|• Total||170.98 km2 (66.02 sq mi)|
|• Density||85/km2 (220/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code||(+36) 54|
Berettyóújfalu is a town in Hajdú-Bihar county, in center of the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. It is 40 km south from Debrecen (the second largest city in Hungary), and about 35 km from Oradea (Romania). Berettyóújfalu is named after the river Berettyó.
It covers an area of 170.98 km2 (66 sq mi) and has a population of about 15,000 people.
This area has been inhabited since ancient times. A lot of artifacts from the late Bronze Age were found in the town area. In the Iron Age, Scythians, Sarmatians, Celts and Huns conquered this area one after another.
After the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin (C.E. 9–10th century) 14–15 villages came to be in this area where semi-nomad farming took place. The villages were built on the top of the hills, because this area was a huge swamp. People used boats to travel between the hills. Every settlement had at least one port.
The center of the villages was named Herpály. The first written mention of the village was the Regestrum Varadi in the 13th century. Herpály was important because of a Romanesque monastery (built in the 12th century). The village and the monastery were destroyed twice. No written records have survived about the monastery after the Mongol invasion of Europe (C.E. 1241–1242. in Hungary). At the first half of the 19th century the height of the walls was 8–12 meters (26–32 ft). Each of the two towers stood, until a local landowner demolished the north tower, because it was life-threatening. The bricks were offered to the base structure of the Reformed Church's organ. The ruin of the tower is called "csonkatorony" (lit. crooked tower) by the locals. The south tower and only its foundation is visible today.
Herpály had four streets in 1418, according to degree possession of sharing. The village had three pubs: one had a guestroom, the others had cellars. The estimated number of villagers was fewer than 300 people.
At the other bank of river Berettyó was a notable village, named Berettyószentmárton. It was a custom and tow place. In 1481 Matthias Corvinus (King of Hungary) donated right to hold markets for the settlement.
Herpály lamentable chronicle began in 1658, when Crimean Tatars burned the Berettyó-valley. The settlements was not completely destroyed, but Invasion Szejdi in 1660 certainly dispels the residents here.
Gábor Báthory (Prince of Transylvania, from 1608 to 1613) gave privilege for Berettyóújfalu on 23 May 1608, but it lost that privilege in the same century.
Significant changes happened in the landscape in the middle of the 19th century. The old "water world" disappeared when the river regulation had finished. The Püspökladány - Nagyvárad (later Oradea) railway line was built in 1858. It passes over Berettyóújfalu and gave dynamism to the development of the economy.
In the 1920s, with a new county hall, elementary school, hospital, official site built, Berettyóújfalu was the county seat of Bihar county between 1920 and 1940, and 1945–1950, because Oradea was annexed to Romania, after the Treaty of Trianon (4 June 1920). Later the government created Hajdú-Bihar County. From this time the county seat was Debrecen.
The catchment area is still large, the town is an important transport, economic and cultural center. There are five elementary and three high schools, a mill, a reconditioned spa, a regional hospital and major medical centers. Berettyóújfalu and Berettyószentmárton merged in 1970, and received city status in 1978.
Berettyóújfalu is twinned with:
Debrecen ( DEB-rət-sen, Hungarian: [ˈdɛbrɛt͡sɛn] is Hungary's second-largest city, after Budapest, the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar County. It was the largest Hungarian city in the 18th century and it is one of the Hungarian people's most important cultural centres. Debrecen was also the capital city of Hungary during the revolution in 1848–1849. During the revolution, the dethronement of the Habsburg dynasty was declared in the Reformed Great Church. The city also served as the capital of Hungary by the end of the World War II in 1944–1945. It is home of the University of Debrecen.
Bihor County is a county (județ) of Romania, in Crișana. Its capital city is Oradea.
Aiud is a city located in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania. The city's population is 22,876. It has the status of municipality and is the 2nd-largest city in the county, after county seat Alba Iulia. The city derives its name ultimately from Saint Giles (Aegidius), to whom the first church in the settlement was dedicated when built.
Crișana is a geographical and historical region in north-western Romania, named after the Criș (Körös) River and its three tributaries: the Crișul Alb, Crișul Negru, and Crișul Repede. In Romania, the term is sometimes extended to included areas beyond the border, in Hungary; in this interpretation, the region is bounded to the east by the Apuseni Mountains, to the south by the Mureș River, to the north by the Someș River, and to the west by the Tisza River, the Romanian-Hungarian border cutting it in two. However, in Hungary, the area between the Tisza River and the Romanian border is usually known as Tiszántúl.
Bihar was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary and a county of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and Principality of Transylvania. Most of its territory is now part of Romania, while a smaller western part belongs to Hungary. The capital of the county was Nagyvárad.
Hajdú, formerly known as Hajdúság, was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. The capital of the county was Debrecen. The territory of the county is now part of the Hungarian county Hajdú-Bihar.
Hajdú-Bihar is an administrative county in eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Békés. The capital of Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. Together with Bihor County in Romania it constitutes the Biharia Euroregion.
Debrecen International Airport is the international airport of Debrecen in the Hajdú-Bihar County of Hungary. It is located 5 km (3.1 mi) south southwest of the city center and also easily accessible to adjacent regions of Romania and Ukraine.
Bocskaikert is a village situated in the north-east part of Hungary, 15 km (9 mi) away from Debrecen, the country's second largest town. Administratively it belongs to Hajdú-Bihar County.
The history of Oradea covers the time from Neolithic, through the Middle Ages and its flourishing as an important center in Crișana region, until its modern existence as a city, the seat of Bihor County in north-western Romania.
Hajdúszoboszló is a town in Hajdú-Bihar county, Hungary, 19 kilometres southwest of county seat Debrecen. It is the third largest town in Hajdú-Bihar county.
The Carpathian Euroregion is an international association formed on February 14, 1993, by the representatives of the regional administrations of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia and Hungary in the city of Debrecen. In 2000, the request from several regional administrations of Romania to join the Euroregion was accepted.
Körösnagyharsány (Körös-Nagy-Harsány) is a village in Békés County, in the Southern Great Plain region of south-east Hungary.
Földes is a large village in Hajdú-Bihar County, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
Nyíradony is a town in Hajdú-Bihar county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
Újiráz is a village in Berettyóújfalu District of Hajdú-Bihar County, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
The Barcău or Bereteu is a river which has its origin in Sălaj County, Romania. It is about 167 kilometres (104 mi) long with a watershed area of 5,812 km2 (2,244 sq mi). After crossing Bihor County in Romania and Hajdú-Bihar and Békés County in Hungary, it flows into the Sebes-Körös near Szeghalom. Its length in Romania is 134 km (83 mi).
The Oradea ghetto was one of the Nazi-era ghettos for European Jews during World War II. It was located in the city of Oradea in Bihor County, Transylvania, now part of Romania but administered as part of Bihar County by the Kingdom of Hungary from the 1940 Second Vienna Award's grant of Northern Transylvania until late 1944. The ghetto was active in the spring of 1944, following Operation Margarethe.
Berettyóújfalu is a district in south-eastern part of Hajdú-Bihar County. Berettyóújfalu is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Bihar historical and geographical region.
Derecske is a district in central-eastern part of Hajdú-Bihar County. Derecske is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region.
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