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Beta ( UK: // , US: // ; uppercase Β, lowercase β, or cursive ϐ ; Ancient Greek : βῆτα, romanized: bē̂ta or Greek : βήτα, romanized: víta) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In Ancient Greek, beta represented the voiced bilabial plosive /b/. In Modern Greek, it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/ (while /b/ in foreign words is instead commonly transcribed as μπ). Letters that arose from beta include the Roman letter ⟨ B ⟩ and the Cyrillic letters ⟨ Б ⟩ and ⟨ В ⟩.
Like the names of most other Greek letters, the name of beta was adopted from the acrophonic name of the corresponding letter in Phoenician, which was the common Semitic word *bait ('house'). In Greek, the name was βῆταbêta, pronounced [bɛ̂ːta] in Ancient Greek. It is spelled βήτα in modern monotonic orthography and pronounced [ˈvita] .
The letter beta was derived from the Phoenician letter beth
The letter Β had the largest number of highly divergent local forms. Besides the standard form (either rounded or pointed,
In the system of Greek numerals, beta has a value of 2. Such use is denoted by a number mark: Β′.
Beta is used in finance as a measure of investment portfolio risk. Beta in this context is calculated as the covariance of the portfolio's returns with its benchmark's returns, divided by the variance of the benchmark's returns. A beta of 1.5 means that for every 1% change in the value of the benchmark, the portfolio's value tends to change by 1.5%.
In the International Phonetic Alphabet, Greek minuscule beta denotes a voiced bilabial fricative [β].
A superscript version may also indicate a compressed vowel, like [ɯᵝ].
The name Beta was used as a name during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season as Hurricane Beta. It was also used in the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season for Tropical Storm Beta.
Beta is often used to denote a variable in mathematics and physics, where it often has specific meanings for certain applications. In physics a stream of unbound energetic electrons is commonly referred to as beta radiation or beta rays. In regression analysis, ⟨B⟩ symbolizes nonstandardized partial slope coefficients, whereas ⟨β⟩ represents standardized (standard deviation-score form) coefficients; in both cases, the coefficients reflect the change in the criterion Y per one-unit change in the value of the associated predictor X. β is also used in biology, for instance in β-Carotene, a primary source of provitamin A, or the β cells in pancreatic islets, which produce insulin.
β is sometimes used as a placeholder for an ordinal number if α is already used. For example, the two roots of a quadratic equation are typically labelled α and β.
In spaceflight, beta angle describes the angle between the orbit plane of a spacecraft or other body and the vector from the sun.
β is sometimes used to mean the proton-to-electron mass ratio.
The term "beta" refers to advice on how to successfully complete a particular climbing route, boulder problem, or crux sequence.
The term "beta" has become a common adjective used colloquially to describe someone who is displaying behaviours that classify them as unremarkable and confrontational, often lacking charisma and confidence. It is often used in the phrase "beta male," which is used to describe a person of the male gender who does not assert any dominant "alpha actions" into their character, such as lurking a group chat online without participating or substantial lacking of social awareness.
In statistics, beta may represent type II error, or regression slope.
In some high-quality typesetting, especially in the French tradition, a typographic variant of the lowercase letter without a descender is used within a word for ancient Greek: βίβλος is printed βίϐλος.
In typesetting technical literature, it is a commonly made mistake to use the German letter ß (a s–z or s–s ligature) as a replacement for β. The two letters resemble each other in some fonts, but they are unrelated.
"Beta" can be used to refer to several consumer and professional videotape formats developed by Japan's Sony Corporation. Although similarly named, they are very different in function and obsolescence.
|Unicode name||GREEK CAPITAL LETTER BETA||GREEK SMALL LETTER BETA||GREEK BETA SYMBOL||MODIFIER LETTER SMALL BETA||GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER BETA|
|UTF-8||206 146||CE 92||206 178||CE B2||207 144||CF 90||225 181 157||E1 B5 9D||225 181 166||E1 B5 A6|
|Numeric character reference||Β||Β||β||β||ϐ||ϐ||ᵝ||ᵝ||ᵦ||ᵦ|
|Named character reference||Β||β|
|Unicode name||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER BETA||LATIN SMALL LETTER BETA|
|UTF-8||234 158 180||EA 9E B4||234 158 181||EA 9E B5|
|Numeric character reference||Ꞵ||Ꞵ||ꞵ||ꞵ|
|Unicode name||MATHEMATICAL BOLD|
|MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC|
|MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC|
|UTF-8||240 157 154 169||F0 9D 9A A9||240 157 155 131||F0 9D 9B 83||240 157 155 163||F0 9D 9B A3||240 157 155 189||F0 9D 9B BD||240 157 156 157||F0 9D 9C 9D||240 157 156 183||F0 9D 9C B7|
|UTF-16||55349 57001||D835 DEA9||55349 57027||D835 DEC3||55349 57059||D835 DEE3||55349 57085||D835 DEFD||55349 57117||D835 DF1D||55349 57143||D835 DF37|
|Numeric character reference||𝚩||𝚩||𝛃||𝛃||𝛣||𝛣||𝛽||𝛽||𝜝||𝜝||𝜷||𝜷|
|Unicode name||MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF|
BOLD CAPITAL BETA
BOLD SMALL BETA
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL BETA
BOLD ITALIC SMALL BETA
|UTF-8||240 157 157 151||F0 9D 9D 97||240 157 157 177||F0 9D 9D B1||240 157 158 145||F0 9D 9E 91||240 157 158 171||F0 9D 9E AB|
|UTF-16||55349 57175||D835 DF57||55349 57201||D835 DF71||55349 57233||D835 DF91||55349 57259||D835 DFAB|
|Numeric character reference||𝝗||𝝗||𝝱||𝝱||𝞑||𝞑||𝞫||𝞫|
These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.
Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 4. It was derived from the Phoenician letter dalet 𐤃, Letters that come from delta include Latin D and Cyrillic Д.
Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel. In the system of Greek numerals it also has the value five. It was derived from the Phoenician letter He
Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Originally denoting a consonant /h/, its sound value in the classical Attic dialect of Ancient Greek was a long vowel, raised to [i] in hellenistic Greek, a process known as iotacism.
Gamma is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. In Ancient Greek, the letter gamma represented a voiced velar stop. In Modern Greek, this letter represents either a voiced velar fricative or a voiced palatal fricative.
Iota is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Yodh. Letters that arose from this letter include the Latin I and J, the Cyrillic І, Yi, and Je, and iotated letters.
Lambda is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound /l/. In the system of Greek numerals lambda has a value of 30. Lambda is derived from the Phoenician Lamed
Phi is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet.
Nu is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 50. It is derived from the ancient Phoenician language nun
Mu or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40. Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water, which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, to become 𐤌 (mem). Letters that derive from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М.
Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth
San (Ϻ) was an archaic letter of the Greek alphabet. Its shape was similar to modern M, or to a modern Greek Sigma (Σ) turned sideways, and it was used as an alternative to Sigma to denote the sound. Unlike Sigma, whose position in the alphabet is between Rho and Tau, San appeared between Pi and Qoppa in alphabetic order. In addition to denoting this separate archaic character, the name "San" was also used as an alternative name to denote the standard letter Sigma.
Sigma is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 200. In general mathematics, uppercase ∑ is used as an operator for summation. When used at the end of a letter-case word, the final form (ς) is used. In Ὀδυσσεύς (Odysseus), for example, note the two lowercase sigmas (σ) in the center of the name and the word-final sigma (ς) at the end.
Kappa is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the  sound in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, Kʹ has a value of 20. It was derived from the Phoenician letter kaph
Rho is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 100. It is derived from Phoenician letter res
Be is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It commonly represents the voiced bilabial plosive, like the English pronunciation of ⟨b⟩ in "ball". It should not be confused with the Cyrillic letter Ve (В в), which is shaped like Latin capital letter B but represents the voiced labiodental fricative.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Euclidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version that is still used to write Greek today. These twenty-four letters are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω.
Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. In these contexts, the capital letters and the small letters represent distinct and unrelated entities. Those Greek letters which have the same form as Latin letters are rarely used: capital A, B, E, Z, H, I, K, M, N, O, P, T, Y, X. Small ι, ο and υ are also rarely used, since they closely resemble the Latin letters i, o and u. Sometimes font variants of Greek letters are used as distinct symbols in mathematics, in particular for ε/ϵ and π/ϖ. The archaic letter digamma (Ϝ/ϝ/ϛ) is sometimes used.
Beta is the second letter of the Greek alphabet.
In historical linguistics, betacism is a sound change in which and are confused. The final result of the process can be either /b/ → [v] or /v/ → [b]. Betacism is a fairly common phenomenon; it has taken place in Greek, Hebrew and several Romance languages.
B or b is the second letter of the Latin-script alphabet. Its name in English is bee, plural bees. It represents the voiced bilabial stop in many languages, including English. In some other languages, it is used to represent other bilabial consonants.
|Look up Β or β in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|