Collage of the views of Bila Tserkva, Top left: A view of Ros River and Tsentralnyy Bridge, Top middle: Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Top right: The Heroes Hundreds of Heaven Street, Bottom upper left: Kurbas Market Mall, Bottom lower left: Colonnade Echo, Bottom right: Panoramic view of Bila Tserkva with Torhova Square
|Raion||Bila Tserkva City Municipality|
| • Head of City |
|• Total||67.8 km2 (26.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||178 m (584 ft)|
|• Density||3,100/km2 (8,000/sq mi)|
|Area code(s)||(+380) 4563|
|Sister cities||Barysaw, Jingzhou, Kaunas, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Kremenchuk|
Bila Tserkva (Ukrainian : Бі́ла Це́рква [ˈbilɐ ˈtsɛrkwɐ] ; Polish : Biała Cerkiew; Russian:Белая Церковь, tr. Belaya Tserkov [ˈbʲeləjə ˈtsɛrkəfʲ] ; all lit. ''White Church'') is a city in central Ukraine, the largest city in Kyiv Oblast. Bila Tserkva is located on the Ros River approximately 80 km (50 mi) south of Kyiv. The city has an area of 67.8 square kilometres (26.2 sq mi). Its population is approximately 209,238 (2020 est.) .
Administratively, Bila Tserkva is a town of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative center of Bila Tserkva Raion (district), though administratively it does not belong to the raion.
The town was founded in 1032 as Yuriiv by Yaroslav the Wise, whose Christian name was Yuri. The present name of the city, literally translated, is "White Church" and may refer to the white-painted cathedral (no longer extant) of medieval Yuriiv. From 1363 it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and from 1569 to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, administratively in the Powiat of Kyiv, part of Lesser Poland. It was crown property, but in recognition of his great service, it was granted to the Castellan of Kraków, Janusz Ostrogski. The next owner was Stanisław Lubomirski (1583–1649) and during his time the town was granted Magdeburg Rights by Sigismund III Vasa in 1620.
After subduing the rebellious Cossacks in the 1626 Battle of Bila Tserkva, the next owner of the estate was prince Jerzy Dymitr Wiśniowiecki. The castle was successfully taken by Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1648. The Battle of Bila Tserkva (1651) led to the signing of a peace accord with the cossacks. The Treaty of Bila Tserkva between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ukrainian Cossack rebels under Bohdan Khmelnytsky was signed here in 1651.In 1666, 6,000 Muscovite troops laid siege to Bila Tserkva. The standoff lasted until the following year when Polish reinforcements led by Jan Stachurski with the aid of allied cossacks and Iwan Brzuchowiecki smashed Petro Doroshenko's stranglehold.
The subsequent owner was Great Crown Hetman Stanislaw Jan Jabłonowski. In 1702, the castle was taken by the Cossack leader, Semen Paliy who made it his domain. In 1708, the town was overrun by prince Golitsyn's Russian army. The next owner of the town was Jan Stanislaw Jabłonowski, then Stanisław Wincenty Jabłonowski who erected a catholic church. After him ownership passed to Jerzy August Mniszech. The town was substantially refortified.
In 1774, Bila Tserkva (Biała Cerkiew), then the seat of the sub-prefecture (starostwo), came into the possession of Stanisław August Poniatowski who that same year granted the property to Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, Poland's Grand Hetman. He built there his urban residence – the Winter Palace complex and a country residence with the "Olexandria" park (named after his wife Aleksandra Branicka). He founded the Catholic church of John the Baptist and started construction of the Orthodox church, which was completed by his successor – his son, count Władysław Grzegorz Branicki. The latter also built the gymnasium-school complex in Bila Tserkva. Aleksander Branicki, the youngest grandson of the hetman, renovated and finished Mazepa's Orthodox church. Under the rule of count Władysław Michał Branicki, Bila Tserkva developed into a regional commercial and manufacturing centre.
Bila Tserkva was annexed into the Russian Empire as a result of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.
After 1861, the Czarist authorities converted the Roman Catholic church into an Orthodox Church.During Soviet times, Bila Tserkva became a large industrial hub (machine building and construction industry).
During World War II, Bila Tserkva was occupied by the German Army from 16 July 1941 to 4 January 1944.In August 1941 it was the site of the Bila Tserkva massacre.
During the Cold War, the town was host to the 72nd Guards Krasnograd Motor Rifle Divisionand the 251st Instructor Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment of Long Range Aviation.
Bila Tserkva is located at 49°47'58.6" North, 30°06'32.9" East and is 178 metres (584 ft) above sea level. The city has a total area of 67.8 square kilometres (26.2 sq mi).
Up to the 20th century, the majority of the population of Bila Tserkva were Jews: by the end of the 19th century, 18,720 Jews lived in the city (52.9% of the city's total population). [ circular reference ]
Evolution of Bila Tserkva's population (source: Ukrainian Wikipedia)
|Jews||36.4 %||19.6 %||7.8 %||2.0 %||0.1 %|
|Russians||3.4 %||7.6 %||18.6 %||17.5 %||10.3 %|
|Ukrainians||57.0 %||68.9 %||71.0 %||78.6 %||87.4 %|
|Belarusians||0.3 %||1.0 %||0.8 %||0.6 %|
|Poles||2.4 %||2.2 %||0.2 %||0.2 %||0.1 %|
The destruction of the Jewish population, first by the Cossacks, Stalin's purges, and then during the Holocaust, partly as a result of the Bila Tserkva massacre, caused a major demographic shift and as a result, the city is now mostly inhabited by ethnic Ukrainians.
Domestic transport and private flights provide services via Bila Tserkva Airport (UKBC), which is located southwest of the city in Hayok district.
Ukrzaliznytsia provides railway transit to surrounding areas in Kyiv Oblast and the rest of Ukraine.
There are two railway stations in Bila Tserkva:
- Bila Tserkva railway station
- Rotok railway station
Bila Tserkva has six trolleybus lines.
Bila Tserkva is the location of a few large bridges, two of which cross the Ros River.
A historical landscape park Arboretum Oleksandriya of 400 acres is situated in Bila Tserkva. It was founded in 1793 by the wife of Polish Hetman Franciszek Ksawery Branicki.
Notable buildings include the Merchant Court (1809–1814) and the Post Yard (1825–31).
There are also Palladian wooden buildings of the Branicki "Winter Palace" and the District Nobility Assembly (now it is gone because of a conflagration).
St. Nicholas Church was started in 1706 by Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa, but not completed until 1852.
The Orthodox Saviour's Transfiguration Cathedral was constructed in 1833–1839.
The Roman Catholic St. John the Baptist Church dates to 1812.
The St. Mary Magdalene Church was completed in 1846 by Count Branicki.
The building of the mid-19th century Great Choral Synagogue is preserved. Today it is the Technology and Economic College of Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University.
The Shukhov Water Tower, a tower that supports a water tank was built according to a project of Vladimir Shukhov, a Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect.
Education in Bila Tserkva is provided by many private and public institutions. Bila Tserkva hosts several colleges and universities, including Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University.
The city is home to football team FC Ros Bila Tserkva. Ros is a team in the lower levels of the Football Federation of Ukraine: Kyiv Oblast Football Championship.
Industry in the city includes Railway Brake product manufacturers "Tribo Rail", Tribo plant and the major automobile tire manufacturer "Rosava".
The city is home to hockey club Bilyi Bars, that plays on Bilyi Bars Ice Arena, built by Kostyantyn Efymenko Charitable Foundation.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky was a Ukrainian Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host, then in the Polish Crown of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) that resulted in the creation of a state led by the Cossacks. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Moscow Tsar and thus allied the Cossack Hetmanate with Tsardom of Muscovy.
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Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708. He was awarded a title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1707 for his efforts for the Holy League. The historical events of Mazepa's life have inspired many literary, artistic and musical works. He was famous as a patron of the arts.
Right-bank Ukraine is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kyiv and Cherkasy. It was separated from the left bank during The Ruin.
Franciszek Ksawery Branicki was a Polish nobleman, magnate, French count, diplomat, politician, military commander, one of the leaders of the Targowica Confederation and a grand traitor who participated with the Russians in the dismemberment of his nation.
Hetman of Zaporizhian Cossacks is a historical term that has multiple meanings.
The Kiev Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1471 until 1569 and of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793, as part of Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown.
Kosiński uprising (1591–1593) is a name applied to two rebellions in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth organised by Krzysztof Kosiński against the local Ruthenian nobility and magnates.
Hlukhiv or Glukhov is a small historic town on the Esman River. It is a city of regional significance in the Sumy region of Ukraine, just south of the Russian border. Hlukhiv is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Hlukhiv Municipality includes Hlukhiv and the village of Sliporod. Hlukhiv also serves as administrative center of Hlukhiv Raion but does not belong to the raion. Population: 32,686 (2020 est.)
Chyhyryn is a city and historic site located in Cherkasy Raion of Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. From 1648 to 1669 the city was a Hetman residence. After a forced relocation of the Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan see from Kyiv in 1658, it became a full-fledged capital of the Cossack Hetmanate. Chyhyryn also became a traditional place for the appointment to the office of Hetman of Zaporizhian Host. It hosts the administration of Chyhyryn urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 8,655 (2020 est.)
The Treaty of Bila Tserkva was a peace treaty signed on 28 September 1651, between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ukrainian Cossacks in the aftermath of the Battle of Bila Tserkva. It was signed for the Poles by Mikołaj Potocki, Marcin Kalinowski, Adam Kisiel, Stanisław Lanckoroński, palatine of Bratslav, Zbigniew Gorajski, castellan of Kyiv, Mikolaj Kazimierz Kossakowski, deputy judge of Bratslav. Signing for Lithuania, were Prince Janusz Radziwill (1612-1655), Palatine Jerzy Karol Hlebowicz, and Wincenty Gosiewski. Signing for the Zaporozhian Host were Bohdan Khmelnytsky "on behalf of the entire host".
Yuri Khmelnytsky (1641–1685), younger son of the famous Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky and brother of Tymofiy Khmelnytsky, was a Zaporozhian Cossack political and military leader. Although he spent half of his adult life as a monk, he also was Hetman of Ukraine on several occasions — in 1659-1660 and 1678–1681 and starost of Hadiach. For background see The Ruin.
Bila Tserkva Raion is a raion (district) in Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Bila Tserkva. Population: 48,440 (2020 est.) .
Marianivka is a village in Vasylkiv Raion, Kyiv Oblast of central Ukraine.
The Bila Tserkva Regiment was one of the seventeen territorial-administrative subdivisions of the Hetman State. The regiment's capital was the city of Bila Tserkva, now in the Kyiv Oblast of central Ukraine. Other major cities of the regiment were Hermanivka, Fastiv, Bohuslav, and Skvyra.
Bohuslav is a city of district significance on the Ros River in Kyiv Oblast (province) of Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of Bohuslav Raion. Population: 16,190 (2020 est.) . The population in 2001 was 17,135.
Paliy uprising was a Cossack uprising, led by colonel Semen Paliy against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1702-1704.
The Arboretum Oleksandriya is an arboretum located in the city of Bila Tserkva of the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine. It holds the state arboretum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It is a monument of landscape art, founded in the late 18th century. It is one of the largest parks in Eastern Europe, second largest in Ukraine.
Efymenko Kostyantyn Oleksiyovych ; born June 26, 1975, Bila Tserkva — is a Ukrainian businessperson and manufacturer, Minister of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, First Deputy Minister of Infrastructure of Ukraine. President of the Ice Hockey Club Bilyi Bars.
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