Bila Tserkva

Last updated

Bila Tserkva

Біла Церква
Bila Tserkva Montage.png
Collage of the views of Bila Tserkva, Top left: A view of Ros River and Tsentralnyy Bridge, Top middle: Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University, Top right: The Heroes Hundreds of Heaven Street, Bottom upper left: Kurbas Market Mall, Bottom lower left: Colonnade Echo, Bottom right: Panoramic view of Bila Tserkva with Torhova Square
Flag of Bila Cerkva.svg
Flag
Bila Cerkva polk.svg
Coat of arms
Kiev oblast location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bila Tserkva
Location of Bila Tserkva
Ukraine adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bila Tserkva
Bila Tserkva (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 49°47′56″N30°06′55″E / 49.79889°N 30.11528°E / 49.79889; 30.11528 Coordinates: 49°47′56″N30°06′55″E / 49.79889°N 30.11528°E / 49.79889; 30.11528
Country Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Oblast Flag of Kyiv Oblast.svg  Kyiv Oblast
Raion Bila Tserkva City Municipality
Founded1032
Magdeburg Rights 1589
Government
   Head of City
Council
Gennadii Dykyi
Area
  Total67.8 km2 (26.2 sq mi)
Elevation
178 m (584 ft)
Population
 (2020)
  Total209,238
  Density3,100/km2 (8,000/sq mi)
Postal code
09100-09117
Area code(s) (+380) 4563
Vehicle registration AI/10
Sister cities Barysaw, Jingzhou, Kaunas, Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski, Kremenchuk
Website http://bc-rada.gov.ua/

Bila Tserkva (Ukrainian : Бі́ла Це́рква [ˈbilɐ ˈtsɛrkwɐ] ; Polish : Biała Cerkiew; Russian:Белая Церковь, tr. Belaya Tserkov [ˈbʲeləjə ˈtsɛrkəfʲ] ; all lit.''White Church'') is a city in central Ukraine, the largest city in Kyiv Oblast. [1] Bila Tserkva is located on the Ros River approximately 80 km (50 mi) south of Kyiv. The city has an area of 67.8 square kilometres (26.2 sq mi). [2] Its population is approximately 209,238(2020 est.) [3] .

Contents

Administratively, Bila Tserkva is a town of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative center of Bila Tserkva Raion (district), though administratively it does not belong to the raion.

History

The town was founded in 1032 as Yuriiv by Yaroslav the Wise, whose Christian name was Yuri. The present name of the city, literally translated, is "White Church" and may refer to the white-painted cathedral (no longer extant) of medieval Yuriiv. From 1363 it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and from 1569 to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, administratively in the Powiat of Kyiv, part of Lesser Poland. It was crown property, but in recognition of his great service, it was granted to the Castellan of Kraków, Janusz Ostrogski. The next owner was Stanisław Lubomirski (1583–1649) and during his time the town was granted Magdeburg Rights by Sigismund III Vasa in 1620.

After subduing the rebellious Cossacks in the 1626 Battle of Bila Tserkva, the next owner of the estate was prince Jerzy Dymitr Wiśniowiecki. The castle was successfully taken by Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1648. The Battle of Bila Tserkva (1651) led to the signing of a peace accord with the cossacks. The Treaty of Bila Tserkva between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ukrainian Cossack rebels under Bohdan Khmelnytsky was signed here in 1651. [4] In 1666, 6,000 Muscovite troops laid siege to Bila Tserkva. The standoff lasted until the following year when Polish reinforcements led by Jan Stachurski with the aid of allied cossacks and Iwan Brzuchowiecki smashed Petro Doroshenko's stranglehold.

The subsequent owner was Great Crown Hetman Stanislaw Jan Jabłonowski. In 1702, the castle was taken by the Cossack leader, Semen Paliy who made it his domain. In 1708, the town was overrun by prince Golitsyn's Russian army. The next owner of the town was Jan Stanislaw Jabłonowski, then Stanisław Wincenty Jabłonowski who erected a catholic church. After him ownership passed to Jerzy August Mniszech. The town was substantially refortified.

Bila Tserkva, "Oleksandria" park, and surrounding villages in 1889 BiaLa Cerkiew 1889.jpg
Bila Tserkva, "Oleksandria" park, and surrounding villages in 1889

In 1774, Bila Tserkva (Biała Cerkiew), then the seat of the sub-prefecture (starostwo), came into the possession of Stanisław August Poniatowski who that same year granted the property to Franciszek Ksawery Branicki, Poland's Grand Hetman. He built there his urban residence – the Winter Palace complex and a country residence with the "Olexandria" park (named after his wife Aleksandra Branicka). He founded the Catholic church of John the Baptist and started construction of the Orthodox church, which was completed by his successor – his son, count Władysław Grzegorz Branicki. The latter also built the gymnasium-school complex in Bila Tserkva. Aleksander Branicki, the youngest grandson of the hetman, renovated and finished Mazepa's Orthodox church. Under the rule of count Władysław Michał Branicki, Bila Tserkva developed into a regional commercial and manufacturing centre. [5] [6]

Bila Tserkva was annexed into the Russian Empire as a result of the Second Partition of Poland in 1793.

After 1861, the Czarist authorities converted the Roman Catholic church into an Orthodox Church. [7] During Soviet times, Bila Tserkva became a large industrial hub (machine building and construction industry).

During World War II, Bila Tserkva was occupied by the German Army from 16 July 1941 to 4 January 1944. [8] In August 1941 it was the site of the Bila Tserkva massacre.

During the Cold War, the town was host to the 72nd Guards Krasnograd Motor Rifle Division [9] and the 251st Instructor Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment of Long Range Aviation. [10]

Geography

Bila Tserkva is located at 49°47'58.6" North, 30°06'32.9" East and is 178 metres (584 ft) above sea level. The city has a total area of 67.8 square kilometres (26.2 sq mi).

Demography

Up to the 20th century, the majority of the population of Bila Tserkva were Jews: by the end of the 19th century, 18,720 Jews lived in the city (52.9% of the city's total population). [11] [ circular reference ]

Evolution of Bila Tserkva's population (source: Ukrainian Wikipedia)

19261939195919892001
Jews  36.4 % 19.6 % 7.8 % 2.0 % 0.1 %
Russians  3.4 % 7.6 % 18.6 % 17.5 % 10.3 %
Ukrainians  57.0 % 68.9 % 71.0 % 78.6 % 87.4 %
Belarusians  0.3 % 1.0 % 0.8 % 0.6 %
Poles  2.4 % 2.2 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.1 %

The destruction of the Jewish population, first by the Cossacks, Stalin's purges, and then during the Holocaust, partly as a result of the Bila Tserkva massacre, caused a major demographic shift and as a result, the city is now mostly inhabited by ethnic Ukrainians.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Airports

Domestic transport and private flights provide services via Bila Tserkva Airport (UKBC), which is located southwest of the city in Hayok district.

Rail

Bila Tserkva trolleybus MAZ-ETON-103T Oleksandriiskyi boulevard Bila Tserkva 20190706.jpg
Bila Tserkva trolleybus

Ukrzaliznytsia provides railway transit to surrounding areas in Kyiv Oblast and the rest of Ukraine.

There are two railway stations in Bila Tserkva:

- Bila Tserkva railway station

- Rotok railway station

Public transit

Bila Tserkva has six trolleybus lines.

Bridges

Bila Tserkva is the location of a few large bridges, two of which cross the Ros River.

Sights

Church of John the Baptist, Bila Tserkva Organ Hall in city of Bila Tserkva.jpg
Church of John the Baptist, Bila Tserkva

A historical landscape park Arboretum Oleksandriya of 400 acres is situated in Bila Tserkva. It was founded in 1793 by the wife of Polish Hetman Franciszek Ksawery Branicki.

Notable buildings include the Merchant Court (1809–1814) and the Post Yard (1825–31).

There are also Palladian wooden buildings of the Branicki "Winter Palace" and the District Nobility Assembly (now it is gone because of a conflagration).

St. Nicholas Church was started in 1706 by Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa, but not completed until 1852.

The Orthodox Saviour's Transfiguration Cathedral was constructed in 1833–1839.

The Roman Catholic St. John the Baptist Church dates to 1812.

The St. Mary Magdalene Church was completed in 1846 by Count Branicki.

The building of the mid-19th century Great Choral Synagogue is preserved. Today it is the Technology and Economic College of Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University.

The Shukhov Water Tower, a tower that supports a water tank was built according to a project of Vladimir Shukhov, a Russian engineer-polymath, scientist and architect.

Education

Education in Bila Tserkva is provided by many private and public institutions. Bila Tserkva hosts several colleges and universities, including Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University.

Activities

Ice arena L'odova arena (Bila Tserkva)2.jpg
Ice arena

The city is home to football team FC Ros Bila Tserkva. Ros is a team in the lower levels of the Football Federation of Ukraine: Kyiv Oblast Football Championship.

Industry in the city includes Railway Brake product manufacturers "Tribo Rail", Tribo plant and the major automobile tire manufacturer "Rosava".

The city is home to hockey club Bilyi Bars, that plays on Bilyi Bars Ice Arena, built by Kostyantyn Efymenko Charitable Foundation.

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

See also

Related Research Articles

Bohdan Khmelnytsky Hetman of Zaporzhian Cossacks

Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky was a Ukrainian Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host, then in the Polish Crown of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) that resulted in the creation of a state led by the Cossacks. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Moscow Tsar and thus allied the Cossack Hetmanate with Tsardom of Muscovy.

Kaniv Town in Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine

Kaniv is a city located in Cherkasy Raion, Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine. The city rests on the Dnieper River, and is also one of the main inland river ports on the Dnieper. It hosts the administration of Kaniv urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 23,597 (2020 est.)

Fastiv city in Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine

Fastiv is a city in the Kyiv Oblast (province) in central Ukraine. On older maps it is depicted as Chvastiv. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. It also serves as the administrative center of the Fastiv Raion (district), to which it does not administratively belong. Its population is approximately 45,393 (2020 est.) .

Ivan Mazepa Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks

Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708. He was awarded a title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1707 for his efforts for the Holy League. The historical events of Mazepa's life have inspired many literary, artistic and musical works. He was famous as a patron of the arts.

Right-bank Ukraine Historical region on the west side of the Dnieper River, present-day Ukraine

Right-bank Ukraine is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kyiv and Cherkasy. It was separated from the left bank during The Ruin.

Franciszek Ksawery Branicki

Franciszek Ksawery Branicki was a Polish nobleman, magnate, French count, diplomat, politician, military commander, one of the leaders of the Targowica Confederation and a grand traitor who participated with the Russians in the dismemberment of his nation.

Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks

Hetman of Zaporizhian Cossacks is a historical term that has multiple meanings.

Kiev Voivodeship Subdivision of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland

The Kiev Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1471 until 1569 and of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793, as part of Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown.

Kosiński uprising

Kosiński uprising (1591–1593) is a name applied to two rebellions in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth organised by Krzysztof Kosiński against the local Ruthenian nobility and magnates.

Hlukhiv city in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine

Hlukhiv or Glukhov is a small historic town on the Esman River. It is a city of regional significance in the Sumy region of Ukraine, just south of the Russian border. Hlukhiv is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Hlukhiv Municipality includes Hlukhiv and the village of Sliporod. Hlukhiv also serves as administrative center of Hlukhiv Raion but does not belong to the raion. Population: 32,686 (2020 est.)

Chyhyryn Town in Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine

Chyhyryn is a city and historic site located in Cherkasy Raion of Cherkasy Oblast of central Ukraine. From 1648 to 1669 the city was a Hetman residence. After a forced relocation of the Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan see from Kyiv in 1658, it became a full-fledged capital of the Cossack Hetmanate. Chyhyryn also became a traditional place for the appointment to the office of Hetman of Zaporizhian Host. It hosts the administration of Chyhyryn urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 8,655 (2020 est.)

The Treaty of Bila Tserkva was a peace treaty signed on 28 September 1651, between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ukrainian Cossacks in the aftermath of the Battle of Bila Tserkva. It was signed for the Poles by Mikołaj Potocki, Marcin Kalinowski, Adam Kisiel, Stanisław Lanckoroński, palatine of Bratslav, Zbigniew Gorajski, castellan of Kyiv, Mikolaj Kazimierz Kossakowski, deputy judge of Bratslav. Signing for Lithuania, were Prince Janusz Radziwill (1612-1655), Palatine Jerzy Karol Hlebowicz, and Wincenty Gosiewski. Signing for the Zaporozhian Host were Bohdan Khmelnytsky "on behalf of the entire host".

Yurii Khmelnytsky

Yuri Khmelnytsky (1641–1685), younger son of the famous Ukrainian Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky and brother of Tymofiy Khmelnytsky, was a Zaporozhian Cossack political and military leader. Although he spent half of his adult life as a monk, he also was Hetman of Ukraine on several occasions — in 1659-1660 and 1678–1681 and starost of Hadiach. For background see The Ruin.

Bila Tserkva Raion Subdivision of Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine

Bila Tserkva Raion is a raion (district) in Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Bila Tserkva. Population: 48,440 (2020 est.) .

Marianivka is a village in Vasylkiv Raion, Kyiv Oblast of central Ukraine.

Bila Tserkva Regiment

The Bila Tserkva Regiment was one of the seventeen territorial-administrative subdivisions of the Hetman State. The regiment's capital was the city of Bila Tserkva, now in the Kyiv Oblast of central Ukraine. Other major cities of the regiment were Hermanivka, Fastiv, Bohuslav, and Skvyra.

Bohuslav city in Kyiv Oblast, Ukraine

Bohuslav is a city of district significance on the Ros River in Kyiv Oblast (province) of Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of Bohuslav Raion. Population: 16,190 (2020 est.) . The population in 2001 was 17,135.

Paliy uprising was a Cossack uprising, led by colonel Semen Paliy against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1702-1704.

Arboretum Oleksandriya

The Arboretum Oleksandriya is an arboretum located in the city of Bila Tserkva of the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine. It holds the state arboretum of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. It is a monument of landscape art, founded in the late 18th century. It is one of the largest parks in Eastern Europe, second largest in Ukraine.

Kostyantyn Efymenko

Efymenko Kostyantyn Oleksiyovych ; born June 26, 1975, Bila Tserkva — is a Ukrainian businessperson and manufacturer, Minister of Transport and Communications of Ukraine, First Deputy Minister of Infrastructure of Ukraine. President of the Ice Hockey Club Bilyi Bars.

References

  1. (after Kyiv which is the administrative center, but not part of the oblast)
  2. General information about the city, at Bila Tserkva official web-site
  3. "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine . Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  4. Paul Robert Magocsi, A history of Ukraine, University of Toronto Press, 1996, p. 205
  5. E. A. Chernecki, L. P. Mordatenko, Bila Tserkva. Branicki family. Alexandria, Ogrody rezydencji magnackich XVIII-XIX wieku w Europie Środkowej i Wschodniej oraz problemy ich ochrony, Ośrodek Ochrony Zabytkowego Krajobrazu—Narodowa Instytucja Kultury, 2001, p.114
  6. Marek Ruszczyc, Dzieje rodu i fortuny Branickich, Delikon, 1991, p. 148
  7. Lucjan Blit, The origins of Polish socialism: the history and ideas of the first Polish Socialist Party 1878–1886, Cambridge University Press, 1971, p. 21
  8. "Onwar.com, Allies support resistance in Europe". Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  9. Carey Schofield, Inside the Soviet Army, Headline Book Publishing, 2001, 132.
  10. Michael Holm, 251st Instructor Heavy Bomber Aviation Regiment, accessed December 2012.
  11. Архівована копія.
  12. "Miasta Partnerskie". Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
  13. For more images of the park "Olexandria", see klymenko.data-tec.net Archived 25 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine