Bettani

Last updated
Bettani Tribe Bettani Tribe.jpg
Bettani Tribe

The Bettani (Pashto : بېټني), also spelled Baittani or Bhittani, is a Pashtun tribe located mostly in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The Bettani are named after Shaykh Beṭ, [1] their legendary ancestor who is said to be the second son of Qais Abdur Rashid. The Bettani's are Sunni Muslims of Hanafi sect. The Bettani confederacy includes the tribes of Bettanis, and Matti tribes progeny of BiBi Mattu daughter of Sheikh Bettan. These include Lodi also known as Lohani, as well as the tribes of Marwat, and Niazi while Shirani has also been mentioned as part of Bettanis. [2] [3]

Contents

History

According to Makhzan-e-Afghani the Bettani are said to be named after their ancestor Betṭ Baba (claimed by a legend to be the first Pashto poet), who lived in the Altamur range which is located between Logar and Zurmat and he was buried in Ghazni according to the legend. [4] [ citation needed ]

Bhittani's of Quetta Balochistan:- according to Captain J.A Robinson "Notes on Nomad Tribes of Eastern Afghanistan" publishedin1934, out of 100 families of Powinda/Nomad Bhittani’s, there were three villages of Bhittani’s in Karabagh and Ghazni and about out of 100 families, 30 families merged with "Mian Khel" and 70 families scattered among the "Nasar" tribes. The means of livelihood of these Bhittani’s were the same as that of the tribes with which they live. Some of these families of katagran clan of nomad Bhittani’s migrated towards Quetta in 1880's and started their abode with Kamal khails, Naimat Khels and Yahya Khel clans of nomad Nasar tribes.

The Betani are known to have lived in the Logar, Zurmat and Ghazni area until the 15th century, but then they came into conflict with the Ghilji and the Bettanis were expelled from the area towards the east. Some lineages succeeded to take control of Gabarḡar, which is located between the Bannu Basin and Dēra, while other Bettani lineages migrated further northeastwards. [5] [1]

Settlements

Bettani reside in Pakistan in Frontier Region Tank and Frontier Region Lakki Marwat, a territory that is a buffer zone separating Tank and Lakki Marwat districts from the Mahsud tribe of central Waziristan in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Jandola is considered the capital of the Bettani tribes. [6] [7]

District Tank, FR Tank & FR DI Khan FR Lakki & Punjab, District Shakar Garh

The area is mainly inhabited by the Bhittanis who have four sub-sections namely Tatta,Bakhtiyari,Waraspon and Dhanna. They also inhabit F.R. D.I. Khan and F.R. Bannu, mostly the mountainous area on the borders of Tank and Bannu from the Gabbar mountain in the north to the Gomal valley in the south. [8] [9]

During the reign of Pashtun Sultans of Delhi some of them enjoyed prestigious positions, and a large number of them used to serve in the Sultanate's army. [10]

Bhittanis tribe is divided in four sections: Tattao- at Jandola and Siraghar in the Dera Ismail Khan and some adjoining areas; Bakhtiyari- at some part of Pakistan, Petlad-Gujarat (india)and some adjoining areas; Dhanna- on the Gabbar mountain and in the Bannu F.R.; Waraspun- inhibinting the F.R. Dera Ismail Khan and some adjoining valleys. Frontier Region Lakki is inhabited by the Boba, Bobak and Wargara clans of the Bhittanis. Most of Danni- inahibinting in F.R. Tank and some adjoining valleys. [11]

Organisation of the tribe

The Bettani tribe has four sub-tribes, which are called Tattha, Bakhtiyari, Wraspoon and Dhana. The Tattha is further subdivided into three clans: the Umarkhail, Aba Khel, Naimat Khel and Khaishi. The Dhana tribe is divided into Ali khail, Bobi, Waroki and Dadi Khel subclans. The Wraspoon subdivides into Mazyani, Tari, Chapli and Shakhi. The Betani have always been few in numbers: From 8-9,000 in about 1884 they are said to have increased to more than 43,000 by about 1960. The current numbers of Bettani tribe around 200,000 and 250,000 individuals. [12]

Cultural notes

Hospitality is given importance and tea is the most popular consumable item. The tribe has demonstrated a keen interest in facilitating educational accomplishments of youth; as a result, several doctors of this tribe contribute their services in different parts of the country and abroad. Bettanis are patriotic and loyal to their country. The tribal youth are fond of sports, including traditional sports Hinda, Kabadi, Kath Kath, football, volleyball and cricket. Cricket and football is the popular sports among the youth. Bettani are fond of traditional dancing called (Attan, Tarai). During marriage parties, anyone can join the night dancing party without any formal invitation. Traditional drummers (Daman) hired during marriages to entertain the participants. The dancing of this tribe bit different from other Pashtun tribes. The people of every age can be seen dancing in night marriage parties. Similarly the female of this tribe are found of dancing particularly on the occasion of marriages but they do it within their houses, separately. The local female drummers hired for entertaining the females. In most of the marriages big launch offered to the relatives, villagers and participants of the marriage. While in evening close friends and relatives invited for dinner. During evening dinner drummers are playing drums and the relative and friends coming along with sheep or goat, it is called in Pashtu 'Balanai'. On Balanai aerial firing also given by the attendants on the entry in the marriage premises. The cousin marriages are common in this tribe. Tribal women are very found of wearing ornaments and jewellery of all type made of gold and silver. A lot of money is spent on the local ceremonies, particularly on marriage, death, birth and other ceremonies/festivals like celebration of Eid and performing Haj. Most marriages arearranged, and most people live in a joint family system.[ citation needed ]

All Pakistan Bett Baba Football Tournament

Annual All Pakistan Bett Baba Football Tournament was organized at erstwhile FR Tank Jandola Sub division. The football teams from all over the country participating in the tournament. Recently the final match chief guest was IG FC South Major General Umar Bashir. The tournament was jointly organized by the FC South and Elders of the tribe and took place over 35 days.

Bettani Foods

Commonly eaten foods include ghee, a bread called aishal, beef, Painda, and boiled rice with Lassi, Potato curry, Butter Kari, Milk kari, boiled meat, Fried meat "Larmoon", Beef pualao, Chicken Pualao, Sweet rice (Zarda), Boiled Grains, wheat Halwa (Sweet), salt onion bread, sweet bread (Kakoray), fried tomato, fried eggs, tomato sauc, all kind of vegetables curry, makan and pure ghee. Drinks includes tea, lemonade and lasi (butter water).[ citation needed ]

Politics

Bettani tribe culture is different from other Pashtuns.[ citation needed ]

In minor matters, disputes are common, and sometimes ongoing for decades. On different occasions they also cooperate, and their internal matters are decided in three Bettani jirga (tribal councils/(dary bettanay) based upon the three subclans of Tattha, Wraspoon and Dhana. The rival families give complete authority to the three Bettani councils, and the council's decisions are generally obeyed, but in cases of opposition to these decisions, a family may be fined. If the dispute is of bigger nature between the tribes then the DCO, PA, MNA and Senators, Maliks and elders, sometimes from neighboring FRs/agencies also participate in the jirga to resolve the disputes. The people have to accept the decision made by the jirga. The jirga results are presented to the DCO for information and record. If any one of the party is not happy or satisfied with the decision made by the jirga then the grieved party can go to the appellate court and then the Home Department, who decides the case under the FCR. Traditionally the household head has a strong hold and decision-making power for the whole family. The wives are traditionally submissive to their husbands and the likelihood of divorce or separation in the tribal society is negligible. The Bhittani are the hereditary enemies of the Mahsuds, however, over the centuries they have joined with them during important battles against invaders. In August 2007, Bhittani tribesmen threatened a Lashkar against Mahsud tribesmen if they did not return 16 kidnapped Bhittanis. Mahsud raiders had to pass through Bhittani territory to enter the settled areas so Mehsud tribe always avoid any kind of clash with Bettani tribe.[ citation needed ]

Occupations

Agriculture is a widespread source of income as the land is very fertile. Crops include tomatoes, sugar cane, wheat, beans, melons and other fruits and vegetables. Livestock, such as sheep, goats and cattle, are a primary source of income. Most of the aged tribeswomen work in fields with the other family members. Specially tomato is the main crop which cultivated in different areas including Ummar Adda, Maghzai, Tank Zam area and several other areas of Frontier Region and Tank. Many of the men of this tribe serve in the Frontier Constabulary and Frontier Corps. Many people of this tribe work as PTC and CT teachers in the education department in the frontier regions and Tank. Nowadays scores of Bettani tribesmen are engaged in business, trade, commerce, Government and private sector and other respectable professions like medical field. The tribesmen are serving the country with a spirit of devotion and dedication.[ citation needed ]

Education

Nearly 60 per cent people of the tribe are educated. Earlier people dependent only on the agriculture and livestock but now most of the keen to provide education to their children. Several government Primary and few high schools and one Government College for Boys is imparting education to the students in FR Tank. However, there is dire need to establish more primary and high schools particularly for female students. According to Malik Bahik Khan, (a resident of Sobati Katch FR Tank) nearly 90 per cent youth of the tribe have basic education. But to poverty several people only have access to high, secondary schools and colleges. It is a good sign that the educated youth are broad minded and talented. The people will appreciate government and non government organizations to come forward and establish more educational institutions, technical and vocational centers in the areas. Annually eight students four from fr lakki and four from fr tank of the Tribe, availing admission opportunity on Quota in Medical colleges of the country. I met a dozen of medical students in Ayub Medical College Abbottabad and found them very fashionable, modern and open mind[ citation needed ]

Bettani Tourism

Sur Ghar (Red Hills), a hill destination near Peeng Area bordering the South Waziristan Agency. Some of the tribes residing there permanently, while others just residing here during summer season to enjoy the weather.[ citation needed ] The weather of Sur Ghar remained pleasant during summer.[ citation needed ] Another place is "Khuviya", a forest in the hills, used for hunting of Teetar bird and Rabbits. Another, place is Tank Zam, (a proposed small dam) a stream where hills water dividing in three streams.

Bhittani Sufi Saints

Shrine of Mama Peer situated near Umar Adda (a town in the settled area), several people of the area visiting shrine of Mama Peer on daily basis and particularly on Friday. A large number of devotees also visiting shrine of Sufi saint Sheikh Younas situated near Jandola. [13]

Weather

The climate in the region is hot in summer, with high temperatures around 110 °F, and cool in winter, with low temperatures around 40 °F. The average annual rainfall amount is 10 to 11 inches, with most rainfall in July and August. The driest months are October and November. Most of the streams which originate from the region are seasonal and normally end up in the arid plains of District Tank. The region experiences hot summers and cold winters. The summer season is from April to October with June, July and August as the hottest months. The winter season is from November to March, with December, January and February as the coldest months.[ citation needed ]

Religion

The Bettani tribe are Muslim, Both Sunni and Shia Sect.[ citation needed ]

Notable members

Related Research Articles

Waziristan Area

Waziristan is a mountainous region covering the districts of North Waziristan and South Waziristan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Waziristan covers some 11,585 square kilometres (4,500 sq mi). The area is populated by ethnic Pashtuns. It is named after the Wazir tribe. The language spoken in the valley is Pashto, predominantly the Waziristani dialect. The region forms the southern part of Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which is now part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.

The Marwat is a Pashtun tribe, a branch of the Lohani tribe and belong to Lodi section, located primarily in Lakki Marwat District, parts of Dera Ismail Khan District, some villages of Tank district in Pakistan and in the Katawaz area of Afghanistan. The Marwats are also known as Spin Lohani, and their most closely related kin are other Lohani tribes like Miankhel, Daulat Khel and Tatur. The Marwats were named for their ancestor Marwat Khan Lodi.

North Waziristan District District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

North Waziristan District is a district in Bannu Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. It is the northern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, bordering Afghanistan and covering 4,707 square kilometres (1,817 sq mi). The capital city of North Waziristan is Miranshah.

The Kharoti are a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin, originating in the central part of Paktika Province, Afghanistan, but can be also found in other parts of the country. The Kharoti settled in Kharotabad in Quetta, British India around 1945.

Ghilji Pashtun tribe

The Ghiljī also spelled Khilji, Khalji, or Ghilzai or Ghilzay (غلزی), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is Ghazni and Qalati Ghilji in Afghanistan but have also settled in other regions, primarily, Pashtunistan which encompasses the Afghan-Pakistan frontier. The modern nomadic Kochi people are predominantly made up of Ghilji tribes. The Ghilji make up around 20-25% of Afghanistan's total population

Lakki Marwat District Headquarter / City in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Lakki Marwat or Lakki is the headquarters of Lakki Marwat District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Lakki Marwat has become one of the fastest growing cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is the most populous city in Bannu Division. Lakki Marwat is also the 20th most populous city in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The Kundi is a sub-tribe of the Niazi tribe of Pashtuns, that inhabit most areas of Tank and D.I.Khan.

South Waziristan District District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

South Waziristan District is a district in Dera Ismail Khan Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the southern part of Waziristan, a mountainous region of northwest Pakistan, that covers some 11,585 km2 (4,473 mi²). Waziristan comprises the area west and southwest of Peshawar between the Tochi River to the north and the Gomal River to the south. The region was an independent tribal territory from 1893, remaining outside of British-ruled empire and Afghanistan. Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. Troops of the British Raj coined a name for this region "Hell's Door Knocker" in recognition of the fearsome reputation of the local fighters and inhospitable terrain. The capital city of South Waziristan is Wanna. South Waziristan is divided into the three administrative subdivisions of Ladha, Sarwakai, and Wanna. These three subdivisions are further divided into eight Tehsils: Ladha, Makin, Sararogha, Sarwakai, Tiarza, Wanna, Barmal, and Toi Khula.

Mirzali Khan Wazir, commonly known as Faqir Ipi, was a Pashtun tribal leader from Waziristan in today's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

The Mahsud or Mehsud, also spelled Maseed, is a Karlani Pashtun tribe inhabiting mostly the South Waziristan Agency in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. A minor number of Maseed lineages are settled in the Logar Province of Afghanistan, especially in Charkh District, Baraki barak and Muhammad Agha, but also in Wardak, Ghazni and Kunduz Provinces. The Maseeds inhabit the center and north of South Waziristan valley, surrounded on three sides by the Darweshkhel Wazirs, and being shut off by the Bettanis on the east from the Derajat and Bannu districts. Two Pashtun tribes, the Ahmadzai Wazirs and the Maseeds, inhabit and dominate South Waziristan. Within the heart of Maseed territory in South Waziristan lies the influential Ormur (Burki) tribe's stronghold of Kaniguram. The Ormurs are considered by other tribes of South Waziristan to be close brethren of the Maseeds due to marital and other ties and the fact that the Ormurs have lived in and controlled Kaniguram for over a thousand years. There are also some Maseeds living in the UAE, Germany and the United Kingdom.

Tank District District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Tank District is a district in Dera Ismail Khan Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. The city of Tank is the capital of the district, which consists of Union Council City I and Union Council City II. There are sixteen Union councils of district Tank. Until 1992 Tank was a tehsil within Dera Ismail Khan District. Tank is bounded by the districts of Lakki Marwat to the northeast, Dera Ismail Khan to the east and southeast, FR Tank to the north and the South Waziristan Agency to the west. The climate in Tank reaches 110–120 °F. However, in the cold, harsh winters in the mountains to the west, people come to Tank to enjoy a pleasant stay and then return during the summer.

Bannu Division Division in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Bannu Division is one of seven divisions in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. It consists of three districts: Bannu, Lakki Marwat, and North Waziristan. According to the 2017 Pakistani Census, the division had a population of 2,656,801, making it the least populous division in the province, but it spans 9,975 km2 (3,851 sq mi) of area, and this makes it the third-smallest division by area in the province. Lakki Marwat is the largest city of Bannu Division, with around 60,000 people, while the division's namesake and second-largest city is Bannu, with just under 50,000 people. The division borders Dera Ismail Khan Division to the south and west, Kohat Division to the north and east, and the province of Punjab, Pakistan to its east.

Pashtun tribes Large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups

The Pashtun tribes, historically also known as Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).

The Waziristan campaign 1936–1939 comprised a number of operations conducted in Waziristan by the British Indian Army against the fiercely independent tribesmen that inhabited this region. These operations were conducted in 1936–1939, when operations were undertaken against followers of the Pashtun nationalist Mirzali Khan, also known by the British as the "Faqir of Ipi", a religious and political agitator who was spreading anti-British sentiment in the region and undermining the prestige of the Indian government in Waziristan at the time.

Utmankhel a Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan. They lie between the Mohmands and the Ranizais of Swat, to the west and south-west of the junction of the Swat and Panjkora rivers. The Utmankhels mostly living in Malakand, Bajawar, Mohmand, Lower Dir, Mardan and Orakzai. The Utmankhel are Pashtuns, part of the Karlani tribal confederacy, who fought against British and Mughals emperors in Pakhtunkhwa.The British regarded the Utmankhel tribesmen as “warlike” peoples and one of the Martial Race.The Utmankhel are a tall, stout and fair race, but their dress and general customs have been assimilated by the neighbouring peoples of Bajuar. Utmankhels speak the same dialect of Pashtu called Peshawari/Northeastern Pashto.

The Lohani, sometimes called Nuhani is a Pashtun tribe found in Pakistan especially in the region of Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Lakki Marwat, Shakargarh, Haveli Lakha, Afghanistan and India. They were a mostly pastoral and migratory tribe but nowadays most of them have settled down in the plains of DI Khan, Tank and Lakki Marwat. Lohanis have four branches, Marwat, Daulat Khel, Miya Khel and Tatoor. The Tatoor tribe was crushed by Nadir shah and Daulat khel who brought them near to extinction. Therefore, nowadays Tatoor tribe is generally dispersed in the region of Tank, Dera Ismail khan and FR Tank and especially found in village Tatoor near Tank city.

Lakki Marwat Subdivision Subdivision in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Lakki Marwat Subdivision formerly Frontier Region Lakki Marwat is a subdivision in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The region is named after Lakki Marwat District which lies to the northeast. The region shares its boundary on the north with Bannu Subdivision, on the west with Tank Subdivision, to the west with North and South Waziristan and to the northeast with the district of Lakki Marwat. Its total area is 132 square kilometers. It is administered by the district coordination officer (DCO) of Lakki Marwat District. The main settlement in Lakki Marwat subdivision is Chichindai Kalai.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas Former semi-autonomous tribal administrative unit in northwestern Pakistan (1947–2018)

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA); Pashto: فدرالي قبايلي سيمې‎; Urdu: وفاق کے زیر انتظام قبائلی علاقہ جات‎ was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2018. It consisted of seven tribal agencies (districts) and six frontier regions, and were directly governed by Pakistan's federal government through a special set of laws called the Frontier Crimes Regulations. It bordered Pakistan's provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and Punjab to the east, south, and south-east respectively, and Afghanistan's provinces of Kunar, Nangarhar, Paktia, Khost and Paktika to the west and north. The territory is almost exclusively inhabited by the Pashtun, who also live in the neighbouring provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Balochistan, and straddle across the border into Afghanistan. They are mostly Muslim.

Tank Subdivision Subdivision in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Tank Subdivision formerly Frontier Region Tank is a subdivision in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The region is named after Tank District which lies to the south-east and also borders South Waziristan to the north, south and west and Lakki Marwat District to the north-east. The capital is Jandola however it is administered by the district coordination officer (DCO) of Tank District.

The Banuchi (Shitak), originally BannuZai, also Banusi or Banisi, is a Pashtun tribe inhabiting the Bannu District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and North Waziristan of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with some members settled in Afghanistan. The Banuchi trace their descent to the Shitak superclan of the larger Karlani tribe. The word banuchi is strictly used for the people who descend from the Shitak super tribe namely Surani (Sur), Mirian (Miri) and Sam (Sami).

References

  1. 1 2 Balland, Daniel. Encyclopædia Iranica. BĒṬANĪ. Originally published on 15 December 1989.
  2. History of Afghans by Dorn B.
  3. Bet Sheikh شېخ بېټ نيکه. Khyber.ORG.
  4. Makhzan-e-Afghani
  5. Gazetteer of Bannu
  6. Hayat e Afghan
  7. Castes of Punjab by Ibettson
  8. Gazetteer of Bannu
  9. The Pathan Boderland, Spain
  10. Makhzan-e- Afghani
  11. Castes of Punjab by Ibettson
  12. The Pathan Boderland, Spain
  13. Gazetteer of Bannu

Further reading