Bihar Regiment

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Bihar Regiment
Bihar Regiment Insignia.gif
Regimental Insignia of the Bihar Regiment
Active1941–Present
Country British Raj Red Ensign.svg British India 1941-1947 Flag of India.svg  India 1947-Present
Branch Army
Type Infantry
Size20 Battalions
Regimental Centre Danapur Cantonment, Patna
Motto(s)Karam Hi Dharam (Work is Worship)
War CriesJai Bajrang Bali (Victory to Bajrang Bali)
Birsa Munda Ki Jai (Victory to Birsa Munda) [1]
Engagements Burma Campaign, World War II
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Kargil War
Decorations3 Ashoka Chakras, 1 Maha Vir Chakra
Battle honours Post Independence

Haka, Gangaw and Batalik.

Theatre honours=Akhaura
Commanders
Colonel of the Bihar RegimentLt Gen Amarjeet Singh [2]
Notable
commanders
Lt Gen Sant Singh,
Lt Gen K S Mann,
Lt Gen A R K Reddy,
Lt Gen O S Lohchab,
Lt Gen Balbir Singh,
Brig SC Johar,
Col Umesh Kumar Bojha.
Insignia
Regimental InsigniaThe Ashoka Lion

The Bihar Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The regiment can trace its origins back to the British Indian Army. The Bihar Regiment was formed in 1941 by regularising the 11th (Territorial) Battalion, 19th Hyderabad Regiment, and raising new battalions. The Bihar Regimental Centre (BRC) is located at Danapur Cantonment, the second oldest cantonment of India.

Indian Army land based branch of the Indian Armed Forces

The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of Indian Armed Forces. The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Army, and it is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff (COAS), who is a four-star general. Two officers have been conferred with the rank of field marshal, a five-star rank, which is a ceremonial position of great honour. The Indian Army originated from the armies of the East India Company, which eventually became the British Indian Army, and the armies of the princely states, which finally became the national army after independence. The units and regiments of the Indian Army have diverse histories and have participated in a number of battles and campaigns across the world, earning a large number of battle and theatre honours before and after Independence.

British Indian Army 1858-1947 land warfare branch of British Indias military, distinct from the British Army in India

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First World War and the Second World War.

Contents

Bihari martial tradition

The martial tradition of Bihar troops in the era of British rule traces its origins to the sepoy battalions raised in 1757 by Lord Clive of the British East India Company at Patna. [3] These were formed by the men from the Bhojpur region of Malwa. Their success in combat impressed Mir Kasim, who began raising units trained in western combat techniques. Bihari battalions raised by Mir Kasim defeated the British in some engagements. The Bihari, or Purbiya, soldiers thereafter made up the backbone of the Bengal Infantry of the British Colonial Army. [4]

British Raj British rule in the Indian subcontinent, 1858-1947

The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The whole was also informally called the Indian Empire. As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.

Sepoy designation given to an Indian soldier

A sepoy was originally the designation given to an Indian infantryman armed with a musket in the armies of the Mughal empire.

Patna Metropolis in :Bihar, India

Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India. Patna is the second-largest city in Eastern India after Kolkata.It had an estimated city population of 1.68 million in 2011, making it the 19th largest city in India. With over 2 million people, its urban agglomeration is the 18th largest in India. Patna also serves as the seat of Patna High Court.

They were not only excellent soldiers, but also quick to learn and apply the tactical drills with initiative. They were disciplined when led by good officers, but capable of hostility when their beliefs and customs were disregarded. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the introduction of greased cartridges, was led by Bihari troops, who preferred being blown by the guns to losing their faith. Biharis thereafter were not encouraged to enter military service by the British until after World War I. [5]

Indian Rebellion of 1857 War for Indian independence by people and states of India against East India Company and the British Crown

The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi. It then erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt also occurred farther north and east. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region, and was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859. The rebellion is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

History

The Bihar Regiment was formed in 1941 during World War II by regularising the 11th (Territorial) Battalion, 19th Hyderabad Regiment as the 1st Battalion Bihar Regiment. The 2nd Battalion was raised in 1942.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

The 19th Hyderabad Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed at the time of reforms of the Indian Army after the First World War, when it moved from single-battalion regiments to multi-battalion regiments. The regiment saw service during the Second World War, and after Operation Polo was incorporated into the Indian Army as the Kumaon Regiment.

Bihar Regiment in World War II

The newly raised 1 Bihar saw action in the Burma Campaign, winning battle honours for gallant actions at Haka and Gangaw. 2 Bihar formed part of Operation Zipper for the reoccupation of British Malaya.

Burma Campaign series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II

The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily involving the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army. British Empire forces peaked at around 1,000,000 land and air forces, and were drawn primarily from British India, with British Army forces, 100,000 East and West African colonial troops, and smaller numbers of land and air forces from several other Dominions and Colonies. The Burma Independence Army was trained by the Japanese and spearheaded the initial attacks against British Empire forces.

Operation Tiderace British reclamation of Singapore from Japanese occupation

Operation Tiderace was the codename of the British plan to retake Singapore following the Japanese surrender in 1945. The liberation force was led by Lord Louis Mountbatten, Supreme Allied Commander of South East Asia Command. Tiderace was initiated in coordination with Operation Zipper, which involved the liberation of Malaya.

British Malaya set of states on Malay Peninsula and island of Singapore under British dominance from 18th to 20th centuries

The term "British Malaya" loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown.

History after Independence

Thereafter, both battalions participated in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 in the Kashmir Valley during 1948-49.

Kashmir Valley Place in Jammu and Kashmir, India

The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is an intermontane valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India. The valley is bounded on the southwest by the Pir Panjal Range and on the northeast by the main Himalayas range. It is approximately 135 km long and 32 km wide, and drained by the Jhelum River.

During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, 7 Bihar captured Bedori, paving the way for the capture of Haji Pir Pass.

By the start of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Regiment had expanded to 11 battalions. The sixth, seventh, eighth, tenth and eleventh battalions participated in operations in the eastern sector. 10 Bihar was conferred the theatre honour 'East Pakistan' for the capture of Akhaura. On 15 December 1971, a seaborne expedition was launched at Cox's Bazar to prevent Pakistani troops from escaping into Burma. 11 Bihar formed part of this amphibious task force. In the Western theatre of the war, 3 Bihar captured Wanjal. [6]

In the Spring of 1999, Pakistani soldiers posing as Kashmiri militants crossed the L.O.C. in Kargil and entered Indian territory. Operation Vijay was launched by the Indian Army to flush out the intruders. More than 10,000 soldiers and officers of the Bihar Regiment were deployed to Kargil.[ citation needed ] In a well planned operation in the Batalik sector, soldiers of 1 Bihar, in a fierce fight with the Pakistan Army, captured Point 4268 and Jubar Ridge in Kuker Thang area in the Batalik sector on the night 06/7 July 1999.

Units of the regiment have also served in UN Peacekeeping operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) and the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC).

Composition and Recruitment

The regiment gets its recruits from the Indian state of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Gujarat and Maharashtra. During early days it recruited soldiers mainly from Bhumihar and Rajput caste from the then Bihar.

Engagements

Deployments of units of the Bihar Regiment:

Units

Regimental Battalions:

Distinctions

Battle and theatre honours

Gallantry Awards

Maha Vir Chakra

Vir Chakra

  • Major Mariappan Saravanan (Posthumous), 1 BIHAR, Kargil War [9]
  • Colonel M Ravi, 10 BIHAR, 1971 East Pakistan (Later Bangladesh)
  • Lt Col K P R Hari, 10 BIHAR [10]
  • Lt. Col. P.C. Sawhney, 10 BIHAR,1971 East Pakistan (Later Bangladesh)
  • Maj (Later Maj.Gen.) D.P.Singh, 10 BIHAR,1971 East Pakistan (Later Bangladesh)
  • Maj Harpal Singh Grewal (Posthumous), 8 BIHAR, 1971 East Pakistan (Later Bangladesh) [11]
  • Sub Ghama Oraon, 1 BIHAR, Sri Lanka [12]

Ashoka Chakra

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References

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  2. "104 recruits inducted into Bihar Regiment". The Times of India. TNN. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  3. "Bihar Regiment". Infantry. Official Website of Indian Army. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  4. Ernst, Waltraud; Pati, Biswamoy, eds. (28 November 2007). India's Princely States: People, Princes and Colonialism. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN   978-0-415-41541-5 . Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  5. pp20, The Indian Mutiny: 1857, Saul David
  6. John Pike. "Bihar Regiment" . Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Singh, Sarbans (1993). Battle Honours of the Indian Army 1757 - 1971. New Delhi: Vision Books. p. 328. ISBN   8170941156.
  8. 1 2 "History of the Regiment". Official Website of the Indian Army. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  9. "Major Saravanan Memorial Trust" . Retrieved 26 January 2015.[ permanent dead link ]
  10. Staff Reporter (9 April 2010). "Surrendered ultras get training certificates". The Assam Tribune . Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  11. "Vir Chakra (VrC), Awardee: Maj Harpal Singh Grewal, VrC @ TWDI". twdi.in. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  12. "Vir Chakra (VrC), Awardee: PA Nk Ghama Oraon, VrC @ TWDI". www.twdi.in. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  13. "The Bihar Regimental Association" . Retrieved 26 January 2015.[ permanent dead link ]
  14. "Lt Col Shanti Swarup Rana". Indian Martyr. Archived from the original on 2012-01-09. Retrieved 2011-12-29.