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|2nd President of Nauru|
December 22, 1976 –April 19, 1978
|Preceded by||Hammer DeRoburt|
|Succeeded by||Lagumot Harris|
December 12, 1989 –November 22, 1995
|Preceded by||Kenos Aroi|
|Succeeded by||Lagumot Harris|
November 11, 1996 –November 25, 1996
|Preceded by||Lagumot Harris|
|Succeeded by||Kennan Adeang|
June 18, 1998 –April 27, 1999
|Preceded by||Kinza Clodumar|
|Succeeded by||René Harris|
April 20, 2000 –March 30, 2001
|Preceded by||René Harris|
|Succeeded by||René Harris|
January 9, 2003 –January 17, 2003
|Preceded by||René Harris|
|Succeeded by||René Harris|
January 18, 2003 –March 9, 2003
|Preceded by||René Harris|
|Succeeded by||Derog Gioura|
|Born||February 14, 1946|
|Died||March 9, 2003 (aged 57)|
|Political party||Democratic Party|
|Member of the Nauruan Parliament |
December 17, 1973 –March 9, 2003
|Preceded by||Victor Eoaeo|
|Succeeded by||Russell Kun|
Bernard Annen Auwen Dowiyogo (14 February 1946 – 9 March 2003) was a Nauruan politician who served as President of Nauru on seven separate occasions. During this time, he also served as a Member of Parliament for the constituency of Ubenide.
Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) to the east. It further lies northwest of Tuvalu, 1300 km northeast of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre (8.1 sq mi) area, Nauru is the third-smallest country in the world behind Vatican City, and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest state outside Europe, the smallest island state, and the smallest republic. Additionally, its population of 11,347 is the world's third smallest, after the Vatican and Tuvalu.
The President of Nauru is elected by Parliament from among its members, and is both the head of state and the head of government of Nauru. Nauru's unicameral Parliament has 19 members, with an electoral term of 3 years. Political parties only play a minor role in Nauru politics, and there have often been periods of instability in the Presidential office. Shifting allegiances among a small number of individuals can lead to frequent changes in the makeup of the government of the day, including the presidential position itself.
The Parliament of Nauru has 19 members, elected for a three-year term in multi-seat constituencies. The President of Nauru is elected by the members of the Parliament. The number of seats was increased to 19 following elections in 2013.
Dowiyogo was born in Nauru on 14 February 1946, the son of a Japanese war officer and a woman from the Gilbert Islands. He first became an elected member of Nauru's 18-seat parliament in 1973. Particularly in his earlier years in the Parliament of Nauru Dowiyogo was seen as an opponent of Nauru's first post-independence President, Hammer DeRoburt. Dowiyogo founded the Nauru Institute of Media and Communications which operated between 1984 and 1996 but due to financial difficulties was closed in 1997.
The Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands in the Pacific Ocean about halfway between Papua New Guinea and Hawaii. They form the main part of Kiribati.
Hammer DeRoburt was the founding President of the Republic of Nauru, and ruled the country for most of its first twenty years of independence.
He served his first term as President from 1976 to 1978 after ousting Hammer DeRoburt. Over the next 25 years, Dowiyogo served as President several times, for periods as long as six years (1989–1995) and as short as 8 days (in January 2003). He was the youngest president in Nauru. During the 1980s, he sharply criticized France and the United States for atomic weapons testing in Nauru.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
In 1990, Dowiyogo was awarded the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal.
The New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal was a commemorative medal awarded in New Zealand in 1990 to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi, and was awarded to approximately 3000 people.
He died in office in March 2003 (having been president on this occasion since January 2003) at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C. from heart complications brought on by his struggle with diabetes, a common ailment on Nauru. At the time of the deterioration of his final illness, he had been engaged in protracted negotiations with the United States Government.
The George Washington University Hospital is located in Washington, D.C. in the United States. It is affiliated with the George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences. The current facility opened on August 23, 2002, with 371 beds in a 400,000 sq ft building, housing more than $45 million of medical equipment and costing over $96 million to construct. The hospital is licensed by the District of Columbia Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs and accredited by the U.S. Joint Commission.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, D.C., or the district, is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city, located on the Potomac River bordering Maryland and Virginia, is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
Dowiyogo had eight children with his wife, Christina Dowiyogo (died March 2008): Clara Augusta Alefaio (née Dowiyogo) who served at the Nauru education Department but now resides in New Zealand, Valdon Kape Dowiyogo, who served as speaker of the parliament of Nauru, Jesaulenko Dowiyogo, who served as diplomat and later chairman of the board of directors of the Nauru Fisheries and Marine Resources Authority, Junior Dowiyogo who served as commissioner for Police in the Nauru Police Force, Peter Jason Dowiyogo who worked at the Nauru Post Office, David Dowiyogo who is employed at the Republic of Nauru Hospital, Jeff Dowiyogo who currently resides in Australia and Zita Dowiyogo who now Serves at the Nauru Immigration Office.
Valdon Kape Dowiyogo was a political figure and cabinet minister from the Pacific nation of the Republic of Nauru.
The history of human activity in Nauru, an island country in the Pacific Ocean, began roughly 3,000 years ago when 12 Micronesian and Polynesian clans settled the island.
Politics of Nauru takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Nauru is the head of government of the executive branch. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Ludwig Derangadage Scotty is a Nauruan politician who twice served as President of Nauru and was Speaker of Parliament five times between 2000 and 2016. He served as President from 29 May 2003 to 8 August 2003 and again from 22 June 2004 until his ousting in a vote of no confidence on 19 December 2007. He was elected as President in 2003, again from November 2010 to April 2013, and from June 2013 to June 2016.
René Reynaldo Harris was President of the Republic of Nauru four times between 1999 and 2004. He was a Member of Parliament from 1977 to 2008.
HE Kinza Godfrey Clodumar is a Nauruan politician who served as President of Nauru from 1997 to 1998.
HE Lagumot Gagiemem Nimidere Harris was a political figure from the Pacific nation of the Republic of Nauru, and served as its President. He was a cousin of René Harris.
The Democratic Party of Nauru (DPN) is a political party in the Oceanian nation of Nauru.
Marcus Stephen is a Nauruan politician and former sportsperson who previously was a member of the Cabinet of Nauru, and who served as President of Nauru from December 2007 to November 2011. The son of Nauruan parliamentarian Lawrence Stephen, Stephen was educated at St Bedes College and RMIT University in Victoria, Australia. Initially playing Australian rules football, he opted to pursue the sport of weightlifting, in which he represented Nauru at the Summer Olympics and Commonwealth Games between 1990 and 2002, winning seven Commonwealth gold medals.
Kenas Aroi was a Nauruan political figure. He was President of the Republic of Nauru from 17 August to 12 December 1989.
Derog Gioura was a Nauruan political figure. He was President of the Republic of Nauru (acting) in 2003.
Kennan Ranibok Adeang was a Nauruan politician who served as President of Nauru for three separate periods during the late 20th century. Born in Nauru, and educated in Australia, including at the Australian School of Pacific Administration, Adeang was first elected to the Parliament of Nauru in 1971, representing the seat of Ubenide, and became a noted opponent of Hammer DeRoburt, the country's first president. He first became president in 1986, serving two short terms at the end of that year. In the following year, 1987, Adeang was involved in the establishment of the Democratic Party of Nauru, one of the first political parties in Nauru. He again served as president in late 1996, but lost power after a motion of no confidence. Adeang was active in parliament until 2000, serving at various times in the Cabinet, and also as Speaker from February 1997 to December 1998. In 2007, he was appointed High Commissioner to the Republic of Fiji, serving in the position until his death in 2011. His son, David Adeang, also served in the Nauruan parliament, occupying the same constituency as his father.
Vassal Abago Bagobagan Gadoengin was a political figure from the Pacific nation of Nauru.
Christina Eidienda Dowiyogo was the wife of the former President of Nauru Bernard Dowiyogo and the longest-serving First Lady of Nauru in the country's history.
The 2003 Nauruan parliamentary election took place on 3 May 2003 in Nauru to elect members of the Parliament of Nauru. The election took place with Nauru having economic difficulties and a large budget deficit. This was the main issue in the election, which followed a period where a number of presidents had been elected for short periods of time. However the election resulted in deadlock for several weeks afterwards, with parliament divided between three candidates for president. It was only at the end of May that Ludwig Scotty was elected as the new president of Nauru and was able to form a new government.
Early parliamentary elections were held in Nauru on 12 November 1977, after Parliament had been dissolved by President Bernard Dowiyogo due to a sustained campaign against the government led by former President Hammer DeRoburt, who had been voted out of office the previous year. Particular controversy had been caused by the Supply Act passed in June, and Dowiyogo stated that elections would be held to give him a mandate.
Parliamentary elections were held in Nauru on 9 December 1989, after the resignation of President Hammer DeRoburt following a vote of no-confidence in August and the subsequent resignation of his replacement, Kenas Aroi, for health reasons. Following the election Bernard Dowiyogo was elected President by the Parliament, defeating DeRoburt. Voter turnout was 88.7%.
Ruby Thoma, born Ruby Dediya in 1949 in Nauru, is a Nauruan politician.
Buraro Robidok Bagewa Detudamo was a Nauruan politician. He was the only son of Timothy Detudamo and brother-in-law to Kennan Adeang. When Buraro was a boy, his family went to Chuuk Islands.
| President of Nauru |
22 December 1976 – 19 April 1978
12 December 1989 – 22 November 1995
11 November 1996 – 26 November 1996
18 June 1998 – 27 April 1999
20 April 2000 – 30 March 2001
9 January 2003 – 17 January 2003
18 January 2003 – 10 March 2003