Berenice IV of Egypt

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Berenice IV
Queen of Egypt
Reign58–55 BC
Successor Ptolemy XII Auletes
Born77 BC
Alexandria, Egypt
Died55 BC
Alexandria, Egypt
Burial
Alexandria, Egypt
Spouse Seleucus VII Kybiosaktes
Archelaus I of Comana
Full name
Irypatet Werethesut Berenice IV Epiphaneia
Dynasty Ptolemaic
Father Ptolemy XII Auletes
Mother Cleopatra V of Egypt

Berenice IV Epiphaneia (Greek : Βερενίκη; 77–55 BC, born and died in Alexandria, Egypt) was a Greek Princess and Queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Alexandria Metropolis in Egypt

Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also a popular tourist destination.

Egypt Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally defined. Egypt is bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Contents

Biography

Early life prior to reign

Berenice was the daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes and probably Cleopatra V Tryphaena. She was sister of the famous Pharaoh Cleopatra, Arsinoe IV, Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator and Ptolemy XIV. In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra VII fled to Rome in search of political and military aid against Berenice's elder sister Cleopatra VI Tryphaena, who had become far too powerful.

Ptolemy XII Auletes Egyptian pharaoh

Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos was a pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He was commonly known as Auletes, referring to the king's love of playing the flute in Dionysian festivals. He was the son of Ptolemy IX, whose mother Cleopatra III sent Ptolemy XII and her other grandchildren to Kos in 103 BC. Thus, he spent much of his obscure early life outside of Egypt.

Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt was a Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt. She is the only surely attested wife of Ptolemy XII. Her only known child is Berenice IV, but she was also probably the mother of Cleopatra VII.

Arsinoe IV of Egypt queen and co-ruler of Egypt from 48 BC-47 BC

Arsinoë IV was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes. Queen and co-ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt with her brother Ptolemy XIII from 48 BC – 47 BC, she was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt. Arsinoë IV was also the half sister of Cleopatra VII. For her role in conducting the Siege of Alexandria against her sister Cleopatra, Arsinoe was taken as a prisoner of war to Rome by the Roman triumvir Julius Caesar following the defeat of Ptolemy XIII in the Battle of the Nile. Arsinoe was then exiled to the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Roman Anatolia, but she was executed there by orders of triumvir Mark Antony in 41 BC at the behest of his lover Cleopatra.

Reign

After Tryphaena's death in 57 BC, possibly poisoned on behalf of Berenice, she at age 20 became the sole ruler of Egypt due to her father's absence, and with him and Cleopatra absent she had no worry about being overthrown or overpowered and executed. [1]

As a lone woman ruling Egypt, she was expected to marry and have a man as a co-regent. When she did not, her consuls forced her to marry prince Seleucus VII Philometor, but she had him strangled and remained as sole ruler. [2] The public feared the Ptolemaic reign would fail to continue due to Berenice's refusal to marry. It is also believed she cared far too much for fashion and luxuries, leading to rising expenses. She later married Archelaus, but he was not coregent. Archelaus had been appointed to the priesthood at Comana at Cappadocia by Pompey, and claimed to be a son of King Mithridates VI of Pontus. Strabo instead says his father was Archelaus, a general of Mithridates VI in the First Mithridatic War [3] who defected to the Romans.

Seleucus VII Philometor or Kybiosaktes, was a ruler of the Macedonian Seleucid kingdom.

Archelaus I was a high priest of the temple-state of Comana, Cappadocia.

Pompey 1st/2nd-century BC Roman general

Gnaeus Pompey Magnus , usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a military commander in Sulla's second civil war resulted in Sulla bestowing the cognomen Magnus, "the Great", upon him. His Roman adversaries insulted him as adulescentulus carnifex, "the teenage butcher", after his Sicilian campaign. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs.

The reign of Berenice ended in 55 BC when her father retook the throne with the aid of the Romans led by Aulus Gabinius, and had Berenice beheaded. Archelaus, who according to Strabo had previously had a friendly relationship with Gabinius, died in battle against the forces of Gabinius. [4]

Aulus Gabinius Roman statesman and general

Aulus Gabinius was a Roman statesman and general. He was an avid supporter of Pompey who likewise supported Gabinius. He was a prominent figure in the latter days of the Roman Republic.

Ancestry

See also

Related Research Articles

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Early life of Cleopatra

The early life of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt began with her birth in early 69 BC to reigning pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes and an unknown mother, and lasted until her accession to the throne by March 51 BC. During her early childhood, Cleopatra was brought up in the palace of Alexandria in Egypt and received a primarily-Hellenistic Greek education from her tutor, Philostratos. By adulthood she was well-versed in many languages, including Egyptian, Ethiopian, Trogodyte, Hebrew, Arabic, Syrian, Median, Parthian, Latin, and her native Koine Greek.

References

  1. Strabo 12.3.34 and 17.1.11
  2. Strabo 12.3.34 and 17.1.11
  3. Appian Mithrid. 114
  4. Plutarch Antony 3.2 - 3.6

Sources

Berenice IV of Egypt
Born: c. 77 BC Died: 55 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ptolemy XII
Pharaoh of Egypt
58 BC–55 BC
with Cleopatra VI
Succeeded by
Ptolemy XII