Bingöl Province

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Bingöl Province

Bingöl ili
Bingol in Turkey.svg
Location of Bingöl Province in Turkey
Country Turkey
Region Central East Anatolia
Subregion Malatya
Government
   Electoral district Bingöl
  GovernorKadir Ekinci
Area
  Total8,125 km2 (3,137 sq mi)
Population
 (2018) [1]
  Total281,205
  Density35/km2 (90/sq mi)
Area code(s) 0426
Vehicle registration 12

Bingöl Province (Turkish : Bingöl ili, Kurdish : Parêzgeha Çewlîgê [2] [3] ) is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. The province was known as Çapakçur Province until 1945 when it was renamed as Bingöl province. [4] Its neighboring provinces are Tunceli, Erzurum, Muş, Diyarbakır, Erzincan and Elazığ. The province covers an area of 8,125 km2 and has a population of 255,170. The capital is Bingöl. As the current Governor of the province, Kadir Ekinci was appointed by the president on the 5 November 2018. [5]

Contents

The town of Genç was the scene of origin for the Kurdish Sheikh Said rebellion in 1925 and most of the region was captured by the rebels during the rebellion. [6]

Demographics

Kurds comprise the majority of the province and the province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan. [7] [8] Its population is majority Sunni, conservative and many adhere to the Naqshbandi order. [9] [10] The province moreover has a significant Alevi minority. [11] Linguistically, the southern parts of the province speak Zaza, while the northern parts speak Kurmanji. Many Zaza-speakers speak Kurmanji as well. [12]

Language and religion statistics

Bingöl Province was part of Bitlis Vilayet during the Ottoman era as Genç Sanjak and had a population of 36,011 in the 1881-1882 census.

In the 1906-1907 census, the sanjak had a population of 45,215 of which

The first Turkish census which included Bingöl Province was the 1945 census, where the population was 75,550 who all were Muslims. Linguistically, the most spoken first language was Kurdish at

A 2016 survey showed that 90.4% of the population spoke Turkish, 64.1% spoke Zaza, 40.1% spoke Kurmanji and 5.6% spoke Arabic. [18]

History

From 1923 to 1929, Bingöl Province was part of Elazığ Province and part of Muş Province from 1929 to 1936. It ultimately became a province in 1936. [4]

In December 1935 the Tunceli Law was passed which demanded a more powerful government in the region. [19] Therefore the region containing the present Bingöl province, together with the provinces of Tunceli, Erzincan and Elaziğ were included in the Fourth Inspectorate General (Umumi Müfettişlik, UM) in January 1936. [20] [21] The fourth UM was governed by a Governor Commander. All the employees in the municipalities were to be from the military and the Governor Commander had the authority to evacuate whole villages and resettle them in other parts of the province. [20] in 1946 the Tunceli Law was abolished and the state of emergency removed but the authority of the fourth UM was transferred to the military. [20] The Inspectorate General was dissolved in 1952 during the Government of the Democrat Party. [22]

Districts

Bingöl province is divided into 8 districts (capital district in bold):

Bibliography

Related Research Articles

Zaza language Northwestern Iranian language

Zaza is an Indo-European language spoken primarily in Eastern Turkey by the Zazas. The language is a part of the Zaza–Gorani language group of the northwestern group of the Iranian branch. The glossonym Zaza originated as a pejorative and many Zazas call their language Dimlî.

Van Province Province of Turkey

Van Province is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. It is 19,069 km2 in area and had a population of 1,035,418 at the end of 2010. Its adjacent provinces are Bitlis to the west, Siirt to the southwest, Şırnak and Hakkâri to the south, and Ağrı to the north. The capital of the province is the city of Van. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish. The current Governor is Mehmet Emin Bilmez.

Elazığ Province Province of Turkey

Elâzığ Province is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elâzığ. The province had a population of 568,753 in 2014. The population of the province was 569,616 in 2000 and 498,225 in 1990. The total area of the province is 8,455 square kilometres (3,264 sq mi), 826 km2 (319 sq mi) of which is covered by reservoirs and natural lakes. The current governor of the province is Çetin Oktay Kaldirim.

Erzincan Municipality in Turkey

Erzincan (pronounced [æɾˈzindʒan]; is the capital of Erzincan Province in Eastern Turkey. Nearby cities include Erzurum, Sivas, Tunceli, Bingöl, Elâzığ, Malatya, Gümüşhane, Bayburt, and Giresun. The city is majority Sunni Turkish with a significant Alevi and Kurdish minority.

Ağrı Province Province of Turkey

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Hakkâri Province Province of Turkey

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Malatya Province Province of Turkey

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Erzincan Province Province of Turkey

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Elazığ Municipality in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

Elazığ, formerly Mamuretülaziz, is a city in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, and the administrative centre of Elazığ Province. It is located in the uppermost Euphrates valley. The plain on which the city extends has an altitude of 1,067 metres (3,501 ft). Elazığ resembles an inland peninsula surrounded by the natural Lake Hazar and reservoirs of Keban Dam, Karakaya Dam, Kıralkızı and Özlüce.

Zazas

The Zazas are a people in eastern Turkey who speak the Zaza language. Their heartland consists of Tunceli and Bingöl provinces and parts of Elazığ, Erzincan and Diyarbakır provinces. Zazas generally consider themselves Kurds, and are often described as Zaza Kurds.

Van Vilayet

The Vilayet of Van was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of the 20th century, it reportedly had a population of about 400,000 and an area of 15,000 square miles (39,000 km2). Van Vilayet was one of the six Armenian vilayets and held, prior to World War I, many Armenians, as well as Assyrian and Azeri minorities.

Yayladere Place in Bingöl, Turkey

Yayladere is a town and county of Bingöl Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region. It had previously been a sanjak (district) of the Vilayet of Erzurum.The county has an area of 430 km2 and is bordered on the west by Tunceli and Elazığ to the south. The Peri River forms the natural border to Elazig. The area is about 1,600 m above sea level. The mountains up to 2,800 m high. The two largest are the Sülbüs / Selbuz and Sultan Mehmet / Taru. The local population is Kurdish with previous Armenian communities. The mayor is Sabri Akyürek (CHP). The district has twenty-six villages and eighty hamlets, most of the population are Alevi Muslims, however in recent decades there has been a shift towards sunni Islam. There are 2,000 people living in the district as per 2007 estimates. It is known for its goat dishes.

Turkish Kurdistan Kurdish inhabited area of Turkey

Turkish Kurdistan or Northern Kurdistan is a term that refers to the southeastern part of Turkey, where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group. The Kurdish Institute of Paris estimates that there are 20 million Kurds living in Turkey, the majority of them in the southeast.

Sheikh Said rebellion Kurdish rebellion following the abolition of the Caliphate

The Sheikh Said Rebellion or Genç Incident was a Kurdish rebellion aimed at reviving the Islamic caliphate and sultanate. It used elements of Kurdish nationalism to recruit. It was led by Sheikh Said and a group of former Ottoman soldiers also known as the Hamidiye regiments. The rebellion was carried out by two Kurdish sub-groups, the Zaza and the Kurmanji.

Dersim rebellion Kurdish and Zaza uprising against the Turkish government in Dersim, eastern Turkey

The Dersim rebellion was an Alevi Kurdish uprising against the Turkish government in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes parts of Tunceli Province, Elazığ Province, and Bingöl Province. The rebellion was led by Seyid Riza, a chieftain of the Abasan tribe. As a result of the Turkish Armed Forces campaign in 1937 and 1938 against the rebellion and its massacres of civilians, thousands of Alevi Zazas died and many others were internally displaced.

Inspectorates-General or General Inspectorates was a regional governorship whose authorities prevailed over civilian, military and judicial institutions under their domain of the direct command of Mustafa Kemal in order to establishing authoritarian rule and to consolidate the authority in the process of Turkification of religious and ethnic minorities.

Tunceli Province Province of Turkey

Tunceli Province, formerly Dersim Province, is located in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. The least densely-populated province in Turkey, it was originally named Dersim Province, then demoted to a district and incorporated into Elâzığ Province in 1926. The province is considered part of Turkish Kurdistan and has a Kurdish majority. It is moreover the only province in Turkey with an Alevi majority.

Zaza nationalism is an ideology that supports the preservation of Zaza people between Turks and Kurds in Turkey. The movement also supports the idea that the Zaza people are a different ethnic group from Kurds.

The Fourth Inspectorate-General refers to a regional administrative subdivision in the Dersim region.

References

  1. "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. "Li 26 herêmên Çewlîgê "herêmên ewlehiya taybet" hat ragihandin". Rûdaw. 11 November 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  3. "Genç - Bingöl". Municipality of Bingöl (in Zazaki and Turkish). Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  4. 1 2 "Valilik Tarihçesi". www.bingol.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  5. "Valimiz". www.bingol.gov.tr. Retrieved 2020-04-12.
  6. Oran, Baskın; Akdevelioğlu, Atay; Akşin, Mustafa (2010). Turkish Foreign Policy, 1919-2006. University of Utah Press. p. 159. ISBN   9780874809046.
  7. Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p.  167. ISBN   978-0-295-99050-7.
  8. "Kurds, Kurdistān". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2 ed.). BRILL. 2002. ISBN   9789004161214.
  9. "Turkish Town's Despair Breeds Terrorists, Residents Fear". The New York Times . 27 November 2003. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  10. Ayiş, Mehmet Şirin (2018). "Bingöl ve Çevresinde Halidîliğin Yayılmasında Etkili Olmuş Sufi Şahsiyetler" (PDF). BÜİFD. University of Bingöl. 11: 183–208.
  11. Hamelink, Wendelmoet (2016). The Sung Home. Narrative, Morality, and the Kurdish Nation. BRILL. p. 25. ISBN   9789004314825.
  12. Bright, William (1992). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. p. 231. ISBN   9780195051964.
  13. Karpat, Kemal (1985). Ottoman population 1830-1914. The University of Wisconsin Press. p. 196. ISBN   9780299091606.
  14. Karpat, Kemal (1985). Ottoman population 1830-1914. The University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 130, 162 & 174. ISBN   9780299091606.
  15. Dündar (2000), pp. 176-178.
  16. Dündar (2000), p. 186.
  17. Dündar (2000), p. 218.
  18. Bingöl İli Sosyal Analiz Çalışması (PDF) (in Turkish). Ankara: Hegem Vakfı. 2016. p. 164. ISBN   978-605-8295-10-0.
  19. Cagaptay, Soner (2006-05-02). Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?. Routledge. pp. 108–110. ISBN   978-1-134-17448-5.
  20. 1 2 3 Bayir, Derya (2016-04-22). Minorities and Nationalism in Turkish Law. Routledge. pp. 139–141. ISBN   978-1-317-09579-8.
  21. Cagaptay, Soner (2006-05-02). Islam, Secularism and Nationalism in Modern Turkey: Who is a Turk?. Routledge. p. 110. ISBN   978-1-134-17448-5.
  22. Fleet, Kate; Kunt, I. Metin; Kasaba, Reşat; Faroqhi, Suraiya (2008-04-17). The Cambridge History of Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 343. ISBN   978-0-521-62096-3.

Coordinates: 39°02′28″N40°40′33″E / 39.04111°N 40.67583°E / 39.04111; 40.67583