian monsoon, and long, cold and windy, but dry winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons here are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August alone. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −11.5 °C (11.3 °F) in January to 24.0 °C (75.2 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 7.83 °C (46.1 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 38% in July to 63% in February, the city receives 2,325 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Benxi (1981–2010 normals)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−4.8
(23.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
6.6
(43.9)
16.2
(61.2)
22.6
(72.7)
27.0
(80.6)
28.6
(83.5)
28.3
(82.9)
23.6
(74.5)
16.1
(61.0)
5.7
(42.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
14.0
(57.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−11.4
(11.5)
−6.6
(20.1)
1.0
(33.8)
10.2
(50.4)
16.7
(62.1)
21.4
(70.5)
24.0
(75.2)
23.1
(73.6)
17.1
(62.8)
9.5
(49.1)
0.0
(32.0)
−8.0
(17.6)
8.1
(46.6)
Average low °C (°F)−16.8
(1.8)
−11.8
(10.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
4.5
(40.1)
10.9
(51.6)
16.2
(61.2)
19.9
(67.8)
18.9
(66.0)
12.0
(53.6)
4.2
(39.6)
−4.7
(23.5)
−12.8
(9.0)
3.0
(37.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches)8.6
(0.34)
10.0
(0.39)
21.2
(0.83)
46.2
(1.82)
64.1
(2.52)
103.3
(4.07)
205.4
(8.09)
182.5
(7.19)
63.5
(2.50)
46.5
(1.83)
26.6
(1.05)
12.0
(0.47)
789.9
(31.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)5.05.06.28.29.612.314.312.28.37.66.84.8100.3
Average relative humidity (%)64585350566677787364636564
Mean monthly sunshine hours 164.4186.5220.5230.2240.8213.0173.5183.0203.7200.8161.1147.52,325
Percent possible sunshine 56636058544838435559555252
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 19712000) [7] [8]

Economy

Benxi's economy grew 10% in 2012 to a regional GDP of 111.24 billion CNY. [9] Ranked eighth out of fourteen prefecture level cities in Liaoning, the city's GDP accounted for approximately 4% of provincial total. [10] Urban per-capita disposable income was 22,466 CNY, and consumption per capita 16,064 CNY. [11]

With 46 large and medium-sized enterprises in Benxi, main industrial products are raw iron (14 million tons), steel (13 million tons), finished steel (12 million tons), cement (3 million tons) and raw coal (1 million tons). In 2008, 92,615 people were employed in manufacturing, 20,368 in education, 19,228 in public administration and social organizations, 17,913 persons in the mining industry, and 12,997 in transportation and storage. According to the type of business ownership, 63,000 were employed in private companies. [12]

Uranium is mined in the region.

As of 2009, Asia's biggest iron ore mine, which is reported to possess more than 3 billion tons of proven reserves, has been found in this region. [13]

Education

The city contains the Benxi Campus of the Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (LNUTCM). [14]

In the perspective of high school education, the Benxi Senior High School (Benxi Gaozhong) is located in the city, while the school faced severe controversy on the unreasonably-high number of Sporting Students. [15] However, the currency of the school is improving with the former-principal Pang Mingrong (庞鸣嵘) dismissed from the school, Pang was infamous and controversial for the injustice in his attitude towards students of different 'classes,' which builds on test scores, however revered by his students.[ citation needed ]

Tourist activities

Benxi is rich with tourist attractions. The eastern side of the prefecture is covered with mountains, caves and lakes with low population, making the various parks in that area popular.

The Benxi Lake, located at the urban area of Xihu district in Benxi, after which the city was named in Qing dynasty, is the tiniest lake in the world. With an area less than 15 sq. meters and a daily rate of flow at approximately 20,000 tons, the lake acts as a famous tourist attraction of the city.

The Benxi Water Cave National Park is a subterranean river, some 3,000 meters long, 2 meters deep and wide enough for 20-30 boats. It flows through this cave situated 35 km (22 mi) east of Benxi city. The cave is filled with countless stalactites and stone flowers, pillars and curtains.

Wunü Mountain National Park is an area of natural beauty. The park also contains the remains of an ancient Goguryeo capital city. As such the site has been recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [16]

Guanmenshan National Forest Park is an valley of outstanding natural beauty. Secluded trails run up and down the valley. The area is particularly popular in autumn when the leaves of the many maple trees that line the valley turn bright red.

Pictures

Sister cities

Related Research Articles

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Liaoning, is a coastal province in Northeast China that is the smallest, southernmost, and most populous province in the region. With its capital at Shenyang, it is located on the northern shore of the Yellow Sea, and is the northernmost coastal province of the People's Republic of China.

Anshan Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

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Fushun Prefecture-level city in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

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Benxihu (Honkeiko) Colliery, located in Benxi, Liaoning, China, was first mined in 1905. Originally an iron and coal mining project under joint Japanese and Chinese control, the mine came under predominately Japanese control. In the early 1930s, Japan invaded the northeast of China, and Liaoning province became part of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese forced Chinese labourers—some of whom had been captured from local military organizations—to work the colliery under very poor conditions. Food was scarce and workers did not have sufficient clothing. Working conditions were harsh, and diseases such as typhoid and cholera flourished due to poor sanitation and water supplies. Typically miners worked 12-hour shifts or longer. The Japanese controllers were known to beat workers with pick handles, and the perimeter of the mine was fenced and guarded. Many describe the conditions as slave labour.

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Liaoyuan Prefecture-level city in Jilin, Peoples Republic of China

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Jiaozuo Prefecture-level city in Henan, Peoples Republic of China

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Jixi Prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang, Peoples Republic of China

Jixi is a city in southeastern Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China. At the 2010 census, 1,862,165 people resided within its administrative area of 22,488.47 square kilometres (8,682.85 sq mi) and 757,647 in its built-up area made up of 3 out of 6 urban districts. Jixi is on the Muling River about 30 km (19 mi) from the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai and 120 km (75 mi) from Lake Xingkai. The mayor of Jixi is Zhang Changrong (张常荣) since June 2015. The area is one of the important coal mining bases in China. A crater on asteroid 253 Mathilde was named after the city.

Benxi Shuidong National Park

The Benxi Water Caves is a partially submerged cavern system containing a forest of stalactites and stalagmites, located 26 kilometres (16 mi) east of Benxi, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China. It was made a national park on January 10, 1994, and is open to the public all year round. It was designated an "AAAAA"-class tourist attraction by CNTA in 2015.

Xihu District, Benxi District in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Xihu District is a District under the administration of the city of Benxi, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of 320 square kilometres (120 sq mi), and a population of approximately 230,000 people as of 2002.

Benxi Manchu Autonomous County Autonomous county in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China

Benxi Manchu Autonomous County is an autonomous county under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Benxi, in the east of Liaoning province, China. It has a total area of 3,362 square kilometres (1,298 sq mi), and a population of approximately 300,000 people as of 2002.

Benxi Steel Group Corp., Ltd. known as Benxi Steel Group is a Chinese holding company based in Benxi, Liaoning Province, for two steel making group.

Gao Hongbin is a Chinese politician who spent his entirely career in northeast China's Liaoning province. He was investigated by the Communist Party of China's anti-graft agency in December 2018. Previously he served as head of the United Front Department of CPC Liaoning Provincial Committee.

Liu Guoqiang is a former Chinese politician who spent his entire career in his home-province Liaoning. He was investigated by China's top anti-graft agency in July 2020. He has retired for three years, prior to that, he served as vice-chairman of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) from 2013 to 2017, vice-governor of Liaoning from 2001 to 2013, and mayor of Benxi from 2000 to 2001. He was a delegate to the 10th and 11th National People's Congress.

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