Rural Bihsud District, looking north from the outskirts of Jalalabad
Bishsud District is located in the north-west of Nangarhar Province.
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Bihsud District (Pashto: بهسود, formerly Jalalabad District) (Persian : ولسوالی بهسود) is a district of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The district, which contains 40 main villages, is located around the city Jalalabad, spanning both sides of the Kabul River. The district was previously a unit which contained the city of Jalalabad, but in 2004 the city became independently administered under the municipality system, and the portions of the district not contained within the city became Bihsud District. Oranges, rice, and sugarcane grow in the fertile district, and the capital city has cane-processing and sugar-refining as well as papermaking industries.[ citation needed ] The district's year-round summery weather attracts many visitors.[ citation needed ]
As of 2002, the population was 120,000, composed of 75 Hazara, 24% Afghan Arab, 1% Tajik.[ citation needed ] The primary employment is agriculture and animal husbandry.[ citation needed ]
In the past Jalalabad was the major city of the ancient Greco-Buddhist center of Gandhara. The Buddhist pilgrim Faxian visited the district around the year 400AD, and his travelogue described the many Buddhist sanctuaries in the area. The archaeological site of the city of Hadda is located in the district, and was a Buddhist center from the time of Kanishka, with statues of the Buddha as high as sixty-six feet.
Prior to the Islamic conquest, the Buddhist Kingdom of Kapisi stretched from Bamiyan to Jalalabad District.
In September 2003, Internews established a Radio Sharq independent station in Jalalabad District.
August 1, 2007 marked the grand opening of the new District Communications Center (DCC). The construction of the DCC had started more than nine months before by Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan, but was handed over to the Nangarhar Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) to oversee completion. The new building was eventually signed over from the Nangarhar PRT to Amirzi Sengi, Minister of Communications.
In an Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit survey conducted on 11 February 2008, respondents in Behsud district noted that problems in the community had previously been solved by gatherings of elders in a jirga which would meet when necessary. The relationship between this pattern of dispute resolution and the Community Development Council (CDC) role was not entirely clear, but seemed to involve consultation between both types of institution in the case of small problems, such as youth opium addiction, and perhaps less in more important cases. On the other hand, this community mentioned the role of maliks and uluswal as well, noting these institutions had played roles in dispute resolution, but usually in a negative way through their favouritism or likelihood to be corrupt. Moreover, the unpopularity of the malik and the uluswal could have resulted in a heightened awareness of responsibility for community issues.
As of 2002 [update] , the ethnic makeup of the district was approximately 75% Hazara, 20% Arabs of Afghanistan and 5% Pashai. There were also 135 Hindu and Sikh families. The Khogiani tribe is centered in the area around Jalalabad.
Records from 1885 indicate the presence of Afghan Arabs (almost entirely Pashto speaking, who were described as pastoralists and agriculturalists.
In 2019, a population survey conducted by National Statistics and Information Authority estimated that total population of the district is 126,262, including 62,117 women and 64,145 men. All of them were living in rural area.
Jalalabad district has three hospitals: Fatumatu Zahra, Medical Hospital of Nangarhar, and the General Hospital of Public Health. The General Hospital of Public Health is one of the largest in the country.
As of July 24, 2004, polio (NSL3) has been identified and reported in the Jalalabad district area. This specific case has been linked to others reported in the past due to the highly transient and mobile population.
As of early 2009, Alternative Development Program - Eastern Region (ADP/E) and USAID's LGCD project have begun collaborating to build a park near the Behsud Bridge in Nangarhar, called Abdul Haq Park. ADP/E is conducting a topographical survey, and LGCD will provide funds to build the park. Together, they are working with local authorities and communities to plan the space according to the needs of the community.
The Nangarhar Handicraft Producers Association is located at Samarkhil Village of Behsud District. Formal vocational training was conducted in the reporting period. The project is jointly supported by ADP/E and the World Food Program (WFP). Equipment and necessary raw materials are provided by ADP/E and food supply is facilitated by WFP. The training is aimed to target 120 trainees by eight trainers in eight classes of embroidery. Main activities to be covered in the first month are napkins which are further composed of different kinds of embroideries like Zanjiradozi, Pukhtadozi, Khandaridozi, and Khanjaradozi.
Nangarhar has abundant water sources, and electricity in the Jalalabad area is provided by the Darunta Dam, built by the Soviet Union in 1957.
An MAIL study on milk production and processing in June 2007 found Jalalabad district to be a recommended area for dairy development. The report stated a new dairy plant could be established near the city and collected in surrounding areas, serving the local market and selling dairy products in either Kabul or Pakistan.
In 2003, UNODC declared Jalalabad District "virtually poppy-free", with a reduction from 90 hectares in 2002 to 4 in 2003.
In the period 2003–2005, Human Rights Watch expressed concerns over gender-based violence in the area of Jalalabad, particularly in terms of threats to young women which prevented them from attending school. Due to the threat of abduction, sometimes by men associated with and protected by local powerbrokers, many young women had ceased to attend school in Jalalabad and the surrounding towns, suburbs and villages.
Flash floods caused by torrential rains struck Behsud district in the Nangarhar province (Jalalabad region) of eastern Afghanistan on 10 November 2006. An estimated 156 families were affected in Qasim Abad village (Behsud district), located 20 kilometres north of Jalalabad city. Five people were killed and nine injured in the village, while 50 houses were partially or totally destroyed.
Jalalabad District is home to various works of ancient Hindu art, though the 1908 Imperial Gazetteer of India notes that many depictions had been vandalized.Inscriptions in Aramaic have also been found in the district, indicating the presence of Jewish tribes in the area.
Jalalabad is the fifth-largest city of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 356,274, and serves as the capital of Nangarhar Province in the eastern part of the country, about 80 miles (130 km) from the capital Kabul. Jalalabad is located at the junction of the Kabul River and the Kunar River in a plateau to the south of the Hindu Kush mountains. It is linked by highways with Kabul to the west and the Pakistani city of Peshawar to the east including through the Khyber Pass.
Gardez is the capital of the Paktia Province of Afghanistan. The population of the city was estimated to be ca. 10,000 in the 1979 census and was estimated to be 70,000 in 2008. The majority of the city's native population is Tajik. But recently, with the migration of Pashtun tribes from different parts of Paktia to this city, Pashtuns have taken over the majority of the population of this city. The city of Gardez is located at the junction between two important roads that cut through a huge alpine valley. Surrounded by the mountains and deserts of the Hindu Kush, which boil up from the valley floor to the north, east and west, it is the axis of commerce for a huge area of eastern Afghanistan and has been a strategic location for armies throughout the country's long history of conflict. Observation posts built by Alexander the Great are still crumbling on the hilltops just outside the city limits. The city of Gardez has a population of 70,641. It has 13 districts and a total land area of 6,174 hectares (23.84 sq mi). The total number of dwellings in this city is 7,849.
Kandahār is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country, sharing a border with Balochistan, Pakistan to the south. It is surrounded by Helmand in the west, Uruzgan in the north and Zabul Province in the east. Its capital is the city of Kandahar, Afghanistan's second largest city, which is located on the Arghandab River. The greater region surrounding the province is called Loy Kandahar.
Kapisa is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. Located in the north-east of the country. The population of Kapisa is estimated to be 496,840, although there has never been an official estimate. The province covers an area of 1,842 km2 making it the smallest province in the country, however it is the most densely populated province apart from Kabul Province. It borders Panjshir Province to the north, Laghman Province to the east, Kabul Province to the south and Parwan Province to the west. Mahmud-i-Raqi is the provincial capital, while the most populous city and district of Kapisa is Nijrab.
Nangarhār also called Nangrahar or Ningrahar, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country and bordering Logar, Kabul, Laghman and Kunar provinces as well as an international border with Pakistan. It is divided into twenty-two districts and has a population of about 1,735,531, the third highest of the country's 34 provinces. The city of Jalalabad is the capital of Nangarhar province.
Parwān, also spelled Parvān, is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan. It has a population of about 737,700. The province is multi-ethnic and mostly a rural society. The province is divided into ten districts. The town of Charikar serves as the provincial capital. The province is located north of Kabul Province and south of Baghlan Province, west of Panjshir Province and Kapisa Province, and east of Wardak Province and Bamyan Province.
Samangan is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located north of the Hindu Kush mountains in the central part of the country. The province covers 11,218 square kilometres (4,331 sq mi) and is surrounded by Sar-e Pol Province in the west, Balkh in the north, Baghlan in the east, and Bamyan in the south.
The Kabul River, the classical Cophen, is a 700-kilometre-long (430 mi) river that emerges in Maidan Wardak Province in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan, and is separated from the watershed of the Helmand River by the Unai Pass. The Kabul River empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan. It is the main river in eastern Afghanistan and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Pashayi or Pashai are a Dardic ethnolinguistic group living primarily in eastern Afghanistan. They are the descendants of an Indo-Aryan group and have been isolated until recent times. Their total population is estimated to be 500,000. They are one of the oldest known ethnic minorities in Afghanistan.
Hinduism in Afghanistan is practiced by a tiny minority of Afghans, believed to be about 50 individuals, who live mostly in the cities of Kabul and Jalalabad.
Achin is a district in southern Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, on the border with Pakistan.
Goshta District is located in the northeast of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan and borders Durand Line between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The district's population is Pashtun and was estimated at 160,000 in 2002, of whom 30,000 were children under 12. The district is within the heartland of the Mohmand tribe of Pashtuns. The district centre is the village of Goshta, on the Kabul River.
Khogyani is a district in the south of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, bordering on Pakistan. Its population is entirely Pashtun, and was estimated at 146,852 in 2002. The district is within the heartland of the Khogyani tribe of Pashtuns. The district centre is the village of Kaga. District Governor Office, District Court, District Hospital, and other government agencies hold their office in Kaga. Kaga is the economic center of the district; however Wazir is the second largest market place. Recently, Kaga town has been connected with Jalalabad City through paved road. Wazir is also connected through a paved road with Kaga.
Rodat is a district in the center of Nangarhar Province, 25 km away from Jalalabad city. Afghanistan, south of Jalalabad. The district is within the heartland of the Mohmand tribe of Pashtuns.
Surkh-Rōd.(Pashto/Persian: سرخرود/ سره رود), also spelled as Surkh-Rūd or Sorkh-Rūd,Also called Sra-rod or Sra- road, is a district in the north of Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. The district centre is the town of Sultanpur. It is well known to locals because of its abundance of fertile land, however it is currently facing a lack of water.
Jalrez is a district in the west of Maidan Shar, Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan. The main town lies at Jalrez, which is 62.9 kilometres (39.1 mi) southwest of the centre of Kabul via the main Kabul-Behsud Highway. The district is a major producer of potatoes.
Tetsu Nakamura, also known as Kaka Murad ,(15 September 1946 – 4 December 2019), was a Japanese physician and honorary Afghan citizen who headed Peace Japan Medical Services (PMS), an aid group known as Peshawar-kai in Japanese.
Markaz-i Bihsūd District is one of the districts of Maidan Wardak Province in Afghanistan. It is located less than an hour-drive west of Kabul and south Bamyan. The main town in the district is Behsud. The district has an estimated population of 134,852 people, majority of which are ethnic Hazaras.
Tirahi, also called Dardù, is a nearly extinct if not already extinct Dardic language of the Kohistani group spoken in a few villages in the southeast of Jalalabad in the Nangarhar Province of eastern Afghanistan. It is spoken by older adults, who are likewise fluent in Pashto.
Girdi Kas is a village located in the Bihsud District of Nangarhar Province in Afghanistan, located around 18 km from the provincial capital Jalalabad. It covers an area of almost 2.2 square kilometers. The village is linked to the Torkham-Jalalabad highway, the Rodat district, and to Samarkhil, also a village within Bihsud District. The Kunar River flows to the north side of the village.