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Front view of the National Library of Chile building
|Access and use|
|Population served||66,167,182 members of the public|
|Director||Ángel Cabeza Monteira|
The Biblioteca Nacional de Chile is the national library of Chile. It is located on the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins in Santiago, in a building completed in 1925, though its history reaches to the early nineteenth century before it was relocated to its current home.
A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow books. Often, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. A national library is that library which has the duty of collecting and preserving the literature of the nation within and outside the country. Thus, national libraries are those libraries whose community is the nation at large. Examples include the British Library, and the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
The Biblioteca Nacional is, together with the Instituto Nacional and a small number of institutions, one of the first institutions created by the newly formed Republic of Chile in the Patria Vieja period. In the newspaper El Monitor Araucano , a Proclama de Fundación ("Proclamation of Foundation") of the Biblioteca Nacional was published on August 19, 1813. With this vision, a call was made to all the citizens to submit their books for the formation of one great public library. As with other republican institutions, the library was closed after the Disaster of Rancagua, in which the national troops were defeated by the army of the realistas . With the victorious Battle of Chacabuco, it was reopened and supported by the government, and started to receive important collections. The Supreme Director of Chile, Bernardo O'Higgins, named professor Manuel de Salas as the first director of the Biblioteca Nacional. In 1822 Friar Camilo Henríquez (director of the Aurora de Chile newspaper) was named as the second head librarian.
Patria Vieja refers to a time period in the History of Chile occurring between the First Junta of the Government and the Disaster of Rancagua. In this period measures were taken for the imprisonment of Fernando VII by Napoleon and this started the governmental organization of the Kingdom of Chile.
The Battle of Chacabuco, fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817. The Army of the Andes of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata led by General Captain José de San Martín defeated the Spanish force led by Rafael Maroto. It was a defeat for the Captaincy General of Chile, the royalist government established after the division of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
The Supreme Director of Chile was the seat in charge of Chile's administration following the independence from Spain in 1810, until 1826. Several juntas also ruled the country during this period.
Since its creation, the library had been a dependency of the Universidad de San Felipe and its successor, the Universidad de Chile, until it gained autonomy in 1852. In 1913, upon its 100th anniversary, the Biblioteca Nacional acquired the Monasterio de Santa Clara, located on the Alameda de las Delicias on present-day Cerro Santa Lucía. At the creation in 1929, the library was made into a dependency of the Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos .
Since 1925, Biblioteca Nacional has been situated in the centre of Santiago, Chile. It was formerly located in the square where now stands the Teatro Municipal de Santiago (Municipal Theater of Santiago).
Construction of the present building began in 1913. It was commissioned as one of the commemorative public works in honour of the first centenary of the independence of Chile. The building boasts an imposing façade of columns and arches, of very pronounced French neoclassical influence. The library shares its building with the Archivo Nacional de Chile (the National Archive). Adjoining the building is the Santa Lucía metro station, and to the east is Cerro Santa Lucía.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, and the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
Santa Lucia, is a station on the Santiago Metro in Santiago, Chile. It is underground, between the stations Universidad de Chile and Universidad Católica on the same line. It is located on Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, in the commune of Santiago.
The interior, spread out over two main levels and a basement, has been embellished and decorated with carved marble staircases, sculptures and paintings from some of the country’s classic artists, such as Alfredo Helsby and Arturo Gordon.
The Biblioteca Nacional has an extensive and valuable collection of books and manuscripts. Several of these were acquired from or donated by their owners, making up an important national historical treasure.The most important collections include:
|Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna||1861|
|José Ignacio Eyzaguirre Portales||1878|
|Diego Barros Arana||1920|
|José Toribio Medina||1925|
|Enrique Matta Vial||1940|
|Raúl Silva Castro||1970|
|Guillermo Feliú Cruz||1974|
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and most densely populated conurbation, the Santiago Metropolitan Region, whose total population is 7 million. The city is entirely located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 m (1,640 ft) and 650 m (2,133 ft) above mean sea level.
Viña del Mar is a city and commune on central Chile's Pacific coast. Often referred to as La Ciudad Jardín, Viña del Mar is located within the Valparaíso Region, and it is Chile's fourth largest city with a population of 324,836. Viña del Mar is also part of the Greater Valparaíso area, the country's third largest metropolitan area, after the Metropolitan areas of Santiago and Concepción. The Greater Valparaíso Area is home to five municipalities: Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Concon, Quilpue and Villa Alemana.
The University of Chile is a public university in Santiago, Chile. It was founded on November 19, 1842 and inaugurated on September 17, 1843. It is the oldest and the most prestigious in the country. It was established as the continuation of the former colonial Royal University of San Felipe (1738), and has a rich history in academic, scientific and social outreach. The university seeks to solve national and regional issues and to contribute to the development of Chile. It is recognized as one of the best universities Latin America for its leadership and innovation in science, technology, social sciences, and arts through the functions of creation, extension, teaching, and research.
The Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, often shortened to O'Higgins Region, is one of Chile's 16 first order administrative divisions. It is subdivided into three provinces. It is named in honour of Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme, one of Chile's founding fathers.
Santa Lucía Hill is a small hill in the centre of Santiago, Chile. It is situated between Alameda del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins in the south, Santa Lucía Street in the west and Victoria Subercaseaux on the east. An adjacent metro station is named after it. The hill has an altitude of 629 m and a height of 69 m over the surrounding area. The hill is the remnant of a volcano 15 million years old.
O'Higgins Fútbol Club also known as O'Higgins de Rancagua, is a Chilean football club based in Rancagua, that is a current member of the Campeonato Nacional. The club's home stadium is the Estadio El Teniente, opened in 1945 and renovated for the 2015 Copa América, which was hosted by Chile.
Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, popularly known as La Alameda, is the main avenue of Santiago, Chile. It runs east-west in the center of the greater urban area and is 7.77 km (4.83 mi) long, and it has up to 5 lanes in each direction. It was named after Chile's founding father Bernardo O'Higgins. It was originally a branch of the Mapocho River.
Chile can be considered astronomy's world capital. In 2011, Chile was home to 42% of the world's astronomical infrastructure consisting mostly of telescopes. In 2015 it expected to contain around 70% of the global infrastructure by 2020. In the Atacama desert region of northern Chile, the skies are exceptionally clear and dry for more than 300 days a year. These conditions have attracted the world's scientific community to develop in the Atacama desert the most ambitious astronomical projects in the history of mankind.
The Archivo Nacional de Chile is a public organization of the Chilean state, created in 1927 with the goal to "collect and conserve the archives of the Departments of State and all the documents and manucsrpits related to the national history, and to oversee their organization and use.". It is treated as a dependent organization of the Dirección de Bibliotecas, Archivos y Museos, which is administered by the Consejo Nacional de la Cultura y las Artes de Chile.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the Republic of Chile.
Universidad de Chile station is a transfer station between the Line 1 and Line 3 of the Santiago Metro. It is an underground station located between La Moneda and Santa Lucía stations on the same line. It is located at the junction of Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, also known as "Alameda", and Paseo Ahumada in the commune of Santiago.
Paulo Andrés Garcés Contreras is a Chilean footballer who as of 2015 played for Primera División club Deportes Antofagasta as a goalkeeper.
The National Astronomical Observatory of Chile is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Department of Astronomy of the University of Chile (UCh). It is located on Cerro Calán, a hill in the commune of Las Condes. The commune is an eastern suburb of Santiago located in Santiago Province of the Santiago Metropolitan Region. OAN was founded in 1852 and became a part of UCh in 1927. The facility on Cerro Calán was completed in 1962.
The Legion of Merit of Chile, frequently abbreviated to the Legion of Merit or the Legion, was a Chilean multi-class order of merit established on 1 June 1817 by Bernardo O'Higgins to recognise distinguished personal merit contributing to the independence of Chile or to the nation. Membership of the Legion conferred a variety of privileges in Chile and its members were entitled to wear insignia according to the class conferred. The Legion of Merit of Chile was abolished in 1825.
Chilean art refers to all kinds of visual art developed in Chile, or by Chileans, from the arrival of the Spanish conquerors to the modern day. It also includes the native pre-Columbian pictorial expression on modern Chilean territory.
Santiago Metro Line 1 is the oldest of the six existing lines that make up the Santiago Metro. Being its busiest, it has a total of 27 stations along its 19.3 kilometre length, constructed almost entirely underground, and is located primarily along the axis formed by the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Providencia Avenue and Apoquindo Avenue.
The National Seismological Center of the University of Chile, is part of the Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences of the University of Chile. The center collects information about seismic activity in Chile and delivers it to the National Office of Emergency at the Ministry of the Interior (ONEMI) and the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). The current director of the CSN is Sergio Barrientos Parra.
The Royal University of San Felipe was a University created by King Philip V in 1738, in territory which was then part of the Spanish Empire. It was officially founded in Santiago in 1747 and began teaching activities in 1758. It is the immediate predecessor of the University of Chile (1843).