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Bertrand de Turre (c. 1262–1332), also known as Bertrand de la Tour, was a French Franciscan theologian and Cardinal.
De la Tour was born in Camboulit in the old province of Quercy, France. Serving as a provincial minister in Aquitaine from 1312 onwards he became a leading opponent of the Franciscan Spirituals.He undertook diplomatic missions for Pope John XXII with Bernard Gui from 1317-1318. After this time, he was asked to aid in evaluating the heresy of Peter Olivi. De la Tour was made Archbishop of Salerno and then Cardinal of San Vitale in 1320.
Camboulit is a commune in the Lot department in south-western France.
Quercy is a former province of France located in the country's southwest, bounded on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and on the east by Rouergue and Auvergne.
Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne/Guienne, is a historical region of France and a former administrative region of the country. Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine. It is situated in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Landes and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a kingdom and a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably.
After the deposition of Michael of Cesena in 1328, on John XXII's behest de la Tour acted as vicar general of the Franciscan Order.
Michael of Cesena was an Italian Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian.
He was nicknamed Doctor famosus.
Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze, was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis. They adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, and Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others.
The Fraticelli or Spiritual Franciscans were extreme proponents of the rule of Saint Francis of Assisi, especially with regard to poverty, and regarded the wealth of the Church as scandalous, and that of individual churchmen as invalidating their status. They were thus forced into open revolt against the whole authority of the Church and were declared heretical in 1296 by Boniface VIII.
Peter John Olivi, also Pierre de Jean Olivi or Petrus Joannis Olivi, was a Franciscan theologian who, although he died professing the faith of the Roman Catholic Church, became a controversial figure in the arguments surrounding poverty at the beginning of the 14th century. In large part, this was due to his view that the Franciscan vow of poverty also entailed usus pauper ; while contemporary Franciscans generally agreed that usus pauper was important to the Franciscan way of life, they disagreed that it was part of their vow of poverty. His support of the extreme view of ecclesiastical poverty played a part in the ideology of the groups coming to be known as the Spiritual Franciscans or Fraticelli.
Ubertino of Casale was an Italian Franciscan and one of the leaders of the Spirituals, the stricter branch of the Franciscan order.
Apostolic poverty is a Christian doctrine professed in the thirteenth century by the newly formed religious orders, known as the mendicant orders, in direct response to calls for reform in the Roman Catholic Church. In this, these orders attempted to live their lives without ownership of lands or accumulation of money, following the precepts given to the seventy disciples in the Gospel of Luke (10:1-24), and succeeding to varying degrees. The ascetic Pope Paschal II's solution of the Investiture Controversy in his radical Concordat of 1111 with the Emperor, repudiated by the cardinals, was that the ecclesiastics of Germany should surrender to the imperial crown their fiefs and secular offices. Paschal proved to be the last of the Gregorianist popes.
Jacob de Marchia, commonly known in English as St. James of the Marches, O.F.M., was an Italian Friar Minor, preacher and writer. He was a Papal legate and Inquisitor.
Geraldus Odonis, Guiral Ot in Occitan, was a French theologian and Minister General of the Franciscan Order.
Hélie de Talleyrand-Périgord was a French Cardinal, from one of the most aristocratic families in Périgord, south-west France. Hélie was born at Périgueux, third son of Elias VII, Count of Périgord, and Brunissende of Foix, daughter of Roger Bernard III, comte de Foix. His elder brothers were Archambaud (IV), who inherited the County, and Roger-Bernard ; his younger brother was Fortanier, and his sisters were Agnes, Jeanne, Marguerite, and Rosemburge. As a third son Hélie was destined for an ecclesiastical career. His brother, Roger Bernard, too, had an ecclesiastical career, becoming Canon of Lyon. But then, the eldest son died, and Roger-Bernard became the Count of Périgord. Hélie became a major figure in the Avignon papacy, and also a diplomat engaged in the negotiations of the Hundred Years' War, having friendships in both English and French royal families. In his last months he had been appointed Papal Legate for a crusade against the Turks.
Pierre Desprès was a French Cardinal during the period of Avignon Papacy. He was son of Raymond II Desprès, seigneur of Montpezat, and Aspasie de Montaigut, the heiress of Bertrand, seigneur de Montaigut. He had a brother, Raymond, who was ennobled in 1325. Pesserat points out that Montpezat was an important town, being the seat of the Archdeacon of Montpezat in the diocese of Cahors, who was also Sacristan of the Cathedral. Not at all coincidentally, Pope John XXII was a native of Cahors, and his father had been Sieur de Saint-Félix en Quercy. With his expertise in the law as a teacher and practitioner, and with his experience as a judge in the Roman Curia, Pierre Desprès was appointed Vice-Chancellor of the Church by John XXII, where he served from 1325 to 1361. He was thus head of the Papal Secretariat, in charge of the drafting of papal bulls and letters, and a principal papal advisor. The post was also one of the most lucrative in the Roman Curia, since a fee was charged for every document and the Vice-Chancellor received a share of every fee.
The papal conclave of 1314–16, held in the apostolic palace of Carpentras and then the Dominican house in Lyon, was one of the longest conclaves in the history of the Roman Catholic Church and the first conclave of the Avignon Papacy. The length of the conclave was due to the division of the cardinals into three factions: Italian, Gascon, and French/Provençal.
Gauscelin de Jean was a French cardinal.
Paschal Robinson, O.F.M., was an Irish ecclesiastical diplomat. A journalist and renowned medievalist before he entered diplomatic service, he was the titular archbishop of Tyana and the first apostolic nuncio to Ireland since the 17th-century Archbishop Rinuccini. Influential in his position, he served as nuncio from January 1930 until his death in 1948.
Jean de Beaune was a Dominican inquisitor in Carcassonne during the early 14th century who played a role in precipitating the Apostolic poverty controversy of the period.
Nicholas of Freising, commonly known as Nicholas the Minorite, was a member of the Franciscan Order during the early 14th Century. He is presumed to be the author of the Chronicle of Nicholas the Minorite, an account of the conflict over Apostolic poverty under the reign of Pope John XXII. The Chronicle was written or assembled as early as 1338.
Gaillard de La Mothe was a fifteenth-century prelate and Cardinal, of Gascon extraction. Gaillard was born towards the end of the 14th century, either in Toulouse or Bordeaux, and died in Avignon on 20 December 1356. He was the son of Amanieu Levieux de La Motte, seigneur de Langon et de Rochetaillé. His mother was Elips (Alix) de Got, daughter of Arnaud-Garsale de Got, brother of Bertrand de Got. He was therefore a nephew of Pope Clement V. Gaillard had a brother, Bertrand. Another uncle, his father's brother, Guillaume de la Mothe, was Bishop of Bazas from 1303-1313, when he was transferred to Saintes, and again from 1318 to 1319. Gaillard, the subject of this entry, is often confused with Gaillard de Preissac, Bishop of Toulouse (1306-1317). He was never Archbishop of Toulouse or Bishop of Bazas.
Bertrand de Déaulx was a French bishop, diplomat and Cardinal. He was born, perhaps around 1290, in Castrum de Blandiaco in the diocese of Uzès; or in Déaulx. He died in Avignon in 1355. Trained as a lawyer and teacher of law, he practiced in the papal courts, and became an arbitrator and diplomat for the Papacy. He had several assignments in Italy and one in Catalonia. He was responsible for the reorganization of the University of Montpellier and the granting of revised charters.
Pasteur de Sarrats was a French Franciscan friar, bishop and Cardinal. He was born in the village of Aubenas in the Vivarais, or he took his monastic vows in the monastery of Aubenas. Pasteur may have had a brother. A bull of Benedict XII, dated 13 April 1337, grants the parish church of S. Martin de Valle Gorgia in the diocese of Viviers to Pierre de Serraescuderio, Canon of Viviers since 1333, who held a parish of S. Pierre de Melon in the diocese of Uzès. Pasteur died in Avignon in 1356.
The doctrine of the Absolute Poverty of Christ was a teaching associated with the Franciscan order of monks, particularly prominent between 1210 and 1323. The key tenet of the doctrine of absolute poverty was that Christ and the apostles had no property, whether individually or shared. Debate about this came to a head in what is known as the theoretical poverty controversy in 1322–23. Pope John XXII declared this doctrine heretical in November 1323 via the papal bull Cum inter nonnullos, but debate on the subject continued for some years after; indeed, John's own final statement on the subject came in 1329 in his Quia vir reprobus. Key aspects of the debate included: the origins of property and whether use of material objects implied ownership; whether property existed before the Fall of Man; whether Christ while on earth had dominion over temporal things; the detailed and technical status of Christ's well attested poverty; and the apostles' use of material goods.
|Catholic Church titles|
Michael of Cesena
| Vicar general of the Order of Friars Minor |
| Succeeded by|