Gazanjyk, Russian Cyrillic Казанджик
|• Häkim||Nurahmet Gylyjov|
|• City||18.632 km2 (7.194 sq mi)|
|• Urban||9.342 km2 (3.607 sq mi)|
|Elevation||205 m (673 ft)|
|• Density||1,314/km2 (3,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||+5 GMT|
|Area code(s)||+(993) 247 XX XXX|
Bereket, formerly Gazanjyk or Kazandzhik (Russian : Казанджик or Turkmen : Газанҗык gɑˈzɑnd͡ʒik), is a city in Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan. Bereket is the administrative centre of Bereket District.
Bereket is located in an oasis in the foothills of the Kopetdag Mountains and on the edge of the Karakum Desert.
Bereket is an strategic junction of the Trans-Caspian Railway (Caspian Sea-Turkmenistan-Uzbekistan-Kazakhstan) and North-South Transnational Railway (Russia-Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran-Persian Gulf.
The city has a large locomotive repair depot and a modern railway station.
The city is located approximately 260 km (162 mi) west of the Turkmen capital of Ashgabat and 340 km (211 mi) east of the Caspian Sea port of Turkmenbashy. The largest cities nearby are Balkanabat 120 km (75 mi) to the west, and Serdar 90 km (56 mi) to the east.
The estimated population of the city is 24,500 as of March 2015.
Gazanjyk is probably derived from a Turkic language word gazan or kazan (meaning a large cooking pot used throughout Central Asia, roughly equivalent to a cauldron, boiler) and -jyk a suffix to denote small in size. The name can be translated into English as small kazan or small cauldron. Atanyyazow notes that Gazanjyk is the name of a spring near the city, and it was named after its shape.
The present-day name of the city, Bereket, means in the Turkmen language abundance or prosperity. The word bereket is borrowed from the Persian word Barakat (برکت), which in turn is borrowed from the Arabic Barakah (برکة).
Since ancient times the area where city is now located was known as an important junction on the Silk Road that connected China with the Middle East and Europe.
Aleksey Kuropatkin, the Imperial Russian Army commander of the Turkestan Rifle Brigade, who made an 18-day march in 1880–1881 across 800 kilometres (500 mi) of Karakum desert writes in his memoirs "the 5th transition to Kazanjyk – 64 miles [103 km]. A waterless road. The soil is sandy, clayey, alkaline; there are sparse clumps of weeds and even sparser haloxylon trees four feet in height. This transition separates the Balkan mountains from Kyurendag. Gazanjyk wells lie in the gorge of the Kyurendag mountains, along the stream of a small river. Water in the wells is fresh and of good quality."
After the conquest of Transcaspian Oblast the Russian Empire started to build the Trans-Caspian railway including towns and settlements along the route. Gazanjyk, as an urban settlement, was founded in 1895 to serve as an important junction on the railway.
Between 1916 and 1924 Gazanjyk and the surrounding area were the scene of furious battles between Russian Imperial forces, and after 1918 the Soviet Red Army, and local nationalist Muslims of the Basmachi movement.
During Soviet period the 61631st Army garrison was built on the outskirts of the city. In 1988 it was the station of the 231st tank regiment, the 160th motorized rifle regiment and the 405th artillery regiment.
The December 2000 Turkmenistan earthquake (7.0 on the moment magnitude scale) devastated the city centre.
See satellite image of Bereket.
The city is located on the westernmost foothills of the Kopetdag mountains, called Kyurendag, on the edge of the Karakum deserts. he maximum height of the Kyurendag ridge is 968 m (3,176 ft). The vegetation of the ridge is quite poor and is represented primarily by species of desert flora: sagebrush, semi-desert and dry steppe and rocky outcroppings. Soils are grey soils. One can occasionally find juniper trees, single or large groups of tamarisk and small shrubs.
Wildlife in recent years has become greatly impoverished. Ungulates are few in number. Argali sheep are seen occasionally, as are bezoar goats, wild boar, and gazelles. Predators includewolves, jackals, foxes, and hyenas. Among birds klik are rarely seen and stone curlews and jacks very rarely. Reptile species are represented by the steppe tortoise, monitor lizard, boa, agam, etc.
The major source of water for irrigation is the Karakum Canal, which runs dry near Bereket and delivers water to points west via a pipeline.
The city is divided into several neighbourhoods, called by the traditional name for a semi-nomadic village, aul. The majority of the inhabitants are Turkmen from the Yomud tribes, with a minority of Teke. Previously strong communities of Azeris, Armenians, Russians, Ukrainians and Persians are now reduced to several families. In the 1990s most of them migrated to larger cities for better economic opportunities. Many Russian families also emigrated to the Russian Federation.
The city is the semi-industrial and semi-agricultural centre of Bereket District. It is an important railway and automobile junction,the city has a large railroad yard and locomotive repair depot, a brick yard, Turkmen carpet weaving factory, wheat and cotton processing and storage facilities. Animal husbandry (camels, cows, sheep) is another source of income.
In September 2014 a poultry complex with production capacity of 8 million eggs and 1000 tons of poultry meat a year was constructed.
The State Commercial Bank Dayhanbank has a branch in Bereket.
The postal code for the city is 745130.The city has mobile coverage from the state-owned Altyn Asyr.
The city has a small public transportation network. Several small buses run scheduled routes connecting the eastern and western parts of the city (some 5–6 km.)
Bereket is an important railway junction and station for commercial and freight transportation on the Turkmenistan national railway system.
Bereket is a strategically important junction of the Trans-Caspian Railway (Caspian Sea, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and eastern Kazakhstan) and North-South Transnational Railway (Russia-Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran-Persian Gulf). The city has a large locomotive repair depot and a modern passenger railway station.
The Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran railway link is part of the North–South Transport Corridor and is a 677 km (421 mi) long railway line connecting Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan with Iran and the Persian Gulf. It links Uzen in Kazakhstan with Bereket–Etrek in Turkmenistan and ends at Gorgan in Iran's Golestan province. In Iran, the railway is linked to the national network making its way to the ports of the Persian Gulf. The project is estimated to have cost $620 million, which was jointly funded by the governments of Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran.
In May 2013, the 311 km (193 mi) Bereket – Uzen section of the North-South Transnational Railway was completed. In February 2014 256 km (159 mi) long section between Bereket and Etrek was completed. Currently railway stations along the new railway are being constructed such as Däneata, Dövletýar, Bugdaýly, Balguýi, Madaw, Akjadepe.
The Kazakhstan-Turkmenistan-Iran railway link was be officially inaugurated in October 2014.
The city is located on the M37 Highway (Turkmenistan's section of the European route E60 which connects Brest, France to Irkeshtam, Kyrgyzstan on the border with the People's Republic of China).
The city has three public schools, kindergartens, a small hospital, and medical emergency centre.
In 2012 several new buildings were constructed within the State Development Program including the mayor's office ( häkimlik ), two schools, a hotel, cultural center, a hospital and a knitting factory.
Until 2000, the city had a library, two open-air and one winter cinema. All are currently closed.
Bereket has a cool desert climate (Köppen BWk), with generally chilly winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and autumn months. In summer, day temperatures may reach between 42 and 44 °C (107.6 and 111.2 °F), and during nights fall to between 15 and 18 °C (59.0 and 64.4 °F). The air flow is windy, chilly in winters and dusty in summers.
|Climate data for Bereket|
|Average high °C (°F)||6.8|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||2.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.8|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22|
In its storage area, the Bereket Depot museum, has a relic Russian made class T locomotive ТЭ-189 (built between 1857–1915).
FD class steam locomotives ФД20-2526, ФД20–2494 (ФД20–1441) (built between 1931–1942), and Russian class E locomotives Эр796-88, Эм734–66 (Эм733–96), Эу705–41, Эм725–30, Э-13 (built between 1912–1957).
There are also several ТЭ1 class locomotives, whose prototype was the famous US made ALCO RSD-1 locomotive.
Bereket Railway Station (Turkmen : Bereket demirýol menzili) is the main railway station in the city. It was built in 1885. The station is operated by the Türkmendemirýollary.
Turkmenistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea to the west, Iran and Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the north-east, and Kazakhstan to the north-west. It is the southernmost republic of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the loose federation created at the end of 1991 by most of the Post-Soviet states.
Transport in Turkmenistan includes roadways, railways, airways, seaways, and waterways, as well as oil-, gas-, and water pipelines. Road-, rail-, and waterway transport fall under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Industry and Communications.
Balkan Region is the westernmost of five regions of Turkmenistan. Clockwise from north it borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (north); two provinces of Turkmenistan (east), Iran (south) and the Caspian Sea (west). The capital city is Balkanabat, formerly known as Nebit Dag. The boundaries of the region are identical to those of the former Krasnovodsk Oblast' , a Soviet-era province of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. This oblast was liquidated and restored many times in the mid- to late nineteen-hundreds and in 1988 it was abolished for good. However, the administrative boundaries of the region were restored in 1991 when Balkan Region was established.
Tejen is an oasis city with district status in the Karakum Desert, in Ahal Province of Turkmenistan. It lies along the M37 highway, between Dushak and Mary, 223 kilometres (139 mi) by road southeast of Ashgabat. It has a population of approximately 52,000. To the east is the larger oasis of Mary.
The Trans-Caspian Railway is a railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia. It was built by the Russian Empire during its expansion into Central Asia in the 19th century. The railway was started in 1879, following the Russian victory over Khokand. Originally it served a military purpose of facilitating the Imperial Russian Army in actions against the local resistance to their rule. However, when Lord Curzon visited the railway, he remarked that he considered its significance went beyond local military control and threatened British interests in Asia.
The Islamic Republic of Iran Railways is the national state-owned railway system of Iran. The Raja Passenger Train Company is an associate of the IR, and manages its passenger trains. The Railway Transportation Company is an associate of the IR, which manages its freight transport. The Ministry of Roads & Urban Development is the state agency that oversees the IRIR. Some 33 million tonnes of goods and 29 million passengers are transported annually by the rail transportation network, accounting for 9 percent and 11 percent of all transportation in Iran, respectively (2011).
Serdar is a city with district status in Turkmenistan, located north-west of the capital, Ashkhabad on the M37 highway to the Caspian Sea. The population of Serdar is 50,000 people, mainly Turkmen. The main language spoken in the region is Turkmen. It is near the northwest end of the line of oases on the north slope of the Kopet Dag that extends southeast to Ashkhabad.
Iran and Turkmenistan share a common border of more than 1000 km. Since Turkmenistan's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the two countries have enjoyed good relations and have cooperated in economic, transportation, infrastructure development, and energy sectors. The two nations have strong historic ties.
Darvaza is a rural council in Ak bugdaý District, Ahal Province, Turkmenistan of about 350 inhabitants, located in the middle of the Karakum Desert, about 260 km north of Ashgabat. The rural council consists of three separate villages: Aeroport, Ataguýy, and Böri.
Etrek is a city and administrative center of Etrek District in Balkan Province, Turkmenistan. It is located on the Atrek River bordering on Iran. The name means "Red Atrek" and may be a reference to the silt load that the Atrek River carries at that point, though it may also be a reference to the color red associated with Soviet Communist authority. The city's and district's name was changed to Etrek in December 1999 by Parliamentary Resolution HM-63.
The International North–South Transport Corridor (INSTC) is a 7,200-km-long multi-mode network of ship, rail, and road route for moving freight between India, Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Russia, Central Asia and Europe. The route primarily involves moving freight from India, Iran, Azerbaijan and Russia via ship, rail and road. The objective of the corridor is to increase trade connectivity between major cities such as Mumbai, Moscow, Tehran, Baku, Bandar Abbas, Astrakhan, Bandar Anzali, etc. Dry runs of two routes were conducted in 2014, the first was Mumbai to Baku via Bandar Abbas and the second was Mumbai to Astrakhan via Bandar Abbas, Tehran and Bandar Anzali. The objective of the study was to identify and address key bottlenecks. The results showed transport costs were reduced by "$2,500 per 15 tons of cargo". Other routes under consideration include via Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
The list of Turkmenistan-related articles is below
Turkmenistan has 4,980 kilometres (3,090 mi) of railways. The railway operator is the state owned company Türkmendemirýollary. The company belongs to the Ministry of Railways of Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan is currently expanding its rail system to cover 5,256.25 kilometres (3,266.08 mi) more distance, which will take its network to 10,236.25 kilometres (6,360.51 mi) track kilometres by 2025.
Turkmenistan is a country with large potential for an expanded tourism industry. Many of its Central Asian cities were main points of trade on the Silk Road, linking Eastern and Western civilizations. Many neighboring countries promote their countries based on their location along the Great Silk Road. Tourism has grown rapidly in recent years. Tourists from abroad are deterred by the restrictive visa regime with all countries of the world. Tourism is regulated by the Tourism Committee of Turkmenistan.
Demirýollary AGPJ is the state-owned operator of railways in Turkmenistan. The company operates on 4,980 km (3,090 mi) of railways and maintains over 345 railway stations throughout the country. The company belongs to the Ministry of Industry and Construction and is subordinate to the Railways Agency of Turkmenistan. It is headquartered in Ashgabat. While the rail system itself belongs to the railways agency, the Turkmen Railways company owns the locomotive and railcar depots, rail stations, construction and maintenance units, communications and power supply services, and two hotels in Awaza, the Kerwen and Türkmenbaşy.
Bereket railway station is the main railway station in the city of Bereket, Turkmenistan. It was built in 1885. The station is operated by the Türkmendemirýollary.
Bereket Railway Depot is a railway depot in Bereket city where locomotives are serviced and maintained.
Oboý is a small settlement in Bereket District, Balkan Province in western Turkmenistan.
The wildlife of Turkmenistan is the flora and fauna of Turkmenistan, and the natural habitats in which they live. Turkmenistan is a country in Central Asia to the east of the Caspian Sea. Two thirds of the country is hot dry plains and desert, and the rest is more mountainous. Very little rain falls in summer and the chief precipitation occurs in the southern part of the country in the winter and spring. The Caspian coast has milder winters.