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Sir Wallace Rowling
Rowling in 1962
|30th Prime Minister of New Zealand|
6 September 1974 –12 December 1975
|Preceded by||Norman Kirk|
|Succeeded by||Robert Muldoon|
|33rd Minister of Finance|
8 December 1972 –6 September 1974
|Prime Minister||Norman Kirk|
|Preceded by||Robert Muldoon|
|Succeeded by||Bob Tizard|
|22nd Leader of the Opposition|
12 December 1975 –3 February 1983
|Preceded by||Robert Muldoon|
|Succeeded by||David Lange|
|8th Leader of the Labour Party|
6 September 1974 –3 February 1983
|Preceded by||Norman Kirk|
|Succeeded by||David Lange|
|22nd President of the Labour Party|
|Preceded by||Norman Douglas|
|Succeeded by||Charles Bennett|
|Member of the New Zealand Parliament |
|Preceded by||Jerry Skinner|
|Member of the New Zealand Parliament |
|Succeeded by||Ken Shirley|
|Born||15 November 1927|
Motueka, Tasman District, New Zealand
|Died||31 October 1995 67) (aged|
Nelson, New Zealand
|Spouse(s)||Glen Elna Reeves (m. 1951)|
|Alma mater||University of Canterbury|
|Allegiance||New Zealand Army|
Sir Wallace Edward Rowling KCMG PC ( // ; 15 November 1927 – 31 October 1995), often known as Bill Rowling, was a New Zealand politician who was the 30th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1974 to 1975. He held office as the parliamentary leader of the Labour Party.
The Prime Minister of New Zealand is the head of government of New Zealand. The incumbent Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, took office on 26 October 2017.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
Rowling was a lecturer in economics when he entered politics; he became a Member of Parliament in the 1962 Buller by-election. He was serving as Minister of Finance (1972–1974) when he was appointed Prime Minister following the death of the highly popular Norman Kirk. His Labour government's effort to retrieve the economy ended with an upset victory by the National Party in November 1975. Rowling continued to lead the Labour Party but lost two more general elections. Upon retiring from the party’s leadership in 1983, he was knighted. He served as Ambassador to the United States from 1985 to 1988.
The Minister of Finance, originally known as Colonial Treasurer, is a senior figure within the Government of New Zealand and head of the New Zealand Treasury. The position is often considered to be the most important cabinet post after that of the Prime Minister. The Minister of Finance is responsible for producing an annual New Zealand budget outlining the government's proposed expenditure.
Norman Eric Kirk was a New Zealand politician who served as the 29th Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974.
The Third Labour Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1972 to 1975. During its time in office, it carried out a wide range of reforms in areas such as overseas trade, farming, public works, energy generation, local government, health, the arts, sport and recreation, regional development, environmental protection, education, housing, and social welfare. Māori also benefited from revisions to the laws relating to land, together with a significant increase in a Māori and Island Affairs building programme. In addition, the government encouraged biculturalism and a sense of New Zealand identity. The government lasted for one term before being defeated a year after the death of its popular leader, Norman Kirk.
Rowling was born in a country suburb of Mariri neighbouring the town of Motueka, near Nelson. He was a member of a long-established farming family. He was educated at Nelson College and the University of Canterbury, gaining a degree in economics. He also attended the Christchurch College of Education (currently, University of Canterbury), qualifying as a teacher. After completing his education, Rowling taught at several schools around the country, including at Motueka, Christchurch, Waverley and in Northland. In 1958, Rowling left teaching and joined the New Zealand Army, becoming Assistant Director of Army Education. He spent a short amount of time serving abroad in Malaysia and Singapore, a deployment connected with the Malayan Emergency.
The town of Motueka in the South Island of New Zealand lies close to the mouth of the Motueka River, on the western shore of Tasman Bay. It is, after Richmond, the second largest centre in the Tasman Region, with a population of 7125. The Motueka Ward had an estimated population of 10,900 at 30 June 2009.
Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858.
Nelson College is the oldest state secondary school in New Zealand. It is a boys-only school in the City of Nelson that teaches from years 9 to 13. In addition, it runs a private Preparatory School for year 7 and 8 boys. The school also has places for boarders, who live in two boarding houses adjacent to the main school buildings on the same campus.
|New Zealand Parliament|
In the 1960 election, Rowling was selected as the Labour Party's candidate for the Fendalton electorate in Christchurch. Fendalton was regarded as a safe National seat, and Rowling was defeated by the National Party's Harry Lake (who was appointed Minister of Finance in the new National government). Two years later, however, Rowling successfully contested the by-election for Buller, which had been caused by the death of prominent Labour MP Jerry Skinner. Rowling was to hold this seat until the election of 1972, when the seat was dissolved – Rowling then contested successfully the new seat of Tasman, which intriguingly he did travelling up and down the electorate by Commer campervan, which he lived in for the time.
The 1960 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 33rd term. It saw the governing Labour Party defeated by the National Party, putting an end to the short second Labour government.
Fendalton is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It existed during two periods between 1946 and 1996. The electorate was in the western suburbs of Christchurch, New Zealand. Fendalton is an expensive suburb, and was always represented by the National Party.
The New Zealand National Party, shortened to National or the Nats, is a centre-right political party in New Zealand. It is one of two major parties that dominate contemporary New Zealand politics, alongside its traditional rival, the New Zealand Labour Party.
In the lead up to the 1972 election Labour leader Norman Kirk tried to persuade Rowling to transfer from the more marginal Tasman seat to the safe Christchurch seat of Avon. Kirk feared Rowling (by then party president) might lose his seat and did not want to lose his economics expertise. Rowling refused on the grounds that such a self interested move would not be befitting of a party president.
The New Zealand general election of 1972 was held on 25 November to elect MPs to the 37th session of the New Zealand Parliament. The Labour Party, led by Norman Kirk, defeated the governing National Party.
Avon is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was created for the 1861 general election and existed until 1996. It was represented by 13 Members of Parliament and was held by Independents, Liberal Party or Labour Party representatives.
When the Labour Party won power under Norman Kirk in the 1972 election, Rowling was appointed Minister of Finance. This could be seen as a considerable promotion for someone without prior ministerial experience. Rowling's term as Minister of Finance was somewhat turbulent; from late in 1973, a series of externally generated crises, of which the 'oil shocks' were the most serious, destabilised the New Zealand economy. These added to other problems, such as growing overseas debt and falling export prices. A major financial policy during Rowling's tenure was a comprehensive superannuation scheme.
The 1970s energy crisis was a period when the major industrial countries of the world, particularly the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, faced substantial petroleum shortages, real and perceived, as well as elevated prices. The two worst crises of this period were the 1973 oil crisis and the 1979 energy crisis, when the Yom Kippur War and the Iranian Revolution triggered interruptions in Middle Eastern oil exports.
When Norman Kirk died unexpectedly in 1974, Hugh Watt, served as acting prime minister for several days while the Labour Party chose a new leader. Rowling was the front-runner to replace Kirk, However, the party National Executive and the Federation of Labour preferred Kirk's deputy Hugh Watt.
Rowling was officially confirmed as party leader and 30th Prime Minister on 6 September 1974.In the cabinet reshuffle following Kirk's death, Rowling took the foreign affairs portfolio. He was appointed to the Privy Council. Rowling had the option of replacing Kirk in the safe Labour seat of Sydenham but chose to remain in his (more marginal) home electorate of Tasman.
Unlike the pro-life Kirk and Muldoon, Rowling was pro-choice.[ citation needed ]
Although Rowling served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Labour Government concentrated primarily on domestic affairs. Although Rowling's deputy Bob Tizard had replaced him as Minister of Finance, the seriousness of the economic downturn required the Prime Minister's attention. The Government defended heavy overseas borrowing as necessary to protect jobs. In August 1975, the New Zealand dollar was devalued by 15%.
During the 1975 election campaign, Rowling was attacked by the Opposition led by Robert Muldoon, and was generally characterised as being weak and ineffective. Rowling supporters responded with a "Citizens for Rowling" campaign which enlisted high-profile New Zealanders such as Sir Edmund Hillary to praise Rowling's low-key consultative approach. The campaign was labelled as being elitist, and was generally regarded as having backfired on Rowling.The November election was a major defeat for the Labour Party, and Rowling was unable to retain the premiership.
During the late 1970s, Rowling alienated Māori by removing Matiu Rata, the party's effective and well-regarded Māori Affairs spokesman, from the Opposition front bench. Earlier, Rowling had replaced Rata with himself as convenor of Labour's Māori Affairs Committee. Rata complained about the insensitivity of Labour's Māori policyand went on to form his own party, Mana Motuhake, a precursor to the Māori Party.
His approach to the Moyle and O'Brien 'affairs' was regarded as heavy-handed and unnecessary in many circles. In regards to the 'Moyle affair', in which Labour MP Colin Moyle was accused of having a homosexual affair, "it was Rowling who insisted that his close friend, Colin Moyle, must resign".Large numbers protested at the 1977 Labour Party Conference; many in the LGBT community never forgave him.
Rowling, however, managed to retain the party leadership, and gradually managed to improve public perceptions of him. In the 1978 and 1981 elections, Labour actually secured more votes than the National Party but failed to gain a majority of seats.
While Rowling had largely managed to undo his negative image, many people in the Labour Party nevertheless believed that it was time for a change. In 1983 Rowling was replaced as leader by the charismatic David Lange, who went on to defeat Muldoon in the 1984 election. Rowling retired from parliament at the same election.
After leaving politics, Rowling was appointed Ambassador to the United States, serving from 1985 to 1988. He held that position when the issue of nuclear weapons and ANZUS flared up between the United States and New Zealand, and he travelled extensively across the country explaining the policy.
Later, after returning to New Zealand, Rowling became highly involved in a number of community organizations and trusts. He also played a prominent role at the Museum of New Zealand, and is considered to have been the "driving force" behind the eventual establishment of Te Papa.
Rowling died of cancer in Nelson on 31 October 1995.
Rowling married Glen Reeves in 1951. The couple lost their second child when she was five months old in 1957; another daughter, Kim, committed suicide at the age of 18.Rowling was a practising Anglican.
Honours that Rowling received include being made a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1983 Queen's Birthday Honours,an honorary law doctorate from the University of Canterbury in 1987, and being made a Commander in the Orde van Oranje – Nassau (Netherlands).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bill Rowling .|
Sir Robert David Muldoon, also known as Rob Muldoon, was a New Zealand politician who served as the 31st Prime Minister of New Zealand, from 1975 to 1984, while Leader of the National Party.
Harry Robson Lake, a New Zealand politician, served as Minister of Finance for six years in the second National government, in the 1960s. He died of a heart attack when only 55 years old.
The 1975 New Zealand general election was held on 29 November to elect MPs to the 38th session of the New Zealand Parliament. It was the first general election in New Zealand where 18- to 20-year-olds and all permanent residents of New Zealand were eligible to vote, although only citizens were able to be elected.
The 39th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand which began with the general election held on 25 November 1978, and finished with the general election held on 28 November 1981. The dates of the Muldoon Ministry were from 13 December 1978 to 11 December 1981.
The following lists events that happened during 1972 in New Zealand.
The following lists events that happened during 1974 in New Zealand.
The following lists events that happened during 1975 in New Zealand.
The following lists events that happened during 1980 in New Zealand.
The Citizens for Rowling campaign was a failed campaign to stop Robert Muldoon winning the 1975 New Zealand election. It was named after then Labour Prime Minister Bill Rowling in the lead-up to the 1975 general election. Members of the campaign publicly signed the "Citizens for Rowling" petition warning against a National government led by Muldoon. The campaign was largely organised by David Exel, a former television producer and current affairs interviewer.
Hugh Watt was a Labour member of Parliament and briefly the Acting Prime Minister of New Zealand between 1 and 6 September 1974, following the death of Prime Minister Norman Kirk. He had been Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand since 8 December 1972. Watt later served as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom.
The Third National Government of New Zealand was the government of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984. It was an economically and socially conservative government, which aimed to preserve the Keynesian economic system established by the First Labour government while also being socially conservative. Throughout its three terms it was led by Robert Muldoon, a populist but antagonistic politician who was sometimes described as his party's best asset and worst liability.
Thomas Malcolm "Tom" McGuigan,, was a New Zealand politician of the Labour Party.
Colin James Moyle is a former politician of the New Zealand Labour Party. He was a Government Minister in the Third Labour and Fourth Labour Governments. In the Fourth Labour Government he oversaw the removal of farming subsidies and the establishment of a fisheries quota system.
Tasman is a former New Zealand parliamentary electorate, from 1972 to 1996.
The Sydenham by-election 1974 was a by-election held in the Sydenham electorate during the term of the 37th New Zealand Parliament on 2 November 1974.
The New Zealand Labour Party leadership election, 1974 was held on 6 September 1974 to determine the eighth leader of the New Zealand Labour Party. The election was won by Tasman MP Bill Rowling.
On 3 February 1983, a New Zealand Labour Party leadership election was held to determine the leadership of the New Zealand Labour Party. The leadership was won by Mangere MP David Lange, who had been Deputy Leader of the party since 1979.
This is a summary of the electoral history of Bill Rowling, Prime Minister of New Zealand (1974–75), Leader of the Labour Party (1974–83), Member of Parliament for Buller (1962–72) and later Tasman (1972–84).
|New Zealand Parliament|
| Member of Parliament for Buller |
|New constituency|| Member of Parliament for Tasman |
| Prime Minister of New Zealand |
| Minister of Finance |
| Leader of the Opposition |
|Party political offices|
| President of the Labour Party |
| Leader of the Labour Party |
| Ambassador to the United States |