Biblioteca Nacional de España

Last updated
National Library of Spain
Biblioteca Nacional de España
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Country Spain
Established1712(307 years ago) (1712)
Reference to legal mandateRoyal Decree 1581/1991 on October 31st.
Location Madrid
Collection
Items collected books, journals, newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings, patents, databases, maps, stamps, prints, drawings and manuscripts
Size26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 30,000 manuscripts, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 510,000 music scores, etc.
Legal deposit Yes, by Decree on December 23rd 1957
Access and use
Access requirementsAccess to reproductions and post-1958 materials is open to Biblioteca Nacional library card holders. Access to pre-1958 materials is only allowed with a researcher card. [1] Materials in exceptional circumstances are subject to special restrictions. [2]
Members115,707 readers in 2007. The web users in the same year were 1,800,935.
Other information
Budget€47,380,860
Director Ana Santos Aramburo (since 2013)
Staff1025 (including external employees)
Website http://www.bne.es/
National Library of Spain
Native name
Spanish: Biblioteca Nacional de España
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Location Madrid, Spain
Official name: Biblioteca Nacional de España
TypeNon-movable
CriteriaMonument
Designated1983
Reference no.RI-51-0004908
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Location of National Library of Spain in Spain

The Biblioteca Nacional de España (National Library of Spain) is a major public library, the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world. It is located in Madrid, on the Paseo de Recoletos.

Public library Library that is accessible by the public

A public library is a library that is accessible by the general public and is usually funded from public sources, such as taxes. It is operated by librarians and library paraprofessionals, who are also civil servants.

Madrid Capital of Spain

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has almost 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), smaller than only London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris. The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

Paseo de Recoletos

Paseo de Recoletos is a wide boulevard in central Madrid leading from Plaza de Cibeles to Plaza de Colón.

Contents

History

The library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio). The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance (Ministerio de la Gobernación). At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional.

Philip V of Spain 18th-century King of Spain

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, and from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.

During the 19th century, confiscations, purchases and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it currently holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. [3] On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is currently housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers. In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, and the General Reading Room was created to cater for students, workers and general readers.

Historical American Exposition

The 1892 Historical American Exposition held in Madrid was intended to mark the four hundredth year of the discovery of America.

During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee (Junta de Incautación) and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until then in religious establishments, palaces and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its constantly expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, and to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, and those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.

Spanish Civil War War between the Republicans and the Nationalists in Spain from 1936 to 1939

The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, Monarchists, and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. The war was known as a struggle between democracy and fascism, particularly due to the international political climate. The Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.

Alcalá de Henares Municipality in Community of Madrid, Spain

Alcalá de Henares is a Spanish city located 35 kilometres northeast of the country's capital, Madrid. It stands out for its rich archaeology and was one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain. Locally, it is generally known simply as "Alcalá", but "de Henares" is appended when needed to differentiate it from a dozen Spanish cities sharing the name Alcalá. The Latin name, Complutum, is sometimes used. The city is the capital of its namesake region, Comarca de Alcalá. Its historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. Since his investiture after the 2015 local election the Mayor is Javier Rodríguez Palacios (PSOE).

In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library (Hemeroteca Nacional), the Spanish Bibliographic Institute (Instituto Bibliográfico Hispánico) and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures (Centro del Tesoro Documental y Bibliográfico) - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory (Centro Estatal Depositario de la Memoria Cultural Española), making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture (Ministerio de Cultura).

The Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum.

The library today

The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System.

As the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving, conserving, and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, and it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 (R.D. 1581/1991) of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to:

The library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, and 30,000 manuscripts.

The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón (2010–2013) and Milagros del Corral (2007-2010) as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi (1996–2000) and author Rosa Regàs (2004–2007).

Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid.

The Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services:

See also

Related Research Articles

Legal deposit is a legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a repository, usually a library. The requirement is mostly limited to books and periodicals. The number of copies varies and can range from one to 19. Typically, the national library is one of the repositories of these copies. In some countries there is also a legal deposit requirement placed on the government, and it is required to send copies of documents to publicly accessible libraries.

Paseo del Prado cultural property in Madrid Distritos: Centro y Retiro, Spain

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University of Alcalá Spanish public university, founded in 1977 in Alcala de Henares

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Plaza de Cibeles square in Madrid, Spain

The Plaza de Cibeles is a square with a neo-classical complex of marble sculptures with fountains that has become an iconic symbol for the city of Madrid. It sits at the intersection of Calle de Alcalá, Paseo de Recoletos and Paseo del Prado. Plaza de Cibeles was originally named Plaza de Madrid, but in 1900, the City Council named it Plaza de Castelar, which was eventually replaced by its current name.

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Salamanca (Madrid) District of Madrid in Spain

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Codex Madrid (Leonardo) manuscript book by Leonardo da Vinci

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Juan de la Cuesta Spanish printer of Spains Golden Ag

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Gloria Pérez-Salmerón Spanish librarian

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Jaime Alvar Ezquerra is a Spanish historian, author and professor at the Charles III University of Madrid, specializing in ancient history.

Ana Santos Aramburo Spanish librarian

Ana Santos Aramburo is the director of the National Library of Spain, effective February 2013.

In 2018, two firms in Spain ranked among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Grupo Planeta and Grupo Santillana. In 2013, there were 524,213 titles in print in Spain, including 76,434 new titles.

Open access in Spain research in and of Spain that is online and free to read and reuse

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References

  1. "Carnés de la Biblioteca". www.bne.es (in Spanish). 20 March 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  2. "Carné de investigador. Biblioteca Nacional de España". www.bne.es (in Spanish). 12 December 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  3. "Cronología. National Library of Spain" . Retrieved 5 May 2017.

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