Bernard Bachrach

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Bernard Stanley Bachrach (born 1939 [1] ) is an American historian. He taught history at the University of Minnesota from 1967 until his retirement in 2020. [2] He specializes in the Early Middle Ages, mainly on the topics of medieval warfare, medieval Jewry, and early Angevin history (he has written a biography of Fulk Nerra).


Bachrach received the CEE Distinguished Teaching Award from the University of Minnesota in 1993 and entered the College of Liberal Arts Scholars of the College at Minnesota in 2000. He has also been the recipient of a McKnight Research Award. He has translated the Liber historiae Francorum from Latin into English.


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Château de Langeais

The Château de Langeais is a 15th century Flamboyant Gothic castle in Indre-et-Loire, France, built on a promontory created by the small valley of the Roumer River at the opening to the Loire Valley. Founded in 992 by Fulk Nerra, Count of Anjou, the castle was soon attacked by Odo I, Count of Blois. After the unsuccessful attack, the now-ruined stone keep was built; it is one of the earliest datable stone examples of a keep. Between 994 and 996 the castle was besieged unsuccessfully twice more. During the conflict between the counts of Anjou and Blois, the castle changed hands several times, and in 1038 Fulk captured the castle again.

William the Great was duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitou from 990 until his death. Upon the death of the emperor Henry II, he was offered the kingdom of Italy but declined to contest the title against Conrad II.

Fulk III, Count of Anjou

Fulk III, the Black, was an early Count of Anjou celebrated as one of the first great builders of medieval castles. It is estimated Fulk constructed approximately 100 castles, along with abbeys throughout the Loire Valley in what is now France. He fought successive wars with neighbors in Brittany, Blois, Poitou and Aquitaine and made four pilgrimages to Jerusalem during the course of his life. He had two wives and three children.

Ingelger, also called Ingelgarius, was a Frankish nobleman, who was the founder of the County of Anjou and of the original House of Anjou. Later generations of his family believed he was the son of Tertullus (Tertulle) and Petronilla.

Fulk II of Anjou, called le Bon was Count of Anjou from 942 to his death.

Geoffrey I, Count of Anjou

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Odo I, Count of Blois

Odo I, Count of Blois, Chartres, Reims, Provins, Châteaudun, and Omois, was the son of Theobald I of Blois and Luitgard, daughter of Herbert II of Vermandois. He received the title of count palatine, which was traditional in his family, from King Lothair of West Francia.

Theobald I (913–975), called the Trickster, was the first count of Blois, Chartres, and Châteaudun as well as count of Tours.

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Adela of Vermandois was a French noblewoman. She was Countess of Chalon and later Countess of Anjou.

Adelaide-Blanche of Anjou was, by her successive marriages, countess of Gévaudan and Forez, of Toulouse, of Provence, and of Burgundy, and queen of Aquitaine. She was the regent of Gevaudan during the minority of her sons in the 960s, and the regent of Provence during the minority of her stepson from 994 until 999.

Herbert I, called Wakedog, was the count of Maine from 1017 until his death. He had a turbulent career with an early victory that may have contributed to his later decline.

Theobald II of Blois

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The Battle of Conquereuil was fought on June 27, 992 AD between the Bretons under Conan I, Duke of Brittany and the Angevins under Fulk the Black.

Ermengarde of Anjou,, was the Countess of Rennes, Regent of Brittany (992–994) and also Countess of Angoulême.

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Adelais of Amboise, came from an influential Frankish family in the Loire Valley. Through her mother, whose name is unknown, she was the niece of Adelard, Archbishop of Tours, and Raino, Bishop of Angers. In 865, her uncles arranged a marriage for her to a Frankish man named Ingelger, described as a miles optimus, whose devotion to Charles the Bald had been rewarded with land and military commands. Adelais’ dowry included Buzençais, Châtillon-sur-Indre, and the fortress of Amboise, which ultimately grew to be the royal residence known as the Château d'Amboise. Adelais and Ingelger, who has been identified as either a viscount or the first count of Anjou, were the parents of Fulk the Red, who became the first hereditary count of Anjou. According to the Gesta Consulum Andegavorum, “after the death of her husband, Adelais was unjustly accused of adultery by a group of nobles led by ‘Guntrannus parens Ingelgerii’ but later exonerated.” Geoffrey of Anjou, founder of England’s Plantagenet dynasty, traced his ancestry to Adelais and Ingelger.

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Geoffroy II of Thouars, was the son of Savary III and the viscount of Thouars from 1015 to 1043.


  1. Prof. Bernard S Bachrach (b. 1939, d. ----), Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Barnard Bachrach Retires after 53 Years of Service", Centre for Jewish Studies: Annual Magazine, 2020, pp. 11–12