Bermondsey

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Bermondsey
Bermondsey mary magdalen 1.jpg
St Mary Magdalen Church, Bermondsey
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Bermondsey
Location within Greater London
OS grid reference TQ335795
  Charing Cross 2.5 mi (4.0 km)  WNW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE1,SE16
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°29′55″N0°04′33″W / 51.4986°N 0.0757°W / 51.4986; -0.0757 Coordinates: 51°29′55″N0°04′33″W / 51.4986°N 0.0757°W / 51.4986; -0.0757

Bermondsey ( /ˈbɜːrməndzi/ ) is a district in South East London in the London Borough of Southwark, England, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) southeast of Charing Cross. To the west of Bermondsey lies Southwark, to the east Rotherhithe and Deptford, to the south Walworth and Peckham, and to the north is Wapping across the River Thames. It lies within the historic county boundaries of Surrey. [1]

Contents

History

Toponomy

Bermondsey may be understood to mean Beornmund's island; but, while Beornmund represents an Old English personal name, identifying an individual once associated with the place, the element "-ey" represents Old English eg, for "island", "piece of firm land in a fen", or simply a "place by a stream or river". Thus Bermondsey need not have been an island as such in the Anglo-Saxon period, and is as likely to have been a higher, drier spot in an otherwise marshy area. [2] Though Bermondsey's earliest written appearance is in the Domesday Book of 1086, it also appears in a source which, though surviving only in a copy written at Peterborough Abbey in the 12th century, claiming "ancient rights" unproven purporting to be a transcription of a letter of Pope Constantine (708–715), in which he grants privileges to a monastery at Vermundesei, then in the hands of the abbot of Medeshamstede, as Peterborough was known at the time. [3]

Anglo-Saxon and Norman period

A Fete at Bermondsey by Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder c. 1569, with the Tower of London in the distance. Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder - Festival at Bermondsey.png
A Fête at Bermondsey by Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder c. 1569, with the Tower of London in the distance.

Bermondsey appears in the Domesday Book as Bermundesy and Bermundesye, in the Hundred of Brixton within the County of Surrey. [4] It was then held by King William, though a small part was in the hands of Robert, Count of Mortain, the king's half brother, and younger brother of Odo of Bayeux, then earl of Kent. Its Domesday assets were recorded as including 13 hides, 'a new and handsome church', 5 ploughs, 20 acres (8 hectares) of meadow, and woodland for 5 pigs. It rendered £15 in total. It also included interests in London, in respect of which 13 burgesses paid 44d (£0.18). [5]

The church mentioned in Domesday Book was presumably the nascent Bermondsey Abbey, which was founded as a Cluniac priory in 1082, and was dedicated to St Saviour. Monks from the abbey began the development of the area, cultivating the land and embanking the riverside. They turned an adjacent tidal inlet at the mouth of the River Neckinger into a dock, named St Saviour's Dock after their abbey. But Bermondsey then was little more than a high street ribbon (the modern Bermondsey Street), leading from the southern bank of the Thames, at Tooley Street, up to the abbey close.

The Knights Templar also owned land here and gave their names to one of the most distinctive streets in London, Shad Thames (a corruption of "St John at Thames"). Other ecclesiastical properties stood nearby at Tooley (a corruption of "St Olave's") Street, located in the Archbishop of Canterbury's manor of Southwark, where wealthy citizens and clerics had their houses, including the priors of Lewes and St Augustine's, Canterbury, and the abbot of Battle.

14th century

King Edward III built a manor house close to the Thames in Bermondsey in 1353. The excavated foundations are visible next to Bermondsey Wall East close to the famous Angel public house. [6]

17th century

Former Alaska factory in Bermondsey AlaskaBuildingsBermondsey.jpg
Former Alaska factory in Bermondsey

As it developed over the centuries, Bermondsey underwent some striking changes. After the Great Fire of London, it was settled by the well-to-do and took on the character of a garden suburb especially along the lines of Grange Road, as Bermondsey Street became more urbanised, and of Jamaica/ Lower Road. A pleasure garden was founded there in the 17th century, commemorated by the Cherry Garden Pier. Samuel Pepys visited "Jamaica House" at Cherry Gardens in 1664 and recorded in his diary that he had left it "singing finely". Jamaica Road still remains.

Though not many buildings survive from this era, one notable exception is the church of St Mary Magdalen in Bermondsey Street, completed in 1690 (although a church has been recorded on this site from the 13th Century). This church came through both 19th-century redevelopment and The Blitz unscathed. It is not just an unusual survivor for Bermondsey; buildings of this era are relative rarities in Inner London in general.

18th century

In the 18th century, the discovery of a spring from the river Neckinger in the area led to the development of Bermondsey Spa, as the area between Grange and Jamaica Roads called Spa Road commemorates. [7] A new church was built for the growing population of the area, and named St John Horsleydown.

19th century

It was from the Bermondsey riverside that the painter J.M.W. Turner executed his famous painting of The Fighting "Temeraire" Tugged to her Last Berth to be Broken Up (1839), depicting the veteran warship being towed to Rotherhithe to be scrapped.

By the mid-19th century, parts of Bermondsey, especially along the riverside, had become notorious slums with the arrival of industrial plants, docks and immigrant housing. The area around St. Saviour's Dock, known as Jacob's Island, was one of the worst in London. It was immortalised in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist , in which the villain, Bill Sikes, meets his end in the mud of 'Folly Ditch', in reference to Hickman's Folly, which surrounded Jacob's Island. [8] [9] Dickens provides a vivid description of what it was like: [10]

... crazy wooden galleries common to the backs of half a dozen houses, with holes from which to look upon the slime beneath; windows, broken and patched, with poles thrust out, on which to dry the linen that is never there; rooms so small, so filthy, so confined, that the air would seem to be too tainted even for the dirt and squalor which they shelter; wooden chambers thrusting themselves out above the mud and threatening to fall into it—as some have done; dirt-besmeared walls and decaying foundations, every repulsive lineament of poverty, every loathsome indication of filth, rot, and garbage: all these ornament the banks of Jacob's Island.

Bermondsey vestry hall was built on Spa Road in 1881 but blitzed in 1941. The original vestry hall was extended to create the Bermondsey Town Hall in 1930. The area was extensively redeveloped during the 19th century and early 20th century with the expansion of the river trade and the arrival of the railways. London's first passenger railway terminus was built by the London to Greenwich Railway in 1836 at London Bridge. The first section to be used was between the Spa Road Station and Deptford High Street. This local station had closed by 1915.

Leather, Hide and Wool Exchange, at left and Leather Market at right London Leather, Hide & Wool Exchange.jpg
Leather, Hide and Wool Exchange, at left and Leather Market at right

The industrial boom of the 19th century was an extension of Bermondsey's manufacturing role in earlier eras. As in the East End, industries that were deemed too noisome to be carried on within the narrow confines of the City of London had been located here — one such that came to dominate central Bermondsey, away from the riverfront, was the processing and trading of leather and hides. Many of the warehouse buildings from this era survive around Bermondsey Street, Tanner Street, Morocco Street and Leathermarket Street including the huge Leather Market of 1833 and the Leather, Hide and Wool Exchange of 1878; virtually all are now residential and small work spaces or offices). Hepburn and Gale's tannery (disused as of early 2007) on Long Lane is also a substantial surviving building of the leather trade. The Exchange building had a fine private club, effectively a gentlemen's club for the leading merchants and manufacturers. In 1703 they had acquired a royal charter from Queen Anne to gain a monoploy of trading and training of apprentices for within 30 miles (50 kilometres) of the ancient parish, similar to a City livery company, the Bermondsey Tanners.

Peek, Frean and Co was established in 1857 at Dockhead, Bermondsey by James Peek and George Hender Frean. They moved to a larger plant in Clements Road in 1866, leading to the nickname 'Biscuit Town' for Bermondsey, where they continued baking until the brand was discontinued in 1989. [11] [12] [13]

Bermondsey, specifically Blue Anchor Lane, was also the location of the world's first food canning business, established in 1812, by Donkin, Hall and Gamble. [14] [15]

20th century

Butler's Wharf and Courage Brewery, 1971 Courage Brewery, Horseleydown - geograph.org.uk - 1411712.jpg
Butler's Wharf and Courage Brewery, 1971

To the east of Tower Bridge, Bermondsey's 3 12 mi (5.6 km) of riverside were lined with warehouses and wharves, of which the best known is Butler's Wharf. They suffered severe damage in World War II bombing and became redundant in the 1960s following the collapse of the river trade. After standing derelict for some years, many of the wharves were redeveloped under the aegis of the London Docklands Development Corporation during the 1980s. They have now been converted into a mixture of residential and commercial accommodations and have become some of the most upmarket and expensive properties in London. In 1997, US President Bill Clinton and Prime Minister Tony Blair visited the area to dine at the Le Pont de la Tour restaurant at Butler's Wharf.

Bermondsey Fashion and Textiles Museum (March 2007) Bermondsey fashion museum 1.jpg
Bermondsey Fashion and Textiles Museum (March 2007)

Bermondsey had been host to London's first railway, from Spa Road railway station, as part of the London Bridge to Greenwich line, and the junction of lines from Croydon and Kent at South Bermondsey, the Brunels Rotherhithe foot-tunnel was converted into part of the East London Railway with original connections from Liverpool Street Station via Whitechapel to New Cross and New Cross Gate. However, reorganisation of lines and temporary closure of stations left Bermondsey's transport links with the rest of London poorer in the late Twentieth Century. This was remedied in 2000 with the opening of Bermondsey Underground station on the London Underground's Jubilee Line Extension and the East London Line forms part of the new London Overground system reopening direct links with the City and north London.

The Blue serves as the central market place for Bermondsey as a whole.

Wee Willie Harris, known as "Britain's wild man of rock 'n' roll", came from Bermondsey [16] and had worked as a pudding mixer at Peek Freans. [17] He is usually credited as the first British rock and roll player. [18]

Local government

Bermondsey Antiques Market BermondseyAntiquesMarket.jpg
Bermondsey Antiques Market
A map showing the wards of Bermondsey Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916. Bermondsey Met. B Ward Map 1916.svg
A map showing the wards of Bermondsey Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

The first 'Bermondsey' is that known as the location of an Anglo-Saxon monastery, and known from later charters to be the area around the post-Conquest Bermondsey Abbey and its manor, which was in turn part of the medieval parish. References in the Parliamentary Rolls describe it as "in Southwark".[ [19] ] A later, Victorian civil parish of Bermondsey did not include Rotherhithe or St Olave's; this was the arrangement under the Metropolis Management Act of 1855. The Southwark parishes of St Olave's and St John's Horsleydown (the latter a 'daughter' of the former) with St Thomas's formed a parish union ('District Board of Works') known as 'St Olave's' from that date. This was the arrangement within the London County from 1889. In 1899 St Olave and St Thomas's District was created as a single civil parish and the next year, following London government reorganisation, this was merged with Rotherhithe and part of Deptford to form, with Bermondsey civil parish, the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey. The Borough's first Mayor was Samuel Bourne Bevington (1832–1907), leather producer and one of the area's largest employers; his statue still stands in Tooley Street. [20] This Borough disappeared into the London Borough of Southwark, in the Greater London reorganisation of 1964.

Governance

Southwark London Borough Council has divided the borough into a number of community council areas. The wards of London Bridge and West bermondsey, North Bermondsey and South Bermondsey form the Bermondsey Community Council area. [21]

Bermondsey's parliamentary representation has fluctuated with its population. Since at least the 13th century, it had formed part of the Surrey County seat until the 1868 Reform Act when it became part of Southwark constituency. From 1885 to 1918, a separate Bermondsey constituency existed, which included part of the older Southwark constituency. 1918 saw the seat split between two new constituencies: Rotherhithe and Bermondsey West, both of which were in place until the 1950 general election when the old Bermondsey seat was recreated.

In 1983, the area played host to the famous Bermondsey by-election in which Labour's Peter Tatchell lost the previously safe Labour seat to the Liberal Simon Hughes on a swing of 44%, which even now remains the largest by-election swing in British political history. [22] Hughes represented the area until 2015 when he was defeated by the Labour candidate Neil Coyle. At the 1983 general election that took place several months after the by-election, a new Southwark and Bermondsey constituency was created, becoming North Southwark and Bermondsey in 1997, and in 2010 Bermondsey and Old Southwark (although a small part of south east Bermondsey is transferred to Camberwell and Peckham in the 2010 changes).

Sport

Millwall Football Club was originally formed in 1885, in Millwall on the Isle of Dogs, East London. They retained the name, even though they moved across the river to New Cross, South London in 1910. In 1993 they moved to their current stadium, The Den. The team has a strong local following, but has never been based in Bermondsey. The stadium lies right on the border of Southwark, but falls under the Borough of Lewisham. The nearest railway station is at South Bermondsey, which is a five-minute walk away.

Geography

Mandela Way T-34 Tank MandelaWayT34.jpg
Mandela Way T-34 Tank

Places of interest

Nearest places

Transport

Rail

There are several railway stations in and around Bermondsey. Bermondsey is in London Zone 2, but nearby London Bridge and Borough stations are in travelcard Zone 1. Oyster Cards can be used for travel from stations in Bermondsey to other stations in the London region.

London Underground

The Jubilee line passes through Bermondsey, calling at Bermondsey and CanadaWater stations. London Bridge station on the Jubilee and Northern lines, and Borough on the Northern line are also nearby.

The Jubilee line provides a direct link from Bermondsey to Canary Wharf and Stratford in London's East End, and to Waterloo, the West End, Baker Street and north west London towards Willesden and Stanmore. The Northern line from London Bridge links the area to Kennington, Clapham and Morden in the south. Northbound services travel through the City of London, King's Cross St Pancras and Camden Town, towards Edgware or High Barnet. [23]

National Rail & London Overground

The East London Line, South London Line and South Eastern Main Line all pass through Bermondsey, providing frequent rail connections to Central London and South East England. [23]

London Bridge is the busiest station in the locale, and fourth busiest station in the UK, with 48.5 million passenger entries and exits in 2017–18. [24] Services from London Bridge are provided by Southeastern, Thameslink and Southern. London Bridge connects Bermondsey directly to destinations in Central London, including Waterloo, Charing Cross, Cannon Street, Farringdon and St Pancras International. Beyond London, trains travel direct to Gatwick and Luton airports, and destinations including Bedford, Brighton, Cambridge, Dover, Peterborough and Sevenoaks.

South Bermondsey is served by Southern trains from London Bridge to South London, with direct connections to Beckenham Junction, Crystal Palace and Croydon.

Rotherhithe, Canada Water and Surrey Quays are all served by London Overground trains. These stations link Bermondsey with Dalston and Highbury & Islington to the north. To the south, Bermondsey is linked directly to New Cross, West Croydon, Crystal Palace, and Clapham Junction.

Queens Road Peckham & Peckham Rye stations, just south of Bermondsey, Peckham Rye is also an interchange served by London Overground, Southeastern, Thameslink and Southern, with direct trains to London Victoria station. [23] While Queens Road Peckham station is in-between Peckham Rye and South Bermondsey stations providing London Overground and Southern services.

Bus connections

London Buses routes 1; 42; 47; 78; 188; 381; C10 and P12 and night routes N1; N47; N199 and N381 all serve the Bermondsey and South Bermondsey area.

Road

Several of London's arterial routes pass through Bermondsey, including:

Bricklayer's Arms is a busy road junction between the London Inner Ring Road (A100/A202) and the A2, where routes from London Bridge meet with routes towards the East End, Surrey and Kent.

The southern portal of the Rotherhithe Tunnel (A101) is in Bermondsey. The Tunnel was completed in 1908 and carries vehicle traffic from Bermondsey directly to the East End. In 2003, the Tunnel was rated the tenth most dangerous tunnel in Europe, owing in parts to its age and lack of safety features. [25]

The London Borough of Southwark maintains most roads, particularly residential streets, but Transport for London (TfL) manages certain routes: the A100; the A101 (Rotherhithe Tunnel); the A2; the A200; the A202. [26]

Air pollution

The local authority say that vehicle exhaust fumes are the main source of air pollution in Southwark. [27] Roadside air pollution levels are monitored by the local authority in Bermondsey. [28] Results from 2017 suggest that Bermondsey has some of the highest Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) levels in the Borough. NO2 concentration was particularly high near the Rotherhithe Tunnel, along Jamaica Road and on Old Kent Road:

2017 Nitrogen Dioxide data in Bermondsey [28]
Diffusion Tube location2017 Average NO2 level (µg/m3)
SDT 4 - Rotherhithe Old Road55.99
SDT 62 - Bosco College, Jamaica Road70.43
SDT 63 - Rotherhithe Tunnel Approach94.31
SDT 88 - Lamppost 52, Jamaica Road61.41
SDT 90 - 375, Old Kent Road62.02

All the above sites failed to meet national air quality objectives. [29]

A monitoring site on Old Kent Road registered an annual mean 22µg/m-3 in 2017 for PM10 (particulates often found in exhaust), which meets national air quality objectives. [29]

Cycling

Bermondsey is well connected to the London and National Cycle networks, with several signed routes passing through the area. With several routes passing through Bermondsey, cycling infrastructure is maintained by both Transport for London (TfL) and Southwark Council. Most routes run through Bermondsey in an east–west direction.

List of cycle routes in Bermondsey
RouteWestboundEastboundNotes
NCN Route 4.svg
National Cycle Route 4 (NCN 4)
London Bridge, Bankside and Millbank

Terminus: Fishguard, West Wales

Rotherhithe

Terminus: Greenwich, London

NCN 4 runs east–west across Bermondsey. The route is predominantly carried by residential streets or shared-use paths. It is a signed route, running in parallel to the River Thames. [30]
National Cycle Route 425 (NCN 425) Camberwell RotherhitheNCN 425 runs southwest–northeast across Bermondsey. The route is predominantly carried by residential streets or shared-use paths. It is a signed route, running non-stop from Camberwell to Rotherhithe. [31]
EuroVelo 2 - "The Capitals Route" (EV2) London Bridge, Bankside and Millbank

Terminus: Galway, Ireland

Rotherhithe, Greenwich and the Lea Valley

Terminus: Moscow, Russia

EV2 follows the course of NCN 4 through Bermondsey, predominantly on residential streets or shared-use paths. It is part of the EuroVelo network of cycle routes, running non-stop in the UK between Holyhead and Harwich. [32] [33]
Cycle Superhighway 4 (CS4) - Under ConstructionTower BridgeDeptford, GreenwichTransport for London (TfL) are currently building a continuous cycle route on two-way segregated cycle track between Tower Bridge and Greenwich, via Jamaica Road and Lower Street. Work began in 2019. [34]
Quietway 1 (Q1) Borough

Terminus: Waterloo Bridge

Deptford

Terminus: Greenwich

Q1 (South) runs from Waterloo Bridge to Greenwich through Bermondsey, non-stop. The route uses residential streets and quieter roads. Q1 passes to the south of South Bermondsey railway station. [35]
Quietway 14 (Q14) Borough

Terminus: Blackfriars Bridge

Rotherhithe, Canada Water

Terminus: Folkestone Gardens

Q14 runs non-stop between Blackfriars Bridge and Folkestone Gardens, Deptford on residential streets and quieter roads. The route is signed. [36]

Santander Cycles bicycle sharing was extended to the area in 2020 with five new docking stations, serving the Cycleway 4 route that will connect Tower Bridge and Greenwich. [37]

See also

Related Research Articles

Southwark District of Central London, England

Southwark is a district of Central London situated on the south bank of the River Thames, forming the north-western part of the wider modern London Borough of Southwark. The district, which is the oldest part of South London, developed due to its position at the southern end of the early versions of London Bridge, the only crossing point for many miles. London’s historic core, the City of London lay north of the Bridge.

London Borough of Southwark Borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Southwark in south London forms part of Inner London and is connected by bridges across the River Thames to the City of London. It was created in 1965 when three smaller council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963. All districts of the area are within the London postal district. It is governed by Southwark London Borough Council.

Rotherhithe Human settlement in England

Rotherhithe is a residential district in south-east London, England, and part of the London Borough of Southwark. Historically the area was the most northeastern settlement in the county of Surrey. It is located on a peninsula on the south bank of the Thames, facing Wapping and Limehouse on the north bank, and is a part of the Docklands area. It borders Bermondsey to the west and Deptford to the south east.

South London line

The South London line is an Inner London railway line. Passenger services are part of London Overground and run between Clapham Junction and Peckham Rye continuing toward Highbury & Islington via the East London line. The line consists of seven stations, one of which marks the crossover into the East London line network and is 8.5 miles (13.7 km) long. Most of the line was built on a high level viaduct above other transport infrastructure. Interchanges with the London Underground are at Clapham High Street and the closest on its London Overground extension is Canada Water. The line is in Travelcard Zone 2.

Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey

The Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey was a Metropolitan borough in the County of London, created in 1900 by the London Government Act 1899. It was abolished and its area became part of the London Borough of Southwark in 1965.

Rotherhithe railway station

Rotherhithe is a station on the East London Line located on the southern bank of the River Thames at Rotherhithe within the London Borough of Southwark, Greater London and is served by National Rail London Overground services under the control of the London Rail division of Transport for London, however there is no standard red National Rail "double arrow" logo signage located at the station, instead only the Overground roundel. The station is between Wapping and Canada Water, and is in Zone 2. The station re-opened for a preview service on 27 April 2010 to New Cross / New Cross Gate and 23 May 2010 for full service to New Cross / West Croydon / Crystal Palace. On 9 December 2012, the line was extended to serve Clapham Junction via Peckham Rye.

South Bermondsey railway station

South Bermondsey railway station is on the South London Line, serving the district of South Bermondsey in the London Borough of Southwark. It is 1 mile 63 chains (2.9 km) down the line from London Bridge; the following station on the line is Queens Road Peckham.

Queens Road Peckham railway station

Queens Road Peckham railway station is in the London Borough of Southwark and also serves the area to the east of Peckham, in the London Borough of Lewisham. It is on the South London Line, 2 miles 58 chains (4.4 km) from London Bridge, and trains also go to Croydon via various routes and beyond. It is on the road of that name and is in Travelcard Zone 2.

Spa Road railway station

Spa Road railway station in Bermondsey, south-east London, was the original terminus of the capital's first railway, the London and Greenwich Railway (L&GR).

Tooley Street

Tooley Street is a road in central and south London connecting London Bridge to St Saviour's Dock; it runs past Tower Bridge on the Southwark/Bermondsey side of the River Thames, and forms part of the A200 road.

Bermondsey and Old Southwark (UK Parliament constituency)

Bermondsey and Old Southwark is a constituency in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament. Since 2015, it has been represented by Neil Coyle of the Labour Party.

South Bermondsey Human settlement in England

South Bermondsey is a ward in the London Borough of Southwark created in 2010 out of Burgess Ward in southeast London, England.

New Bermondsey railway station

New Bermondsey railway station is a planned railway station with permission granted on the South London Line of the London Overground network. It will be on the branch from Surrey Quays to Clapham Junction with through trains every 15 minutes between Clapham Junction and Highbury & Islington. The station site is on Surrey Canal Road at the district boundary of Bermondsey, New Cross and Deptford. The station will be adjacent to Millwall Football Club's ground and would help ease the burden of match-day crowds on the nearby South Bermondsey railway station and Surrey Quays Station.

A202 road

The A202 is a primary A road in London. It runs from New Cross Gate to London Victoria station. A section of the route forms a part of the London Inner Ring Road between Vauxhall and Victoria, known as Vauxhall Bridge Road.

A200 road

The A200 is an A road in London running from London Bridge to Greenwich. It runs east from the A3 road along Duke Street Hill, then Tooley Street and Jamaica Road, following the River Thames until the junction with Rotherhithe Tunnel when it turns south down Lower Road. It follows the Thames again in Deptford, after passing Surrey Quays and becoming Evelyn Street. At the junction with Deptford Church Street it turns due east along Creek Road, over Deptford Creek to finish by the Cutty Sark at Greenwich Church Street, part of the A206 road.

Southwark Park railway station

Southwark Park was a railway station in Bermondsey, south-east London, on the Greenwich Line between Spa Road and Deptford. It was opened by the South Eastern and Chatham Railway on 1 October 1902, on approximately the same site as the then long-closed Commercial Dock railway station. It was close to the southern end of Southwark Park, from which it took its name. South Bermondsey railway station, on the South London Line, is nearby.

St Olaves Church, Southwark

St Olave's Church, Southwark was a church in Southwark, England which is believed to be mentioned in the Domesday Book. It was located on Tooley Street which is named after the church, i.e. 't'olous'. It became redundant in 1926 and was demolished. It is now the location of St Olaf House, which houses part of the London Bridge Hospital.

The Bermondsey Lion

The Bermondsey Lion is a sculpture in The Blue, Bermondsey, London, created by Kevin Boys for Southwark Council. It was unveiled on 16 July 2011.

References

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  3. See e.g. Stenton, F.M., 'Medeshamstede and its Colonies', in Stenton, D.M. (ed.), Preparatory to Anglo-Saxon England Being the Collected Papers of Frank Merry Stenton, Oxford University Press, 1970, and Blair, J., 'Frithuwold's kingdom and the origins of Surrey', in Bassett, S. (ed.), The Origins of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms, Leicester University Press, 1989.
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  15. Robertson, Gordon L. (2005). Food Packaging: Principles and Practice. CRC Press. p. 123. ISBN   0-8493-3775-5.
  16. Wee Willie Harris, Rockin' At The Two I's
  17. Tobler, John (1992). NME Rock 'N' Roll Years (1st ed.). London: Reed International Books Ltd. p. 49. CN 5585.
  18. R. Unterberger, "British Rock & Roll Before the Beatles", Allmusic retrieved 24 July 1209.
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