Biafra

Last updated

Republic of Biafra

1967–1970
Biafra Coat of Arms.png
Coat of arms
Motto: "Peace, Unity, and Freedom."
Biafra in its region.svg
Red: Republic of Biafra
Biafra independent state map-en.svg
Republic of Biafra in May 1967
Status Secessionist state
Capital Enugu
Largest city Aba
Common languages English and Igbo (predominant)
French  · Efik  · Ekoi  · Ibibio  · Ijaw
GovernmentRepublic
Historical era Cold War
 Established
30 May 1967
 Rejoins Federal Nigeria
15 January 1970
Area
196777,306 km2 (29,848 sq mi)
Population
 1967
13,500,000
Currency Biafran pound
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria
Nigeria Flag of Nigeria.svg
Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 762. ISBN   0-313-32384-4.

Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in West Africa which existed from 30 May 1967 to January 1970; it was made up of the states in the Eastern Region of Nigeria.

West Africa westernmost region of the African continent

West Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, the Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The population of West Africa is estimated at about 362 million people as of 2016.

The Eastern Region was an administrative region in Nigeria, dating back originally from the division of the colony Southern Nigeria in 1954. Its first capital was Calabar. The capital was later moved to Enugu and the second capital was Umuahia. The region was officially divided in 1967 into three new states, the East-Central State, Rivers State and South-Eastern State. East-Central State had its capital at Enugu, which is now part of Enugu State.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the southeast, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.

Contents

Biafra's attempt to leave Nigeria resulted in the Nigerian Civil War. The state was formally recognised by Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania and Zambia. [1] Other nations, which did not give official recognition but provided support and assistance to Biafra, included Israel, France, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, South Africa and Vatican City. [2] [3] [ unreliable source? ] Biafra also received aid from non-state actors, including Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland, [4] and under their direction Caritas International, [5] MarkPress and U.S. Catholic Relief Services. [3] [ unreliable source? ]

Nigerian Civil War conflict

The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War and the Nigerian-Biafran War, was a war fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra. Biafra represented nationalist aspirations of the Igbo people, whose leadership felt they could no longer coexist with the Northern-dominated federal government. The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions which preceded Britain's formal decolonization of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963. Immediate causes of the war in 1966 included a military coup, a counter-coup and persecution of Igbo living in Northern Nigeria. Control over the lucrative oil production in the Niger Delta played a vital strategic role.

Gabon country in Africa

Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic, is a country on the west coast of Central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Republic of the Congo on the east and south, and the Gulf of Guinea to the west. It has an area of nearly 270,000 square kilometres (100,000 sq mi) and its population is estimated at 2 million people. Its capital and largest city is Libreville.

Haiti country in the Caribbean

Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) in size and has an estimated 10.8 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the second-most populous country in the Caribbean as a whole.

Its inhabitants were mostly Igbo, who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. Other ethnic groups that were present were the Efik, Ibibio, Annang, Ejagham, Eket, Ibeno and the Ijaw among others.

Igbo people Ethnic group in south eastern Nigeria

The Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria. Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern and a western section. The Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

The Efik are an ethnic group located primarily in southeastern Nigeria, in the southern part of Cross River State. The Efik speak the Efik language which is a Benue–Congo language of the Cross River family. Efik oral histories tell of migration down the Cross River from Arochukwu to found numerous settlements in the Calabar and Creek Town area. Creek Town and its environs are often commonly referred to as Calabar, and its people as Calabar people, after the European name Calabar Kingdom given to the state [in present-day Cross River State. Calabar is not to be confused with the Kalabari Kingdom in Rivers State which is an Ijaw state to its west. Cross River State with Akwa Ibom State was formerly one of the original twelve states of Nigeria known as the Southeastern State.

Ibibio people ethnic group

The Ibibio people are from southern Nigeria. They are mostly found in Akwa Ibom, Cross River,and on the Eastern Part of Abia.They are related to the Anaang Igbo and Efik peoples. During the colonial period in Nigeria, the Ibibio Union asked for recognition by the British as a sovereign nation. The Annang, Efik, Ekid, Oron and Ibeno share personal names, culture, and traditions with the Ibibio, and speak closely related varieties of Ibibio-Efik which are more or less mutually intelligible.

After two-and-a-half years of war, during which almost two million Biafran civilians died from starvation caused by the total blockade of the region by the Nigerian government and the migration of Biafra's Igbo people into increasingly shrinking territory, Biafran forces under the motto of "No-victor, No-vanquished" surrendered to the Nigerian Federal Military Government (FMG), and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria. The surrender was facilitated by the Biafran Vice President and Chief of General Staff, Major General Philip Effiong who assumed leadership of the defunct Republic after the original President, Col. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu fled to Ivory Coast. [6]

Blockade effort to cut off supplies from a particular area by force

A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. A blockade should not be confused with an embargo or sanctions, which are legal barriers to trade. It is also distinct from a siege in that a blockade is usually directed at an entire country or region, rather than a fortress or city. While most blockades historically took place at sea, blockade is still used on land to prevent someone coming into a certain area.

The Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–98 were a pair of military dictatorships in Nigeria that were led by the Nigerian military, having a chairman or president in charge.

Philip Efiong was the first Vice President and the second President of the now defunct Republic of Biafra during the Nigerian Civil War of 1967 to 1970.

Etymology

Little is known about the literal meaning of the word Biafra. The word Biafra most likely derives from the subgroup Biafar or Biafada [7] of the Tenda ethnic group who reside primarily in Guinea-Bissau. [8] Manuel Álvares (1526–1583), a Portuguese Jesuit educator, in his work Ethiopia Minor and a geographical account of the Province of Sierra Leone, [9] writes about the "Biafar heathen" in chapter 13 of the same book. [10] The word Biafar thus appears to have been a common word in the Portuguese language back in the 16th century.

Biafada people ethnic group in Guinea-Bissau

The Biafada people is an ethnic group of Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and Gambia. This group is often considered as a subgroup of the Tenda people.

Guinea-Bissau country in Western Africa

Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, is a country in West Africa that covers 36,125 square kilometres (13,948 sq mi) with an estimated population of 1,815,698.

Manuel Álvares Jesuit educator in Portugal

Manuel Álvares was a Jesuit educator in Portugal.

Secession

In 1960, Nigeria became independent of the United Kingdom. As with many other new African states, the borders of the country did not reflect earlier ethnic, cultural or religious boundaries. Thus, the northern region of the country has a Muslim majority, while the southern population is predominantly Christian. Following independence, Nigeria was divided primarily along ethnic lines with a Hausa and Fulani majority in the north, and Yoruba and Igbo majorities in the south-west and south-east respectively. [11]

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in West Africa. The CIA estimates 50% while the BBC estimates slightly over 50% (2007). Muslims in Nigeria are predominantly Sunni of the Maliki school of thought. However, there is a significant Shia minority, primarily in Kaduna, Kano, Katsina and Sokoto states;. A smaller minority follow the Ahmadiyya, a reformatory sect originating in 19th-century India. In particular Pew Forum on religious diversity identifies 12 percent as Shia Muslims.

Christianity in Nigeria Christianity in Nigeria

Christians in Nigeria comprise an estimated 49.3% of the population. Christians are dominant in the southern and central region in Nigeria. According to the Pew Research Center, Nigeria has the largest Christian population of any country in Africa, with more than 80 million persons in Nigeria belonging to the church with various denominations.

In January 1966, a military coup occurred during which a group of predominantly Igbo junior army officers assassinated 30 political leaders including Nigeria's Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, and the Northern premier, Sir Ahmadu Bello. The four most senior officers of Northern origin were also killed. Nnamdi Azikiwe, the President, of Igbo extraction, and the premier of the southeastern part of the country were not killed and the commander of the army, General Aguiyi Ironsi seized power to maintain order. [12] [13] [14]

In July 1966 northern officers and army units staged a counter-coup. Muslim officers named a General from a small ethnic group (the Angas) in central Nigeria, General Yakubu "Jack" Gowon, as the head of the Federal Military Government (FMG). The two coups deepened Nigeria's ethnic tensions. In September 1966, approximately 30,000 Igbo were killed in the north, and some Northerners were killed in backlashes in eastern cities. [15]

Now, therefore, I, Lieutenant-Colonel Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, Military Governor of Eastern Nigeria, by virtue of the authority, and pursuant to the principles, recited above, do hereby solemnly proclaim that the territory and region known as and called Eastern Nigeria together with her continental shelf and territorial waters shall henceforth be an independent sovereign state of the name and title of "The Republic of Biafra".

Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu [16]

Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu proposed a confederated Nigeria. In January 1967, the military leaders and senior police officials of each region met in Aburi, Ghana and agreed on a loose confederation of regions. The Northerners were at odds with the Aburi Accord; Obafemi Awolowo, the leader of the Western Region warned that if the Eastern Region seceded, the Western Region would also, which persuaded the northerners. [15]

After the federal and eastern governments failed to reconcile, on 26 May the Eastern region voted to secede from Nigeria. On 30 May, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, the South Eastern Region's military governor, announced the Republic of Biafra, citing the Easterners killed in the post-coup violence. [11] [15] [17] The large amount of oil in the region created conflict, as oil was already becoming a major component of the Nigerian economy. [18] The Eastern region was very ill-equipped for war, out-manned and out-gunned by the military of the remainder of Nigeria. Their advantages included fighting in their homeland and support of most South Easterners. [19]

The Nigerian Civil War

The FMG launched "police measures" to annex the Eastern Region on 6 July 1967. The FMG's initial efforts were unsuccessful; the Biafrans successfully launched their own offensive, occupying areas in the mid-Western Region in August 1967. By October 1967, the FMG had regained the land after intense fighting. [15] [20] In September 1968, the federal army planned what Gowon described as the "final offensive". Initially the final offensive was neutralised by Biafran troops. In the latter stages, a Southern FMG offensive managed to break through the fierce resistance. [15]

It is believed that one of the major factors that sparked the war was the unilateral declaration of independence for Biafra made by Col. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu in 1967. He eventually died 41 years after the end of the civil war on 26 November 2011 (aged 78) after a brief illness, many years after the internal conflict, secession and war. [21]

Geography

Satellite pictures of the former Republic of Biafra Biafra sat.png
Satellite pictures of the former Republic of Biafra

The former Republic of Biafra comprised over 29,848 square miles (77,310 km2) of land, [22] with terrestrial borders shared with Nigeria to the north and west, and with Cameroon to the east. Its coast was on the Gulf of Guinea of the South Atlantic Ocean in the south.

The former country's northeast bordered the Benue Hills and mountains that lead to Cameroon. Three major rivers flow from Biafra into the Gulf of Guinea: the Imo River, the Cross River and the Niger River. [23]

The territory of the former Republic of Biafra is covered nowadays by the reorganized Nigerian states of Cross River, Ebonyi, Enugu, Anambra, Imo, Bayelsa, Rivers, Abia, and Akwa Ibom. While the Igbo people of the current Nigerian state of Delta were not included in Biafra as per Ojukwu's decree founding Biafra, some Delta Igbo did fight on the Biafran secessionist side.

Language

Whilst it existed, the predominant language of Biafra was Igbo. [24] Along with Igbo, there were a variety of other languages, including Efik, Ogoni, Ijaw, Annang, Ibibio, Idoma, Igala, and more. However, English was used as the official language.

Economy

An early institution created by the Biafran government was the Bank of Biafra, accomplished under "Decree No. 3 of 1967". [25] The bank carried out all central banking functions including the administration of foreign exchange and the management of the public debt of the Republic. [25] The bank was administered by a governor and four directors; the first governor, who signed on bank notes, was Sylvester Ugoh. [26] A second decree, "Decree No. 4 of 1967", modified the Banking Act of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for the Republic of Biafra. [25]

The bank was first located in Enugu, but due to the ongoing war, it was relocated several times. [25] Biafra attempted to finance the war through foreign exchange. After Nigeria announced their currency would no longer be legal tender (to make way for a new currency), this effort increased. After the announcement, tons of Nigerian bank notes were transported in an effort to acquire foreign exchange. The currency of Biafra had been the Nigerian pound, until the Bank of Biafra started printing out its own notes, the Biafran pound. [25] The new currency went public on 28 January 1968, and the Nigerian pound was not accepted as an exchange unit. [25] The first issue of the bank notes included only 5 shillings notes and 1 pound notes. The Bank of Nigeria exchanged only 30 pounds for an individual and 300 pounds for enterprises in the second half of 1968. [25]

In 1969 new notes were introduced: £10, £5, £1, 10/- and 5/-. [25]

It is estimated that a total of £115–140 million Biafran pounds were in circulation by the end of the conflict, with a population of about 14 million, approximately £10 per person. [25] In uncirculated condition these are very inexpensive and readily available for collectors.

Military

Roundel of the Biafran Air Force. Roundel of the Biafran Air Force.svg
Roundel of the Biafran Air Force.

At the beginning of the war Biafra had 3,000 soldiers, but at the end of the war the soldiers totalled 30,000. [27] There was no official support for the Biafran Army by any other nation throughout the war, although arms were clandestinely acquired. Because of the lack of official support, the Biafrans manufactured many of their weapons locally. Europeans served in the Biafran cause; German born Rolf Steiner was a lieutenant colonel assigned to the 4th Commando Brigade and Welshman Taffy Williams served as a Major until the very end of the conflict. [28] A special guerrilla unit, the Biafran Organization of Freedom Fighters, was established, designed to emulate the insurrectionist guerilla forces of the Viet Cong in the American - Vietnamese War, targeting Nigerian Federal Army supply lines and forcing them to shift forces to internal security efforts. [29]

The Biafrans managed to set up a small yet effective air force. The BAF commander was Jan Zumbach. Early inventory included four World War II American bombers: two B-25 Mitchells, two B-26 Invaders (Douglas A-26), (one piloted by Polish World War II ace Jan Zumbach, known also as John Brown) who bought and flew this plane from Europe to Biafra (officially plane was bought for the Gabon Air Force), a converted Douglas DC-3 and one British De Havilland Dove.[ citation needed ] In 1968 the Swedish pilot Carl Gustaf von Rosen suggested the MiniCOIN project to General Ojukwu. By early 1969, Biafra had assembled five MFI-9Bs in neighbouring Gabon, calling them "Biafra Babies". They were coloured green, were able to carry six 68 mm anti-armour rockets under each wing and had simple sights. The six airplanes were flown by three Swedish pilots and three Biafran pilots. In September 1969, Biafra acquired four ex-Armee de l'Air North American of North American T-6 Texans (T-6G)s, which were flown to Biafra the following month, with another aircraft lost on the ferry flight. These aircraft flew missions until January 1970 and were flown by Portuguese ex-military pilots. [30]

Biafra also had a small improvised navy, but it never gained the success that their air force did. It was headquartered in Kidney Island, Port Harcourt, and commanded by Winifred Anuku. The Biafran Navy was made up of captured craft, converted tugs, and armor-reinforced civilian vessels armed with machine guns or captured 6-pounder guns. It mainly operated in the Niger River delta and along the Niger River. [29]

Legacy

A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition during the Nigerian blockade Starved girl.jpg
A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition during the Nigerian blockade

The international humanitarian organisation Médecins Sans Frontières originated in response to the suffering in Biafra. [31] During the crisis, French medical volunteers, in addition to Biafran health workers and hospitals, were subjected to attacks by the Nigerian army and witnessed civilians being murdered and starved by the blockading forces. French doctor Bernard Kouchner also witnessed these events, particularly the huge number of starving children, and, when he returned to France, he publicly criticised the Nigerian government and the Red Cross for their seemingly complicit behaviour. With the help of other French doctors, Kouchner put Biafra in the media spotlight and called for an international response to the situation. These doctors, led by Kouchner, concluded that a new aid organisation was needed that would ignore political/religious boundaries and prioritise the welfare of victims. [32]

In their study, Smallpox and its Eradication, Fenner and colleagues describe how vaccine supply shortages during the Biafra smallpox campaign led to the development of the focal vaccination technique, later adopted worldwide by the World Health Organization of the United Nations, which led to the early and cost-effective interruption of smallpox transmission in West Africa and elsewhere. [33]

On 29 May 2000, the Lagos Guardian newspaper reported that the now ex-president Olusegun Obasanjo commuted to retirement of the dismissal of all military persons, soldiers and officers, who fought for the breakaway Republic of Biafra during Nigeria's 1967–1970 civil war. In a national broadcast, he said the decision was based on the belief that "justice must at all times be tempered with mercy". [34]

In July 2006 the Center for World Indigenous Studies reported that government sanctioned killings were taking place in the southeastern city of Onitsha, because of a shoot-to-kill policy directed toward Biafran loyalists, particularly members of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB). [35] [36]

In 2010, researchers from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and University of Nigeria at Nsukka, showed that Igbos born in Biafra during the years of the famine were of higher risk of suffering from obesity, hypertension and impaired glucose metabolism compared to controls born a short period after the famine had ended in the early 1970s. The findings are in line with the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis suggesting that malnutrition in early life is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes later in life. [37] [38]

A 2017 paper found that Biafran "women exposed to the war in their growing years exhibit reduced adult stature, increased likelihood of being overweight, earlier age at first birth, and lower educational attainment. Exposure to a primary education program mitigates impacts of war exposure on education. War-exposed men marry later and have fewer children. War exposure of mothers (but not fathers) has adverse impacts on child growth, survival, and education. Impacts vary with age of exposure. For mother and child health, the largest impacts stem from adolescent exposure." [39]

Nationalist Movement

There is no central authority coordinating the Biafran re-secession campaign after the death of Ex-Biafra government leader Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu who worked closely with MASSOB during his lifetime. Historically, the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) is the first nonviolent Biafra group that emerged on the present day of the late former Biafra president Gen. Ojukwu in 1999 when MASSOB openly re-hoisted the Biafra flag in Abia State and declared 25 strategies to actualize their peaceful goal. After the death of Gen. Ojukwu in 2011, numerous groups have emerged advocating for a separate country for the people of south-eastern Nigeria. Biafra groups continue to surface after the death of Ojukwu. To advance Biafra restoration, MASSOB leader Chief Ralph Uwazuruike established Radio Biafra in the United Kingdom (Great Britain) in 2009, with Mr. Nnamdi Kanu as his radio director; later Kanu was said to have been dismissed from MASSOB because of accusations of supporting violence that is against MASSOB philosophy. [40] [41] The Biafra agitators accuse the state and the Federal Republic of Nigeria of marginalising the Igbo people. MASSOB says it is a peaceful group and advertises a 25-stage plan to achieve its goal peacefully. [42] It has two arms of government, the Biafra Government in Exile and the Biafra Shadow Government. [43]

The Nigerian federal government accuses MASSOB of violence; MASSOB's leader, Ralph Uwazuruike, was arrested in 2005 and was detained on treason charges. He has since been released and has been rearrested and released more than five times. In 2009, MASSOB leader Chief Uwazuruike launched an unrecognized "Biafran International Passport" and also launched a Biafra Plate Number in 2016 in response to persistent demand by some Biafran sympathizers in the diaspora and at home. [44] On 16 June 2012, a Supreme Council of Elders of the Indigenous People of Biafra, another pro-Biafra organization was formed, the body is made up of some prominent persons in Southeastern Nigeria, they sued the Federal Republic of Nigeria for the right to self-determination within their region as a sovereign state, Debe Odumegwu Ojukwu, an eldest son of ex-President / General Ojukwu and a Lagos State-based Lawyer was the lead counsel that championed the case. [45]

In 2011, Mr. Nnamdi Kanu made a new plan with his London base staffs and re-opened the Biafra Radio London and in 2012, Mr. Kanu and his staffs moved under the umbrella of Bilie Human Right Initiative (BHRI), which is registered in Nigeria by a London-based barrister, Emeka Emekaesiri. IPOB and its sister organizations, among which are Movement for the Actualisation of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB)'s and the Biafra Nations Youth League, BNYL, have accused the Nigerian Army and the police of extrajudicial killings of their members.[ citation needed ]

The Nigerian Government, through its broadcasting regulators, the Broadcasting Organisation of Nigerian (BON) and Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), has sought to clamp down on the UK-based station with limited success. On 17 November 2015, the Abia state police command seized an IPOB radio transmitter in Umuahia. [46] [47] Kanu was detained by the federal government and released on 24 April 2017. Meanwhile, the group, Biafra Nations Youth League (BNYL) comprising mainly members from the present Southsouth Nigeria especially the Old Cross River region (Now Bakassi, Cross River State, and Akwa Ibom State, (including Igbo members] have organised series of grassroots congress especially in towns such as Ikom, Eket, Bakassi, Itu, Ikwerre, Obudu, Ahoada and other areas of their influence, one of their Leader, Ebuta Ogar Takon, from the Ekoi (also known as Ejagham) ethnic group in Cross River State (also a tribe in Cameroon) disclosed to Nigeria Sun Newspaper that the BNYL struggle for Biafra independence is not limited to the Igbo People cluster of South East Nigeria alone but all inhabitants of the Bight of Biafra in Nigeria. BNYL Leadership said that the neglect of Bakassi refugees and marginalization of the Igbo, Ekoi, Ibibio and other ethnic groups of South Eastern Nigeria are among reasons for Biafra agitation.

The various groups clamoring for the restoration of the independence of Biafra have often been beset with internal wranglings that have impeded its secessionist efforts. On 19 October 2015, Chief Ralph Uwazuruike of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) disclosed that the director of Radio Biafra and leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) under RBL, Nnamdi Kanu, does not belong to the movement and was sacked for indiscipline and for inciting violence among members. In 2016, another MASSOB director of information Mr. Uchenna Madu was expelled from MASSOB for misconduct and inciting violence, Mr Madu is now leading another faction of MASSOB. In 2017, MASSOB launched another radio station named Voice Of Biafra International, and also re-branded MASSOB with the name, Biafra Independent Movement (BIM) in order to illustrate his commitment on his nonviolent declaration since 1999.

BNYL has continued to distance itself from the internal wrangling between MASSOB and IPOB, although Princewill Chimezie Richard (also nicknamed 'Obuka'), National Leader of BNYL, as reported by the New Telegraph Nigeria, announced the group withdrawal from a Coalition of Pro Biafra Groups, following the union announcement declaring the IPOB Leader, Nnamdi Kanu overall leader of the Biafran struggle. This he said was done without due consultations and consideration of other groups opinions. He was arrested and rearrested in Bakassi Peninsula following two attempts to mobilize the BNYL faithful for a protest in support of Biafra. [48] [49]

There have been several protests from many Biafra groups, and intense agitation for Biafran secession. Since August 1999, protests have erupted in cities across Nigeria's south-east. Though peaceful, the protesters have been routinely attacked by the Nigerian police and army, with scores of people reportedly killed. Many others have been injured and/or arrested. [50] On 23 December 2015, the federal government charged Nnamdi Kanu with treasonable felony in the Federal High Court in Abuja. [51]

According to the South-East Based Coalition of Human Rights Organizations (SBCHROs), security forces under the directive of the federal government has killed 80 members of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and their supporters between 30 August 2015 and 9 February 2016 in a renewed clampdown on the movement. [52]

A report by Amnesty International also accuses the Nigerian military of killing at least 17 unarmed Biafran separatists in the city of Onitsha prior to a march on 30 May 2016 commemorating the 49th anniversary of the initial secession of Biafra. [53]

The Incorporated Trustees of Bilie Human Rights Initiative, representing the IPOB, have filed suit against the Federal Government of Nigeria and Attorney General of the Federation, seeking the actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra by legal means. The Federal High Court, Abuja has fixed February 25, 2019 for hearing the suit. [54]

Historical maps

Early modern maps of Africa from the 15th–19th centuries, drawn by European cartographers from accounts written by explorers and travellers, reveal some information about Biafra:

  1. The original word used by the European travellers was not Biafra but Biafara, [55] [56] Biafar [57] and sometimes also Biafares. [58]
    Senegambia 1707 Guillaume Delisle Senegambia 1707.jpg
    Senegambia 1707
  2. According to the maps, the European travellers used the word Biafara to describe the region of today's West Cameroon and Eastern Nigeria including an area around Equatorial Guinea. The German publisher Johann Heinrich Zedler, in his encyclopedia of 1731, published the exact geographical location of the capital of Biafara, namely alongside the river Rio dos Camaroes underneath 6 degrees 10 min. latitude. [59] The words Biafara and Biafares also appear on maps from the 18th century in the area around Senegal and Gambia. [60]
    French map of the Gulf of Guinea from 1849 Gulf of Guinea Guillaume Lavasseur de Dieppe.jpg
    French map of the Gulf of Guinea from 1849

See also

Related Research Articles

Republic of Benin (1967) former country

The Republic of Benin was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in West Africa which existed for one day in 1967. It was established on 19 September 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War as a puppet state of Biafra, following its occupation of Nigeria's Mid-Western Region, and named after its capital, Benin City, with Albert Nwazu Okonkwo as its head of government. The new state was an attempt by Biafra to prevent non-Igbo residents of the neighboring Mid-Western Region from siding with Nigeria following regional ethnic tensions early in the war. The Republic of Benin was officially declared even as the Nigerian federal forces were reconquering the region and ended the following day as they entered Benin City. The occupation of the Mid-Western Region turned residents against the secessionist cause, and was used by the Nigerian government as justification to escalate the war against Biafra.

C. Odumegwu Ojukwu Nigerian politician and military leader

Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu was a Nigerian military officer and politician who served as the military governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria in 1966 and the leader of the breakaway Republic of Biafra from 1967 to 1970. He was active as a politician from 1983 to 2011, when he died aged 78.

General Yakubu "Jack" Dan-Yumma Gowon is the former head of state of Nigeria from 1966 to 1975. He took power after one military coup d'état and was overthrown in another. During his rule, the Nigerian government successfully prevented Biafran secession during the 1967–70 Nigerian Civil War.

Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra secessionist movement

The Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) is a secessionist movement in Nigeria, associated with Igbo nationalism, which supports the recreation of an independent state of Biafra. It is led by an Indian-trained lawyer Ralph Uwazuruike, with headquarters in Okwe, in the Okigwe district of Imo State.

Nnewi City in Anambra State, Nigeria

Nnewi is the second largest city in Anambra State in southeastern Nigeria. Nnewi as a metropolitan city encompasses 2 local government areas, Nnewi North, Nnewi South; Nnewi North is commonly referred to as Nnewi central, and comprises four autonomous quarters: Otolo, Uruagu, Umudim, and Nnewichi. Nnewi North also includes Ichi, an autonomous neighbouring town. The first indigenous car manufacturing plant in Nigeria is located in the city while the first wholly made-in-Nigeria motorcycle, the 'NASENI M1' was manufactured in Nnewi.

Comrade Dr. Edward Ikem Okeke, Nenwi, born Edward Ikemefuna Okeke II, was a Soviet educated, left wing Nigerian politician, academic, and trade union leader. He served as Deputy President of the Nigerian People's Redemption Party during the Nigerian second republic and as a member of the governing board for the University of Sokoto, now Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto. After Dr. Okeke and S.G Ikoku defected to the NPN, Dr. Okeke served as Special Advisor to President Shehu Shagari, and as Chairman of the Nigerian Presidential Taskforce on Rice.

Enyinnaya Harcourt Abaribe is a Nigerian politician who was elected to the Abia-South Senatorial District of Abia State in the Senate of Nigeria in April 2007. He holds the title Nwadiohanma Ngwa.

Anti-Igbo sentiment refers to the existence of hostility against Igbo people, or their culture.

Ahiara Declaration

The Ahiara Declaration: The Principles of the Biafran Revolution, commonly known as the Ahiara Declaration, was a document written by the National Guidance Committee of Biafra and delivered as a speech by Biafran Head of State of Biafra Emeka Ojukwu in the Biafra town of Ahiara on June 1, 1969.

Sebastian Okechukwu Mezu Nigerian writer, scholar, philanthropist, and publisher

Dr Sebastian Okechukwu Mezu is a Nigerian writer, scholar, philanthropist, and publisher. He was involved in politics in Nigeria in the late 1970s.

Ralph Uwazuruike is the leader of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB); a group canvassing for the secession and sovereignty of Eastern Nigeria. He holds degrees in Political Science from Punjab University, India, and Law from Bombay University, India. Uwazuruike adopts the principle of non-violence as propagated by Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr, as the philosophy of the struggle. He has been detained several times and charged with treason in Nigerian courts. On the 28th of April 2010, he was visited in prison by Chukwuemeka Odimegwu Ojukwu and his wife, Bianca.

The Operation UNICORD was an offensive launched by the Nigerian Army at the beginning of the Nigerian Civil War. It involved the capture of 6 major Biafran towns near their northern border.

Victor Banjo was a Colonel in the Nigerian Army. He ended up in the Biafran Army during the struggles between Nigeria and Biafra. Victor Banjo was mistaken for a coup plotter against the Nigerian Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa, by the Government of Aguyi Ironsi He was alleged to have staged a coup plot against Biafran President Odumegwu Ojukwu. and was executed as a result. It took a second military tribunal judge to sentence Victor Banjo, because Odumegwu Ojukwu's first military judge stated that there were not enough evidence to convict Victor Banjo of coup charges. There has been no third party verification of Victor Banjo's involvement in the Nigerian Coup nor Biafran Coup. His alleged involvement in both coup plots has been based on unsubstantiated hearsay.

Radio Biafra, also known as Voice of Biafra, is a radio station that was founded by the government of the defunct Republic of Biafra. It is now operated by Mazi Nnamdi Kanu. It is believed to have its first transmission before the Nigeria-Biafra war, the radio station was instrumental in the broadcast of speeches and propaganda by Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu to the people of the Republic of Biafra.

Nwannekaenyi "Nnamdi" Kenny Okwu Kanu is a British-Nigerian political activist. He is a leading member of one of several Biafran separatist organisations, the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), which advocates a sovereign state for the Igbo speaking people of Nigeria as well as those from the south-south region of Nigeria. Kanu is the director of a London-based radio station named; Radio Biafra. Kanu was arrested on treason charges in Lagos on 14 October 2015 and was detained in a Nigerian jail without trial for more than a year-and-a-half, despite various court orders that ruled for his release. When in court, Kanu appeared regularly wearing a Jewish prayer shawl and head covering. He said in court that he "believes in Judaism" and considers himself a Jew. On 28 April 2017 Kanu was released from prison on bail.

Indigenous People of Biafra

Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) is a separatist organisation led by Nnamdi Kanu. The group wants a number of states in south-east Nigeria, made up mainly of people from the Igbo ethnic group, to break away from Nigeria and form the independent nation of Biafra. To achieve this, the group is calling for a referendum, stating that they will continue to agitate until the Nigerian government fixes a date for the referendum "to settle the issue of Biafra in a civilised and democratic manner". On 20 September 2017, a Federal High Court in Abuja granted the Nigerian Federal Government an interim injunction proscribing the activities of the Indigenous People of Biafra.

The 2015–2016 Killing of Biafran Protesters refers to the killing of demonstrators demanding the restoration of the sovereignty of the Republic of Biafra by Nigerian security forces, especially the Nigerian army, across the southeastern parts of Nigeria. The demonstrations are spearheaded by several secessionist groups. In addition, residents of the above-mentioned region have often been subjected to conditions synonymous with those obtainable in a Police State.

Ogbugo Kalu was a former army officer who served in both the Nigerian Army and Biafran Army. Kalu was also commander of the Nigerian Military Training College (NMTC) in Kaduna following the 1966 Nigerian coup d'état.

The 2016 Niger Delta conflict is an ongoing conflict around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in a bid for the secession of the region, which was a part of the breakaway state of Biafra. It follows on-and-off conflict in the Christian-dominated southern Niger Delta in the preceding years, as well as an insurgency in the Muslim-dominated northeast.

References

  1. "Biafra | secessionist state, Nigeria" . Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  2. "Biafra Free State". www.africafederation.net. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  3. 1 2 Nowa Omoigui. "Federal Nigerian Army Blunders of the Nigerian Civil War – Part 2". Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  4. McCormack, Fergus (4 December 2016). "Would You Believe? Flights of Angels". RTÉ Press Centre. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  5. "The Forgotten War". 8 (3). History Ireland Magazine. Autumn 2000. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  6. Barnaby Philips (13 January 2000). "Biafra: Thirty years on". BBC News. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  7. "Biafada: A language of Guinea-Bissau".
  8. "The Joshua Project: Biafada, Biafar of Guinea-Bissau".
  9. "Africa Focus: Ethiopia Minor and a geographical account of the Province of Sierra Leone : (c. 1615): Contents".
  10. "Manuel Álvares, Chapter 13: The Biafar Heathen".
  11. 1 2 Barnaby Philips (13 January 2000). "Biafra: Thirty years on". The BBC . Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  12. Nowa Omoigui. "OPERATION 'AURE': The Northern Military Counter-Rebellion of July 1966". Nigeria/Africa Masterweb.
  13. Willy Bozimo. "Festus Samuel Okotie Eboh (1912–1966)". Niger Delta Congress. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
  14. "1966 Coup: The last of the plotters dies". OnlineNigeria.com. 20 March 2007.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 "Biafran Secession: Nigeria 1967–1970". Armed Conflict Events Database. 16 December 2000.
  16. "Ojukwu's Declaration of Biafra Speech". Citizens for Nigeria. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  17. "Biafra Spotlight - Republic of Biafra is Born". Library of Congress Africa Pamphlet Collection - Flickr. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
  18. "ICE Case Studies". American University. November 1997.
  19. Nowa Omoigui (3 October 2007). "Nigerian Civil War file". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
  20. "On This Day (30 June)". BBC. 30 June 1969. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  21. "Nigeria buries ex-Biafra leader". BBC News. 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
  22. Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 762. ISBN   0-313-32384-4.
  23. "Nigeria". Britannica. Archived from the original on 30 June 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
  24. Ònyémà Nwázùé. "INTRODUCTION TO THE IGBO LANGUAGE". Archived from the original on 18 August 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Symes, Peter (1997). "The Bank Notes of Biafra". International Bank Note Society Journal. 36 (4). Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 17 August 2008.
  26. Ivwurie, Dafe (25 February 2011). "Nigeria: The Men Who May Be President (1)". allAfrica.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  27. "Operation Biafra Babies" . Retrieved 19 August 2008.
  28. "The Last Adventurer" by Steiner, Rolf (Boston:, Little, Brown 1978)
  29. 1 2 Jowett, Philip (2016). Modern African Wars (5): The Nigerian-Biafran War 1967-70. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Press. ISBN   978-1472816092.
  30. Air Enthusiast No. 65 September–October 1996 pp 40–47 article by Vidal, Joao M. Texans in Biafra T-6Gs in use in the Nigerian Civil War
  31. "Founding of MSF". Doctors without borders. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  32. Bortolotti, Dan (2004). Hope in Hell: Inside the World of Doctors Without Borders, Firefly Books. ISBN   1-55297-865-6.
  33. "World Health Organization" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  34. "Site cidi.org". Iys.cidi.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  35. "Emerging Genocide in Nigeria". Cwis.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  36. "Chronicles of brutality in Nigeria 2000–2006". Cwis.org. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  37. Hult, Martin; Tornhammar, Per; Ueda, Peter; Chima, Charles; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Ozumba, Benjamin; Norman, Mikael (2010). "Hypertension, Diabetes and Overweight: Looming Legacies of the Biafran Famine, PLoS ONE". PLoS ONE. Plosone.org. 5 (10): e13582. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013582. PMID   21042579 . Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  38. "Nigeria: Those Born During Biafra Famine Are Susceptible to Obesity, Study Finds". The New York Times. 2 November 2010.
  39. Akresh, Richard; Bhalotra, Sonia; Leone, Marinella; Osili, Una O. (August 2017). "First and Second Generation Impacts of the Biafran War". NBER Working Paper No. 23721. doi:10.3386/w23721.
  40. [punchng.com/kanu-ipob-supporters-fraudsters-says-uwazuruike/ Uwazuruike Reveal why he sacked Kanu from MASSOB] Check |url= value (help). 11 January 2017. pp. 29–29.
  41. Senan Murray (3 May 2007). "Reopening Nigeria's civil war wounds". BBC. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
  42. Estelle Shirbon (12 July 2006). "Dream of free Biafra revives in southeast Nigeria". Reuters.
  43. "Biafra News – 04.13.2009". Biafra.cwis.org. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  44. "MASSOB launches "Biafran Int'l Passport" to celebrate 10th anniversary". Vanguardngr.com. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
  45. "Court determines suit between Nigeria, Biafra on Sept 22". sunnewsonline.com. 18 July 2015. Archived from the original on 7 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  46. "PUO REPORTS - Nigerian Online News Portal". www.puoreports.com. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  47. "Radio Biafra Container With Massive Transmitter Found In Nnamdi Kanu's Village - NewsRescue.com".
  48. "Confusion, as MASSOB disowns Radio Biafra boss, Nnamdi Kanu - Vanguard News". 19 October 2015.
  49. "Arrested Radio Biafra boss is not our member – MASSOB leader, Uwazuruike". 19 October 2015.
  50. "Half a century after the war, angry Biafrans are agitating again". The Economist . 28 November 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  51. "FG Files Fresh Treason Charges against Nnamdi Kanu" Archived 24 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  52. "Biafra will not stand, Buhari vows - Vanguard News". 6 March 2016.
  53. "Amnesty accuses Nigerian army of killing at least 17 unarmed Biafran separatists".
  54. https://guardian.ng/news/court-fixes-february-to-hear-suit-seeking-biafra-republic/
  55. "Map of Africa from 1669". USA: Afriterra Foundation, The Cartographic Free Library. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  56. "Map of Africa from 1669" (zoom). USA: Afriterra Foundation, The Cartographic Free Library. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  57. "Map of West Africa from 1729". USA: University of Florida, George A. Smathers Libraries. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  58. "Map of North-West Africa, 1829". USA: University of Texas Libraries. Retrieved 14 March 2010.
  59. Zedler, Johann Heinrich. "Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexicon aller Wissenchafften und Künste". Bavarian State Library . Retrieved 10 May 2017. page 1684
  60. "1730 map - L'Isle, Guillaume de, 1675-1726". Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Library . Retrieved 16 February 2017.

Coordinates: 6°27′N7°30′E / 6.450°N 7.500°E / 6.450; 7.500