Biathlon at the Winter Olympics

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Biathlon at the Winter Olympics
Biathlon pictogram.svg
Governing body IBU
Events11 (men: 5; women: 5; mixed: 1)
Note: demonstration or exhibition sport years indicated in italics

Biathlon debuted at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, California with the men's 20 km individual event. At the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, the men's 4 × 7.5 km relay debuted, followed by the 10 km sprint event at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York. Beginning at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, women's biathlon debuted with the 15 km individual, 3 × 7.5 km relay (4 × 7.5 km during 1994-2002, and 4 × 6 km in 2006), and 7.5 km sprint. A pursuit race (12.5 km for men and 10 km for women) was included at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. The top 60 finishers of the sprint race (10 km for men and 7.5 km for women) would qualify for the pursuit event. The sprint winner starts the race, followed by each successive biathlete at the same time interval he/she trailed the sprint winner in that event. At the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, a mass start (15 km for men and 12.5 km for women) was introduced where the top 30 biathletes from the previous four events were allowed to start together for the competition.


Prior to the biathlon debut at the 1960 Winter Olympics, there was a military patrol event that was held at four Winter Olympic Games: 1924, 1928, 1936, and 1948. Medals were awarded for military patrol in 1924, but it was a demonstration event for the other three Winter Games.


GamesYearEventsBest Nation
1 1924 1Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland
2 1928 1Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
4 1936 1Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Italy
5 1948 1Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland
8 1960 1Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden
9 1964 1Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
10 1968 2Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
11 1972 2Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
12 1976 2Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
13 1980 3Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
14 1984 3Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
15 1988 3Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
GamesYearEventsBest Nation
16 1992 6Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
17 1994 6Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
18 1998 6Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
19 2002 8Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
20 2006 10Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
21 2010 10Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
22 2014 11Flag of Norway.svg  Norway
23 2018 11Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
24 2022 11



= official event, (d) = demonstration event

Event 24 28 32 36 48 5256 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 22 Years
Military patrol (d) (d) (d) 4
individual (20 km) 17
relay (4×7.5 km) 15
sprint (10 km) 12
pursuit (12.5 km) 6
mass start (15 km) 5
Total events111111222333333455555


= official event, (d) = demonstration event

Event 24 28 32 36 48 5256 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 22 Years
individual (15 km) 9
relay (4×6 km) [1] 9
sprint (7.5 km) 9
pursuit (10 km) 6
mass start (12.5 km) 5
Total events333455555


Event 24 28 32 36 48 5256 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 22 Years
relay (2x6 + 2x7.5 km) [2] 3
Total events111

Medal table

As of 2018 Winter Olympics

1Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)19211252
2Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)16151041
3Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)105823
4Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)951226
5Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)*95519
6Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)53614
7Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus  (BLR)43310
8Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)*34411
9Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia  (SVK)3317
10Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team  (EUN)*2226
11Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)2013
12Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)*1225
13Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)1135
14Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)1102
15Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)1012
16Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  (FIN)0527
17Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic  (CZE)0437
18Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)0336
19Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)0156
20Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia  (SLO)0112
21Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan  (KAZ)0101
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)0101
23Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia  (CRO)0011
Totals (23 nations)868685257

Number of biathletes by nation

Nation24283236485256 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18 Years
Flag of Andorra.svg  Andorra  (AND)       11
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina  (ARG)       43371217
Flag of Australia.svg  Australia  (AUS)       112211128
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria  (AUT)       4445455555669914
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus  (BLR)       1191110910107
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium  (BEL)       21
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina  (BIH)       2113
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria  (BUL)       2235105556661012
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada  (CAN)       5597617881010
Flag of Chile.svg  Chile  (CHI)       222
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China  (CHN)       558445665210
Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei  (TPE)       212
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica  (CRC)       11
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia  (CRO)       1123
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic  (CZE)       10810101010117
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark  (DEN)       11
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia  (EST)       894469968
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland  (FIN)       446546559979144816
Flag of France.svg  France  (FRA)       4165554710111010911121216
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany  (GER)       10911111012121210
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Great Britain  (GBR)       245444645424212116
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece  (GRE)       21121217
Flag of Guam.svg  Guam  (GUM)       11
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary  (HUN)       151955321110
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy  (ITA)       545561066101010101113
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan  (JPN)       24454443288925615
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan  (KAZ)       2822910107
Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg  Kyrgyzstan  (KGZ)       1113
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia  (LAT)       455599238
Flag of Lithuania.svg  Lithuania  (LTU)       221221248
Flag of Moldova.svg  Moldova  (MDA)       2224216
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia  (MGL)       422
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway  (NOR)       345545561211991011121116
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand  (NZL)       11
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland  (POL)       465491095101010712
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg  Puerto Rico  (PUR)       11
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania  (ROU)       445456524552613
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia  (RUS)       1011111211126
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia  (SRB)       112
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia  (SLO)       5691088678
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia  (SVK)       65610108107
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea  (KOR)       1541212269
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain  (ESP)       21124
Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland  (SUI)       432113142691012
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden  (SWE)       4454445410108561051016
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine  (UKR)       101011101111117
Flag of the United States.svg  United States  (USA)       445456651199899101016
NOCs no longer compete at the Winter Olympics
Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Czechoslovakia  (TCH)       255455107
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany  (GDR)       5554466
Olympic flag.svg  Olympic Athletes from Russia  (OAR)       41
Flag of Serbia and Montenegro.svg  Serbia and Montenegro  (SCG)       11
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union  (URS)       444444458
Olympic flag.svg  Unified Team  (EUN)       111
Flag of the German Olympic Team (1960-1968).svg  United Team of Germany  (EUA)       442
Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany  (FRG)       4266456
Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg  Yugoslavia  (YUG)       16144
Year24283236485256 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 94 98 02 06 10 14 18

See also

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  1. The women's relay has been contested over three different distances: 3×7.5 km (1992), 4×7.5 km (1994-2002) and 4×6 km (2006-10)

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