In mathematics, the Besov space (named after Oleg Vladimirovich Besov ) is a complete quasinormed space which is a Banach space when 1 ≤ p, q ≤ ∞. These spaces, as well as the similarly defined Triebel–Lizorkin spaces, serve to generalize more elementary function spaces such as Sobolev spaces and are effective at measuring regularity properties of functions.
Several equivalent definitions exist. One of them is given below.
and define the modulus of continuity by
Let n be a non-negative integer and define: s = n + α with 0 < α ≤ 1. The Besov space contains all functions f such that
The Besov space is equipped with the norm
The Besov spaces coincide with the more classical Sobolev spaces .
If and is not an integer, then , where denotes the Sobolev–Slobodeckij space.
In mathematics, the Dirac delta function is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac. It is used to model the density of an idealized point mass or point charge as a function equal to zero everywhere except for zero and whose integral over the entire real line is equal to one. As there is no function that has these properties, the computations made by the theoretical physicists appeared to mathematicians as nonsense until the introduction of distributions by Laurent Schwartz to formalize and validate the computations. As a distribution, the Dirac delta function is a linear functional that maps every function to its value at zero. The Kronecker delta function, which is usually defined on a discrete domain and takes values 0 and 1, is a discrete analog of the Dirac delta function.
In physics and mathematics, the heat equation is a partial differential equation that describes how the distribution of some quantity evolves over time in a solid medium, as it spontaneously flows from places where it is higher towards places where it is lower. It is a special case of the diffusion equation.
In mathematics, especially vector calculus and differential topology, a closed form is a differential form α whose exterior derivative is zero, and an exact form is a differential form, α, that is the exterior derivative of another differential form β. Thus, an exact form is in the image of d, and a closed form is in the kernel of d.
In mathematics, a Sobolev space is a vector space of functions equipped with a norm that is a combination of Lp-norms of the function together with its derivatives up to a given order. The derivatives are understood in a suitable weak sense to make the space complete, i.e. a Banach space. Intuitively, a Sobolev space is a space of functions possessing sufficiently many derivatives for some application domain, such as partial differential equations, and equipped with a norm that measures both the size and regularity of a function.
Creation and annihilation operators are mathematical operators that have widespread applications in quantum mechanics, notably in the study of quantum harmonic oscillators and many-particle systems. An annihilation operator lowers the number of particles in a given state by one. A creation operator increases the number of particles in a given state by one, and it is the adjoint of the annihilation operator. In many subfields of physics and chemistry, the use of these operators instead of wavefunctions is known as second quantization.
In the theory of stochastic processes, the Karhunen–Loève theorem, also known as the Kosambi–Karhunen–Loève theorem is a representation of a stochastic process as an infinite linear combination of orthogonal functions, analogous to a Fourier series representation of a function on a bounded interval. The transformation is also known as Hotelling transform and eigenvector transform, and is closely related to principal component analysis (PCA) technique widely used in image processing and in data analysis in many fields.
In mathematics, the Hamilton–Jacobi equation (HJE) is a necessary condition describing extremal geometry in generalizations of problems from the calculus of variations, and is a special case of the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation. It is named for William Rowan Hamilton and Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi.
A probabilistic metric space is a generalization of metric spaces where the distance has no longer values in non-negative real numbers, but in distribution functions.
In mathematics, a real or complex-valued function f on d-dimensional Euclidean space satisfies a Hölder condition, or is Hölder continuous, when there are nonnegative real constants C, α>0, such that
In mathematics, there is in mathematical analysis a class of Sobolev inequalities, relating norms including those of Sobolev spaces. These are used to prove the Sobolev embedding theorem, giving inclusions between certain Sobolev spaces, and the Rellich–Kondrachov theorem showing that under slightly stronger conditions some Sobolev spaces are compactly embedded in others. They are named after Sergei Lvovich Sobolev.
In mathematics, the Poincaré inequality is a result in the theory of Sobolev spaces, named after the French mathematician Henri Poincaré. The inequality allows one to obtain bounds on a function using bounds on its derivatives and the geometry of its domain of definition. Such bounds are of great importance in the modern, direct methods of the calculus of variations. A very closely related result is Friedrichs' inequality.
The gradient theorem, also known as the fundamental theorem of calculus for line integrals, says that a line integral through a gradient field can be evaluated by evaluating the original scalar field at the endpoints of the curve. The theorem is a generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus to any curve in a plane or space rather than just the real line.
In many-body theory, the term Green's function is sometimes used interchangeably with correlation function, but refers specifically to correlators of field operators or creation and annihilation operators.
In classical mechanics, Appell's equation of motion is an alternative general formulation of classical mechanics described by Paul Émile Appell in 1900 and Josiah Willard Gibbs in 1879
In mathematics, particularly numerical analysis, the Bramble–Hilbert lemma, named after James H. Bramble and Stephen Hilbert, bounds the error of an approximation of a function by a polynomial of order at most in terms of derivatives of of order . Both the error of the approximation and the derivatives of are measured by norms on a bounded domain in . This is similar to classical numerical analysis, where, for example, the error of linear interpolation can be bounded using the second derivative of . However, the Bramble–Hilbert lemma applies in any number of dimensions, not just one dimension, and the approximation error and the derivatives of are measured by more general norms involving averages, not just the maximum norm.
In mathematics, the class of Muckenhoupt weightsAp consists of those weights ω for which the Hardy–Littlewood maximal operator is bounded on Lp(dω). Specifically, we consider functions f on Rn and their associated maximal functions M( f ) defined as
In functional analysis, a branch of mathematics, a Beppo Levi space, named after Beppo Levi, is a certain space of generalized functions.
In statistics, the matrix t-distribution is the generalization of the multivariate t-distribution from vectors to matrices. The matrix t-distribution shares the same relationship with the multivariate t-distribution that the matrix normal distribution shares with the multivariate normal distribution. For example, the matrix t-distribution is the compound distribution that results from sampling from a matrix normal distribution having sampled the covariance matrix of the matrix normal from an inverse Wishart distribution.
In mathematics, Sobolev spaces for planar domains are one of the principal techniques used in the theory of partial differential equations for solving the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary value problems for the Laplacian in a bounded domain in the plane with smooth boundary. The methods use the theory of bounded operators on Hilbert space. They can be used to deduce regularity properties of solutions and to solve the corresponding eigenvalue problems.
Quantum stochastic calculus is a generalization of stochastic calculus to noncommuting variables. The tools provided by quantum stochastic calculus are of great use for modeling the random evolution of systems undergoing measurement, as in quantum trajectories. Just as the Lindblad master equation provides a quantum generalization to the Fokker–Planck equation, quantum stochastic calculus allows for the derivation of quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDE) that are analogous to classical Langevin equations.
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